Browsing by Subject "global change"

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  • Pfeifer, Marion; Lefebvre, Veronique; Gardner, Toby A.; Arroyo-Rodriguez, Victor; Baeten, Lander; Banks-Leite, Cristina; Barlow, Jos; Betts, Matthew G.; Brunet, Joerg; Cerezo, Alexis; Cisneros, Laura M.; Collard, Stuart; D'Cruze, Neil; da Silva Motta, Catarina; Duguay, Stephanie; Eggermont, Hilde; Eigenbrod, Felix; Hadley, Adam S.; Hanson, Thor R.; Hawes, Joseph E.; Scalley, Tamara Heartsill; Klingbeil, Brian T.; Kolb, Annette; Kormann, Urs; Kumar, Sunil; Lachat, Thibault; Lakeman Fraser, Poppy; Lantschner, Victoria; Laurance, William F.; Leal, Inara R.; Lens, Luc; Marsh, Charles J.; Medina-Rangel, Guido F.; Melles, Stephanie; Mezger, Dirk; Oldekop, Johan A.; Overal, William L.; Owen, Charlotte; Peres, Carlos A.; Phalan, Ben; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Pilia, Oriana; Possingham, Hugh P.; Possingham, Max L.; Raheem, Dinarzarde C.; Ribeiro, Danilo B.; Ribeiro Neto, Jose D.; Robinson, W. Douglas; Robinson, Richard; Rytwinski, Trina; Scherber, Christoph; Slade, Eleanor M.; Somarriba, Eduardo; Stouffer, Philip C.; Struebig, Matthew J.; Tylianakis, Jason M.; Tscharntke, Teja; Tyre, Andrew J.; Urbina Cardona, Jose N.; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.; Wearn, Oliver; Wells, Konstans; Willig, Michael R.; Wood, Eric; Young, Richard P.; Bradley, Andrew V.; Ewers, Robert M. (2014)
  • Hällfors, Maria H.; Pöyry, Juha; Heliölä, Janne; Kohonen, Ilmari; Kuussaari, Mikko; Leinonen, Reima; Schmucki, Reto; Sihvonen, Pasi; Saastamoinen, Marjo (Blackwell Science, 2021)
    Ecology Letters 24: 1619-1632
    Species can adapt to climate change by adjusting in situ or by dispersing to new areas, and these strategies may complement or enhance each other. Here, we investigate temporal shifts in phenology and spatial shifts in northern range boundaries for 289 Lepidoptera species by using long-term data sampled over two decades. While 40% of the species neither advanced phenology nor moved northward, nearly half (45%) used one of the two strategies. The strongest positive population trends were observed for the minority of species (15%) that both advanced flight phenology and shifted their northern range boundaries northward. We show that, for boreal Lepidoptera, a combination of phenology and range shifts is the most viable strategy under a changing climate. Effectively, this may divide species into winners and losers based on their propensity to capitalize on this combination, with potentially large consequences on future community composition.
  • Hällfors, Maria H.; Pöyry, Juha; Heliölä, Janne; Kohonen, Ilmari; Kuussaari, Mikko; Leinonen, Reima; Schmucki, Reto; Sihvonen, Pasi; Saastamoinen, Marjo (2021)
    Species can adapt to climate change by adjusting in situ or by dispersing to new areas, and these strategies may complement or enhance each other. Here, we investigate temporal shifts in phenology and spatial shifts in northern range boundaries for 289 Lepidoptera species by using long-term data sampled over two decades. While 40% of the species neither advanced phenology nor moved northward, nearly half (45%) used one of the two strategies. The strongest positive population trends were observed for the minority of species (15%) that both advanced flight phenology and shifted their northern range boundaries northward. We show that, for boreal Lepidoptera, a combination of phenology and range shifts is the most viable strategy under a changing climate. Effectively, this may divide species into winners and losers based on their propensity to capitalize on this combination, with potentially large consequences on future community composition.
