Browsing by Subject "geologia ja mineralogia"

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  • Käpyaho, Asko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    This thesis summarises the results of four original papers concerning U-Pb geochronology and geochemical evolution of Archaean rocks from the Kuhmo terrain and the Nurmes belt, eastern Finland. The study area belongs to a typical Archaean granite-greenstone terrain, composed of metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks in generally N-S trending greenstone belts as well as a granitoid-gneiss complex with intervening gneissic and migmatised supracrustal and plutonic rocks. U-Pb data on migmatite mesosomes indicate that the crust surrounding the Tipasjärvi-Kuhmo-Suomussalmi greenstone belt is of varying age. The oldest protolith detected for a migmatite mesosome from the granitoid-gneiss complex is 2.94 Ga, whereas the other dated migmatites protoliths have ages of 2.84 2.79 Ga. The latter protoliths are syngenetic with the majority of volcanic rocks in the adjacent Tipasjärvi-Kuhmo-Suomussalmi greenstone belt. This suggests that the genesis of some of the volcanic rocks within the greenstone belt and surrounding migmatite protoliths could be linked. Metamorphic zircon overgrowths with ages of 2.84 2.81 Ga were also obtained. The non-migmatised plutonic rocks in the Kuhmo terrain and in the Nurmes belt record secular geochemical evolution, typical of Archaean cratons. The studied tonalitic rocks have ages of 2.83 2.75 Ga and they have geochemical characteristics similar to low-Al and high-Al TTD (tonalite-trondhjemite-dacite). The granodiorites, diorites, and gabbros with high Mg/Fe and LILE-enriched characteristics were mostly emplaced between 2.74 2.70 Ga and they exhibit geochemical characteristics typical of Archaean sanukitoid suites. The latest identified plutonic episode took place at 2.70 2.68 Ga, when compositionally heterogeneous leucocratic granitoid rocks, with a variable crustal component, were emplaced. U-Pb data on migmatite leucosomes suggest that leucosome generation may have been coeval with this latest plutonic event. On the basis of available U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotopic data it appears that the plutonic rocks of the Kuhmo terrain and the Nurmes belt do not contain any significant input from Palaeoarchaean sources. A characteristic feature of the Nurmes belt is the presence of migmatised paragneisses, locally preserving primary edimentary structures, with sporadic amphibolite intercalations. U-Pb studies on zircons indicate that the precursors of the Nurmes paragneisses were graywackes that were deposited between 2.71 Ga and 2.69 Ga and that they had a prominent 2.75 2.70 Ga source. Nd isotopic and whole-rock geochemical data for the intercalated amphibolites imply MORB sources. U-Pb data on zircons from the plutonic rocks and paragneisses reveal that metamorphic zircon growth took place at 2.72 2.63 Ga. This was the last tectonothermal event related to cratonisation of the Archaean crust of eastern Finland.
  • Lukkari, Sari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    This study brings new insights into the magmatic evolution of natural F-enriched peraluminous granitic systems. The Artjärvi, Sääskjärvi and Kymi granite stocks within the 1.64 Ga Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith have been investigated by petrographic, geochemical, experimental and melt inclusion methods. These stocks represent late-stage leucocratic and weakly peraluminous intrusive phases typical of rapakivi granites worldwide. The Artjärvi and Sääskjärvi stocks are multiphase intrusions in which the most evolved phase is topaz granite. The Kymi stock contains topaz throughout and has a well-developed zoned structure, from the rim to the center: stockscheider pegmatite equigranular topaz granite porphyritic topaz granite. Geochemically the topaz granites are enriched in F, Li, Be, Ga, Rb, Sn and Nb and depleted in Mg, Fe, Ti, Ba, Sr, Zr and Eu. The anomalous geochemistry and mineralogy of the topaz granites are essentially magmatic in origin; postmagmatic reactions have only slightly modified the compositions. The Kymi equigranular topaz granite shows the most evolved character, and the topaz granites at Artjärvi and Sääskjärvi resemble the less evolved porphyritic topaz granite of the Kymi stock. Stockscheiders are found at the roof contacts of the Artjärvi and Kymi stocks. The stockscheider at Artjärvi is composed of biotite-rich schlieren and pegmatite layers parallel to the contact. The schlieren layering is considered to have formed by velocity-gradient sorting mechanism parallel to the flow, which led to the accumulation of mafic minerals along the upper contact of the topaz granite. Cooling and contraction of the topaz granite formed fractures parallel to the roof contact and residual pegmatite magmas were injected along the fractures and formed the pegmatite layers. The zoned structure of the Kymi stock is the result of intrusion of highly evolved residual melt from deeper parts of the magma chamber along the fractured contact between the porphyritic granite crystal mush and country rock. The equigranular topaz granite and marginal pegmatite (stockscheider) crystallized from this evolved melt. Phase relations of the Kymi equigranular topaz granite have been investigated utilizing crystallization experiments at 100 to 500 MPa as a function of water activity and F content. Fluorite and topaz can crystallize as liquidus phases in F-rich peraluminous systems, but the F content of the melt should exceed 2.5 - 3.0 wt % to facilitate crystallization of topaz. In peraluminous F-bearing melts containing more than 1 wt % F, topaz and muscovite are expected to be the first F-bearing phases to crystallize at high pressure, whereas fluorite and topaz should crystallize first at low pressure. Overall, the saturation of fluorite and topaz follows the reaction: CaAl2Si2O8 (plagioclase) + 2[AlF3]melt = CaF2 (fluorite) + 2Al2SiO4F2 (topaz). The obtained partition coefficient for F between biotite and glass D(F)Bt/glass is 1.89 to 0.80 (average 1.29) and can be used as an empirical fluormeter to determine the F content of coexisting melts. In order to study the magmatic evolution of the Kymi stock, crystallized melt inclusions in quartz and topaz grains in the porphyritic and the equigranular topaz granites and the marginal pegmatite were rehomogenized and analyzed. The homogenization conditions for the melt inclusions from the granites were 700 °C, 300 MPa, and 24 h, and for melt inclusions from the pegmatite, 700 °C, 100 MPa, and 24/96 h. The majority of the melt inclusions is chemically similar to the bulk rocks (excluding H2O content), but a few melt inclusions in the equigranular granite show clearly higher F and low K2O contents (on average 11.6 wt % F, 0.65 wt % K2O). The melt inclusion compositions indicate coexistence of two melt fractions, a prevailing peraluminous and a very volatile-rich, possibly peralkaline. Combined petrological, experimental and melt inclusion studies of the Kymi equigranular topaz granite indicate that plagioclase was the liquidus phase at nearly water-saturated (fluid-saturated) conditions and that the F content of the melt was at least 2 wt %. The early crystallization of biotite and the presence of muscovite in crystallization experiments at 200 MPa contrasts with the late-stage crystallization of biotite and the absence of muscovite in the equigranular granite, indicating that crystallization pressure may have been lower than 200 MPa for the granite.