Browsing by Subject "germination"

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  • Karjalainen, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Sphagnum moss could be used as a substitute for Sphagnum peat as a growing medium. It has the same positive physical properties as peat and it is also a more sustainable option. However, there are some indications that Sphagnum moss may have some inhibitory effects on vascular plant seed germination and seedling development. The aim of this study was to find out whether this is true and due to the low pH of different Sphagnum moss species. The tested moss species were Sphagnum fallax, Sphagnum medium, Sphagnum rubellum and Sphagnum spp. The seed germination on Sphagnum moss substrate was tested with lettuce, radish, basil, pine and ryegrass. Also, two additional seed germination experiments were done with lettuce. Seedling growth experiment on Sphagnum substrate was tested with lettuce. The first germination experiments indicated that the dicotyledon species basil, radish and lettuce are sensitive to the allelopathic effect caused by Sphagnum moss. In the case of ryegrass and pine no indication of seed germination inhibition was found. The two additional germination experiments confirmed that Sphagnum moss and white peat substrates and Sphagnum moss and white peat organic matter/water extracts were inhibiting lettuce seed germination. Added lime didn’t conclusively explain the inhibition in germination percentages of Sphagnum moss substrate when compared to control treatment gauze. Only in the case of radish the raised pH had positive effect on the germination percentage. Therefor it was concluded that the low germination percentage is not explained only by the naturally low pH of Sphagnum mosses and Sphagnum mosses’ other characteristics should be investigated in the future. In the seedling growth experiment done with lettuce on Sphagnum medium growing medium there was no indication of allelopathic effect on seed germination or seedling development. The allelopathic compounds were thought to have been lost in this experiment through leaching when the substrates were watered.
  • Wood, Steffaney (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Cyanobacteria of the order Nostocales, including Baltic Sea bloom-forming species Nodularia spumigena, Aphanizomenon flosaquae, Dolichospermum spp., produce resting stages, known as akinetes, under unfavorable conditions. These akinetes can persist in the sediment and germinate if favorable conditions return, simultaneously representing past blooms and possibly contributing to future bloom formation. The present study characterized cyanobacterial akinete survival, germination, and potential toxin production in 40-to-175- year-old brackish water sediment archives in order to understand historical bloom expansion, akinete persistence, and cyanobacteria life cycles in the northern Baltic Sea. Results showed that cyanobacterial akinetes can persist in and germinate from northern Baltic Sea sediment up to 424 and 174 years old, at coastal and open-sea locations respectively. Akinete abundance and viability decreased with age and depth of vertical sediment layers. Increases in sediment organic matter content and akinete abundance largely corresponded with the historical expansion of anthropogenic eutrophication-fueled blooms of cyanobacteria in the northern Baltic Sea, beginning in the mid-twentieth century. The detection of potential hepatotoxin production from akinetes and revived cultures was minimal and restricted to the coastal sediment core. Phylogenetic analysis of culturable cyanobacteria from the coastal sediment core indicated that the majority of strains likely belonged to benthic genera Anabaena. Findings also supported the notion that, in comparison with Nodularia and Aphanizomenon spp. akinetes, Anabaena/Dolichospermum spp. akinetes play a more significant role in their life cycle and bloom initiation strategies. Further research is recommended to accurately quantify akinetes and create a higher rate of toxin gene detection from brackish water sediment samples in order to further describe species-specific benthic archives of cyanobacteria. Overall, measuring cyanobacterial akinete abundance, germination experiments, and genetic methods can be effectively used to determine akinete persistence, viability, and potential toxin production in brackish water sediment samples. This study highlights the prolonged survival of cyanobacterial akinetes in northern Baltic Sea sediment samples, up to 174 years old.
  • Vikfors, Sofia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Microplastics (MPs) are widespread environmental pollutants that have been detected in virtually all environmental compartments. Despite this, research has mainly focused on the impacts of microplastic on shorelines and at sea. The effects of MPs on terrestrial ecosystems has been sparsely investigated, and there are only a few studies on direct effects on terrestrial plants. Although plastic polymers are considered inert and non-hazardous, toxic additives are often added to the polymers during manufacture which may leach out into the environment, displaying ecotoxic effects. In this work, the effects of microplastic particles and microplastic leachate on the germination and growth of Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass) was investigated. High density polyethylene (HDPE), which is one of the plastic polymers with the largest annual production, was chosen as the plastic material for investigation. New MPs, artificially aged MPs, MPs from the Lahti region, and MPs from Port Elizabet, South Africa was used in parallel to compare the effects of ageing and regional environmental factors on the ecotoxicity of MPs. The total germination percentage, mean germination rate, synchronization index, germination index, and time to 50% germination was investigated, as well as the root lengths, shoot lengths, root/shoot ratio, and fresh weights of the seedlings. The results showed that exposure to new and Lahti MPs and leachates severely inhibited the extent and speed of the germination of L. multiflorum, whereas all categories of MPs and leachates inhibited the growth to some extent. Most severe inhibition in germination and growth was seen for the new MP and new leachate, followed by Lahti MP and Lahti leachate. The root growth, shoot growth, and plant biomass were also severely reduced for these exposure media. For the aged and Port Elizabeth material, there were slight but significant (p < 0.05) inhibition in root lengths and fresh weights, but no significant inhibition in the germination parameters. These findings indicate that ageing severely reduces the ecotoxic effects of MPs, and that regional environmental factors affect the ecotoxicity of MPs. Microplastics from Port Elizabeth were significantly less toxic to L. multiflorum than MPs from the Lahti region, possibly due to the warmer climate in South Africa. Another explanation could be that the plastic material collected in Port Elizabeth wast older than the one from Lahti. There was little to no difference in germination and growth between seeds exposed to MPs or leachates of the same origin, indicating that it is the substances leaching out of the MPs that are responsible for their ecotoxicity.