  • Antao, Laura H.; Pöyry, Juha; Leinonen, Reima; Roslin, Tomas (2020)
    Aim Biodiversity is currently undergoing rapid restructuring across the globe. However, the nature of biodiversity change is not well understood, as community-level changes may hide differential responses in individual population trajectories. Here, we quantify spatio-temporal community and stability dynamics using a long-term high-quality moth monitoring dataset. Location Finland, Northern Europe. Time period 1993-2012. Major taxa studied Nocturnal moths (Lepidoptera). Methods We quantified patterns of change in species richness, total abundance, dominance and temporal variability at different organizational levels over a 20 year period and along a latitudinal gradient of 1,100 km. We used mixed-effects and linear models to quantify temporal trends for the different community and stability metrics and to test for latitudinal (or longitudinal) effects. Results We found contrasting patterns for different community metrics, and strong latitudinal patterns. While total moth abundance has declined, species richness has simultaneously increased over the study period, but with rates accelerating with latitude. In addition, we revealed a latitudinal pattern in temporal variability-the northernmost locations exhibited higher variability over time, as quantified by both metrics of richness and aggregated species population trends. Main conclusions When combined, our findings likely reflect an influx of species expanding their ranges poleward in response to warming. The overall decline in abundance and the latitudinal effect on temporal variability highlight potentially severe consequences of global change for community structure and integrity across high-latitude regions. Importantly, our results underscore that increases in species richness may be paralleled by a loss of individuals, which in turn might affect higher trophic levels. Our findings suggest that the ongoing global species redistribution is affecting both community structure and stability over time, leading to compounded and partly opposing effects of global change depending on which biodiversity dimension we focus on.
  • Hoekman, David; LeVan, Katherine E.; Ball, George E.; Browne, Robert A.; Davidson, Robert L.; Erwin, Terry L.; Knisley, C. Barry; LaBonte, James R.; Lundgren, Jonathan; Maddison, David R.; Moore, Wendy; Niemelä, Jari; Ober, Karen A.; Pearson, David L.; Spence, John R.; Will, Kipling; Work, Timothy (2017)
    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will monitor ground beetle populations across a network of broadly distributed sites because beetles are prevalent in food webs, are sensitive to abiotic factors, and have an established role as indicator species of habitat and climatic shifts. We describe the design of ground beetle population sampling in the context of NEON's long-term, continentalscale monitoring program, emphasizing the sampling design, priorities, and collection methods. Freely available NEON ground beetle data and associated field and laboratory samples will increase scientific understanding of how biological communities are responding to land-use and climate change.
  • Liu, Che (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Snowmelt timing has been proven critical to the phenology in subarctic and alpine ecosystems. Nevertheless, its impacts on the phenology of dwarf-shrub-dominated vegetation on high-latitudinal Fennoscandian fells are not yet sufficiently studied. This project focusses on the divergences in phenological timings and reproductive success caused by naturally different snowmelt timings in this area. The study site was on fell Saana in northwest Finland. The data was collected from a site covering three snowmelt timings located in two aspects (fully factorial, 4 replicates) from 20th of May to 4th of September, 2015, totalling 108 days. The phenological events (e.g. leaf unfolding, anthesis, and leaf colouring) of 12 species of three growth forms (dwarf shrub, forb, and graminoid) were recorded. The statistical analyses show that different snowmelt timings result in significant differences in the time points (expressed in day of year, DOY) of peak flowering and shoot elongation, as well as the green-leaved durations (days); however, flowering duration is rather constant across snowmelt timings. Significant differences are also found in the reproductive success of several species. The results suggest that in subarctic-alpine vegetation, an earlier snowmelt timing 1) elongates the duration of vegetative growth, 2) advances the timing of peak flowering while the flowering duration remains unchanged, and 3) potentially impedes reproductive success in some species, but generally the pattern is heterogeneous. Thus, snowmelt timing is causing divergences among the phenological traits and potentially within the reproductive success of dwarf shrub species in this area. In the long term, these phenomena may impact the local biodiversity and biochemical cycles, which may be a long-term effect of the shifting snowmelt timing due to global change.
  • Sirén, Hanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    This study focuses on citizen and interest group public engagement for deliberating on societal challenges, especially in an academic research planning context. The studied participatory event is the first Future Earth Townhall Meeting organized in Helsinki in May 2015. Using an extended case method and a theory-driven approach combined with mixed methods, this study aims to shed light on social and theoretical aspects framing the studied participatory event. The extended case study method was selected to support and direct inquiry as well as to enable reconstructing existing theory. This study combines participant observation, textual content analysis, word frequency analysis and visual analysis. In the social sciences demands to better take into account environmental issues have increased after the Second World War. The study’s ethnographic grassroots perspective situates the studied event into a wider framework of participation and political sociology. Analysis is organized through main frames local publics and global challenges. Local publics especially addresses the following research questions: How were local publics constructed? What voiced concerns frame participation? Global challenges in turn focuses on: How were thematic aims developed and articulated? The key concept global change awareness guides analysis of interdisciplinary work. Four planning stages of idea development (cf. Lempiälä 2011) illustrate main front end stages connected to the key challenges and activities. In the studied case the process has moved from international to local level. For global challenges, ARGIL is introduced to highlight a difference between broader Adaptation and socially coordinated Resources. Oskar Negt and Alexander Kluge’s (1972) concept new public sphere of production is used as theoretical backbone on participation. Because the event was advertised as open to anyone interested in addition to experts, the studied event’s meeting hall sessions can be seen as front stage activities (cf. Goffman 1956; Lempiälä 2011). Participatory activities taking place after general concept approval can limit participants’ critical potential. At the same time, international grand challenges are widely used in various contexts, and increased awareness can thus be beneficial for participants. The studied event is situated at an intersection of global and local networks of influence. Future Earth aims to combine a focus on various levels, cooperating with different stakeholders and actors. The studied event’s thematic focus touches upon the UN’s sustainable development goals and the EU’s grand societal challenges.
