Browsing by Subject "genetic structure"

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  • Korpelainen, Helena; Elshibli, Sakina (2021)
    We conducted genomic characterization based on SNP and SilicoDArT markers on the invasive Himalayan balsam (Impatiens glandulifera) plants originating from native and non-native regions of their distribution. When genetic relationships were explored by PCoA using SNP and SilicoDArT marker data, the first, second, and third principal coordinates explained altogether 37.4% and 31.0% of the variability, respectively. Samples from the UK, Canada, and Pakistan were grouped together, while Indian plants were clearly distinct based on SNP markers but relatively close to the UK-Canada-Pakistan group based on SilicoDArT markers. Constructed trees differentiated individuals into clusters resembling the PCoA patterns. The Bayesian BAPS analysis performed for the SNP data revealed that the individuals were distributed in seven clusters, representing samples from each of the four Finnish populations, India, Pakistan, and the combination of the UK and Canada. Similar clustering was visible in the UPGMA tree. The Indian cluster did not display any ancestral gene flow with the others, while the Pakistani cluster showed ancestral gene flow only with the combined UK and Canada cluster. Furthermore, the latter cluster displayed ancestral gene flow with the Finnish populations varying from 0% to 3.1%. The BAPS analyses conducted for the SilicoDArT data differ slightly: The individuals were distributed in nine clusters, and the Indian cluster exhibited ancestral gene flow with the mixed cluster including Canadian, Pakistani, and UK samples, and one Finnish sample. The AMOVA showed that 45% and 26% of variation was present among the I. glandulifera groups/populations and the rest within them based on SNP and SilicoDArT markers, respectively. The Bayesian BAPS analyses and the gene flow networks were the most informative tools for resolving relationships among native and introduced plants. It is notable that the small sample sizes for non-Finnish plant materials may affect the accuracy of the gene flow and other estimates.
  • Vasilyeva, Yulia; Chertov, Nikita; Nechaeva, Yulia; Sboeva, Yana; Pystogova, Nina; Boronnikova, Svetlana; Kalendar, Ruslan (2021)
    In order to carry out activities aimed at conservation and rational use of forest resources; it is necessary to study the main forest-forming plant species in detail. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L., Pinaceae) is mainly found in the boreal forests of Eurasia and is not so often encountered in the east of the East European Plain. The aim of the study was to study the genetic diversity, structure and differentiation of Scots pine populations in the east of the East European Plain. We studied ten populations of P. sylvestris using the Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR)-based DNA polymorphism detection method. Natural populations are demonstrated by relatively high rates of genetic diversity (He = 0.167; ne = 1.279; I = 0.253). At the same time, there is a tendency for a decrease in the genetic diversity of the studied populations of P. sylvestris from west to east. Analysis of the genetic structure shows that the studied populations are highly differentiated (GST = 0.439), the intrapopulation component accounts for about 56% of the genetic diversity. Using various algorithms for determining the spatial genetic structure, it is found that the studied populations form two groups of populations in accordance with geographic location. With the help of a genetic originality coefficient, populations with specific and typical gene pools are identified. They are recommended as sources of genetic diversity and reserves for the conservation of genetic resources of the species
  • Fountain, Toby; Duvaux, Ludovic; Horsburgh, Gavin; Reinhardt, Klaus; Butlin, Roger K. (2014)
  • DiLeo, Michelle F.; Husby, Arild; Saastamoinen, Marjo (2018)
    There is now clear evidence that species across a broad range of taxa harbor extensive heritable variation in dispersal. While studies suggest that this variation can facilitate demographic outcomes such as range expansion and invasions, few have considered the consequences of intraspecific variation in dispersal for the maintenance and distribution of genetic variation across fragmented landscapes. Here, we examine how landscape characteristics and individual variation in dispersal combine to predict genetic structure using genomic and spatial data from the Glanville fritillary butterfly. We used linear and latent factor mixed models to identify the landscape features that best predict spatial sorting of alleles in the dispersal-related gene phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi). We next used structural equation modeling to test if variation in Pgi mediated gene flow as measured by F-st at putatively neutral loci. In a year when the population was recovering following a large decline, individuals with a genotype associated with greater dispersal ability were found at significantly higher frequencies in populations isolated by water and forest, and these populations showed lower levels of genetic differentiation at neutral loci. These relationships disappeared in the next year when metapopulation density was high, suggesting that the effects of individual variation are context dependent. Together our results highlight that (1) more complex aspects of landscape structure beyond just the configuration of habitat can be important for maintaining spatial variation in dispersal traits and (2) that individual variation in dispersal plays a key role in maintaining genetic variation across fragmented landscapes.
  • von Cräutlein, Maria; Leinonen, Päivi H.; Korpelainen, Helena; Helander, Marjo; Väre, Henry; Saikkonen, Kari (2019)
    We conducted a large-scale population genetic survey of genetic diversity of the host grass Festuca rubra s.l., which fitness can be highly dependent on its symbiotic fungus Epichloe festucae, to evaluate genetic variation and population structure across the European range. The 27 studied populations have previously been found to differ in frequencies of occurrence of the symbiotic fungus E. festucae and ploidy levels. As predicted, we found decreased genetic diversity in previously glaciated areas in comparison with nonglaciated regions and discovered three major maternal genetic groups: southern, northeastern, and northwestern Europe. Interestingly, host populations from Greenland were genetically similar to those from the Faroe Islands and Iceland, suggesting gene flow also between those areas. The level of variation among populations within regions is evidently highly dependent on the postglacial colonization history, in particular on the number of independent long-distance seed colonization events. Yet, also anthropogenic effects may have affected the population structure in F. rubra. We did not observe higher fungal infection rates in grass populations with lower levels of genetic variability. In fact, the fungal infection rates of E. festucae in relation to genetic variability of the host populations varied widely among geographical areas, which indicate differences in population histories due to colonization events and possible costs of systemic fungi in harsh environmental conditions. We found that the plants of different ploidy levels are genetically closely related within geographic areas indicating independent formation of polyploids in different maternal lineages.