  • Valenzuela Averruz, Leticia Estereniel; Zou, Ling; Santanen, Arja Anelma; Mäkelä, Pirjo Sisko Anneli (2018)
  • Zhang, Yuetuan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The literature review described the importance of folate enhancement to human health especially to coeliac patients with an introduction to folate analysis, pseudocereals and possible fortification methods. The aim of this study was to study the natural folate enhancement methods in pseudocereal matrix. Pseudocereal materials consisted of buckwheat, amaranth and quinoa, each of which was subjected to three different treatments: germination, fermentation and combined treatment. Total folate determination was based on an official microbiological assay method (Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469). Germination of pseudocereals lasted for 4–5 days. Fermentation was conducted using either baking yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ALKO743 or LAB Streptococcus thermophilus ABM5097. All germinated whole grain pseudocereals indeed showed a significant increase in total folate content. Specifically, the increase was 5.4-fold in buckwheat, 5-fold in amaranth and 2.6-fold in quinoa. Fermentation of native pseudocereals also enhanced total folate level. As for the combined treatment, the total folate level of germinated seeds did not further significantly increase or decrease in later fermentation period. Although more studies are needed for processing real pseudocereal foods, our study showed great potential of folate enhancement using germination or fermentation.
  • Jerney, Jacqueline; Ahonen, Salla Annika; Hakanen, Päivi; Suikkanen, Sanna; Kremp, Anke (2019)
    Abstract In seasonal environments, strong gradients of environmental parameters can shape life cycles of phytoplankton. Depending on the rate of environmental fluctuation, specialist or generalist strategies may be favored, potentially affecting life cycle transitions. The present study examined life cycle transitions of the toxin producing Baltic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii and their regulation by environmental factors (temperature and nutrients). This investigation aimed to determine if genetic recombination of different strains is required for resting cyst formation and if newly formed cysts are dormant. Field data (temperature, salinity) and sediment surface samples were collected from a site with recurrent blooms and germination and encystment experiments were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. Results indicate a lack of seasonal germination pattern, set by an endogenous rhythm, as commonly found with other dinoflagellates from the Baltic Sea. Germination of quiescent cysts was triggered by temperatures exceeding 10°C and combined nutrient limitation of nitrogen and phosphorus or a drop in temperature from 16 to 10°C triggered encystment most efficiently. Genetic recombination was not mandatory for the formation of resting cysts, but supported higher numbers of resistant cysts and enhanced germination capacity after a resting period. Findings from this study confirm that A. ostenfeldii follows a generalist germination and cyst formation strategy, driven by strong seasonality, which may support its persistence and possibly expansion in marginal environments in the future, if higher temperatures facilitate a longer growth season. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Lindgren, Katarina; Lindgren, Dag (The Finnish Society of Forest Science and The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1996)
    Germination of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) pollen decreased during exposure to open air conditions. Usually more than half of the pollen remained germinable after a few days outdoors, but following more than four days outdoors the germination became very low. This study supports the opinion that pollen in the atmosphere remains viable long enough to allow for long-distance gene flow by pollen migration, as an important factor in genetic management of conifers and in evolution, maintaining diversity and potential for adaptation.
  • Nygren, Markku (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1987)
    Tests on seeds from a natural stand and from a clone archive, with various photoperiods and temperature regimes, showed that germination was delayed at low temperature (10 degrees C) and in darkness. This effect diminished the later in autumn seeds were collected.
  • Hintikka, Veikko (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1987)
  • Mäkelä, Noora (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Folate is a water-soluble vitamin that belongs to the vitamin B group. The most important function of folate is to participate in C1 metabolism, and folate deficiency can lead to megaloblastic anaemia, neural-tube defects or coronary diseases. In Finland the folate fortification of food products is not mandatory and the intake of folate is still too low. Based on previous studies, blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) seems to be a good source of folate, especially the Haags Blaue variety, which has shown to be suitable for cultivation under Finnish environmental conditions. The aim of this research was to study if the folate concentration of blue lupin could be increased with germination and fermentation. In addition, the purpose was to examine how these bioprocessing methods would affect vitamer distribution of folates. Three germination experiments were performed, two with seeds that were soaked overnight in water and one with seeds that were soaked in lactic acid solution. The duration was four or five days and the samples were collected daily. The fermentation experiment was performed with kernel flour from non-germinated seeds and kernel flour from seeds that were germinated for two days. The synthesis of folate was studied using two microbes: Streptococcus thermophilus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The fermentation with S. cerevisiae yeast was made both with and without glucose addition. Samples were taken at 0 and 24 h. Total folate concentrations of samples were analysed with a microbiological method and the vitamers were analysed with an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography method (UPLC). The folate concentration of seeds increased 2-fold by germination. The proportion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate increased significantly during germination, from 60 % in nongerminated kernel flour to 77–88 % in germinated dehulled seeds. S. thermophilus did not produce folates in lupin flours. The folate content of non-germinated flour was increased 1.8-fold by yeast fermentation between 0 and 24 h, and yeast needed the glucose addition. However, glucose addition did not have an impact on folate concentrations of kernel flour from germinated seeds. Germination significantly increased the folate content of lupin seeds, and the greatest proportion of folates were stable vitamers. Stability of vitamers is important for the folates of food products thus germination of lupin seeds appears to be an interesting processing method. On the basis of the fermentation experiment, S. cerevisiae is a promising folate producing microbe when using lupin flour as a matrix. The fermentation experiment should still be repeated and performed using sterilised flour so that the actual production of folate by S. cerevisiae could be studied.
  • Bergsten, Urban (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1988)
  • Viksten, Suvi (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The literature review focused on the proteins and insoluble fibre, ?-(1->4)-galactan, of blue lupin seed and how they degrade during germination. The review also dealt with the food applications of lupins and the harmful substances of lupins: allergens and ?-galactosides. The object of the experimental study was to determine the peptidase activities in the blue lupin seeds at the different stages of germination, classify the peptidases in the seeds and investigate the changes occuring in the proteins during germination and fermentation. The percentage of the water-soluble protein in the seeds was also determined. Blue lupin seeds were soaked in water over night and were germinated in the dark (15 ° C, RH 100 %). Peptidase activities were determined spectrofotometrically using azo-casein as a substrate. Class-specific peptidase-inhibitors (Pepstatin A, PMSF, E-64 and O-FEN) were used for classification of peptidases. Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were used in the fermentations (35 °C, 24 h) as well as baking yeast. The changes which occured in the proteins during germination and fermentation were investigated by electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The Dumas method was used to determine the percentage of the water-soluble protein in the extracts composed of soaked and germinated (2 day) seeds. Peptidase activities increased until the second day of germination and then remained constant until the fourth day. Serine- and aspartic peptidases were identified by inhibitor tests but not cysteine peptidases, even though cysteine peptidases have been previously known to break down legume proteins during germination. The cysteine peptidase inhibitor, E-64, used in this study has been observed earlier to inhibit cysteine peptidases belonging to papain family but not to legumain family. Proteins degraded slightly when the germination continued 4 days, and the degradation continued further during the fermentations. Large polypeptides (MW 45–100 kDa) mainly degraded during germination and fermentation. In addition, 17 kDa polypeptides degraded during fermentation. Possible 20 kDa hydrolysis products also formed during fermentation. The degradation of proteins in fermentations was more efficient when seeds germinated for 2 days were used compared to ungerminated seeds. The content of the water-soluble protein in the soaked seeds and the seeds germinated for 2 days varied between 35–96 %, and the content increased markedly when the pH of the extraction solvent increased from 6 to between 7.5–9.0. Thus the alkalinity of the extraction solution changed the structure of the storage seed proteins to more water-soluble form. The peptidase activity of germinated blue lupin could be applied in varied fermentation processes. The storage proteins of blue lupin were extremely water-soluble, so this discovery could be utilised for manufacturing substitutes for dairy products.
  • Norros, Veera Maria; Karhu, Elina; Nordén, Jenni; Vähätalo, Anssi Vesa; Ovaskainen, Otso Tapio (2015)
    Assessment of the costs and benefits of dispersal is central to understanding species' life-history strategies as well as explaining and predicting spatial population dynamics in the changing world. While mortality during active movement has received much attention, few have studied the costs of passive movement such as the airborne transport of fungal spores. Here, we examine the potential of extreme environmental conditions to cause dispersal mortality in wood-decay fungi. These fungi play a key role as decomposers and habitat creators in forest ecosystems and the populations of many species have declined due to habitat loss and fragmentation. We measured the effect of simulated solar radiation (including ultraviolet A and B) and freezing at -25 degrees C on the spore germinability of 17 species. Both treatments but especially sunlight markedly reduced spore germinability in most species, and species with thin-walled spores were particularly light sensitive. Extrapolating the species' laboratory responses to natural irradiance conditions, we predict that sunlight is a relevant source of dispersal mortality at least at larger spatial scales. In addition, we found a positive effect of spore size on spore germinability, suggesting a trade-off between dispersal distance and establishment. We conclude that freezing and particularly sunlight can be important sources of dispersal mortality in wood-decay fungi which can make it difficult for some species to colonize isolated habitat patches and habitat edges.
  • Ryynänen, Martti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1980)