  • Maseyk, Kadmiel; Atherton, Jon; Thomas, Rick; Wood, Kieran; Tausz-Posch, Sabine; MacArthur, Alasdair; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Tausz, Michael (IEEE, 2018)
    IEEE International Symposium on Geoscience and Remote Sensing IGARSS
    The response of ecosystems to increasing atmospheric CO2 will have significant, but still uncertain, impacts on the global carbon and water cycles. A lot of infounation has been gained from Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments, but the response of mature forest ecosystems remains a significant knowledge gap. One of the challenges in FACE studies is obtaining an integrated measure of canopy photosynthesis at the scale of the treatment ring. A new remote sensing approach for measuring photosynthetic activity is based on Solar Induced Fluorescence (SIF), which is emitted by plants during photosynthesis, and is closely linked to the rates and regulation of photosynthesis. We proposed that UAV-based SIF measurements, that enable the spectrometer field of view to be targeted to the treatment ring, provide a unique opportunity for investigating the dynamics of photosynthetic responses to elevated CO2. We have successfully tested this approach in a new FACE site, located in a mature oak forest in the UK. We flew a series of flights across the experiment arrays, collecting a number of spectra. We combined these with ground-based physiological and optical measurements, and see great promise in the use of UAV-based SIF measurements in FACE and other global change experiments.
  • Bowler, Diana E.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Dornelas, Maria; Myers-Smith, Isla H.; Navarro, Laetitia M.; Niamir, Aidin; Supp, Sarah R.; Waldock, Conor; Winter, Marten; Vellend, Mark; Blowes, Shane A.; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Bruelheide, Helge; Elahi, Robin; Antão, Laura H.; Hines, Jes; Isbell, Forest; Jones, Holly P.; Magurran, Anne E.; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Bates, Amanda E. (2020)
    Abstract Climate change and other anthropogenic drivers of biodiversity change are unequally distributed across the world. Overlap in the distributions of different drivers have important implications for biodiversity change attribution and the potential for interactive effects. However, the spatial relationships among different drivers and whether they differ between the terrestrial and marine realm has yet to be examined. We compiled global gridded datasets on climate change, land-use, resource exploitation, pollution, alien species potential and human population density. We used multivariate statistics to examine the spatial relationships among the drivers and to characterize the typical combinations of drivers experienced by different regions of the world. We found stronger positive correlations among drivers in the terrestrial than in the marine realm, leading to areas with high intensities of multiple drivers on land. Climate change tended to be negatively correlated with other drivers in the terrestrial realm (e.g. in the tundra and boreal forest with high climate change but low human use and pollution), whereas the opposite was true in the marine realm (e.g. in the Indo-Pacific with high climate change and high fishing). We show that different regions of the world can be defined by Anthropogenic Threat Complexes (ATCs), distinguished by different sets of drivers with varying intensities. We identify 11 ATCs that can be used to test hypotheses about patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem change, especially about the joint effects of multiple drivers. Our global analysis highlights the broad conservation priorities needed to mitigate the impacts of anthropogenic change, with different priorities emerging on land and in the ocean, and in different parts of the world.
  • Raatikainen, Kaisa J.; Purhonen, Jenna; Pohjanmies, Tähti; Peura, Maiju; Nieminen, Eini; Mustajärvi, Linda; Helle, Ilona; Shennan-Farpon, Yara; Ahti, Pauliina A.; Basile, Marco; Bernardo, Nicola; Bertram, Michael G.; Bouarakia, Oussama; Brias-Guinart, Aina; Fijen, Thijs; Froidevaux, Jeremy S. P.; Hemmingmoore, Heather; Hocevar, Sara; Kendall, Liam; Lampinen, Jussi; Marjakangas, Emma-Liina; Martin, Jake M.; Oomen, Rebekah A.; Segre, Hila; Sidemo-Holm, William; Silva, Andre P.; Thorbjornsen, Susanna Huneide; Torrents-Tico, Miquel; Zhang, Di; Ziemacki, Jasmin (2021)
    Scientists have warned decision-makers about the severe consequences of the global environmental crisis since the 1970s. Yet ecological degradation continues and little has been done to address climate change. We investigated early-career conservation researchers' (ECR) perspectives on, and prioritization of, actions furthering sustainability. We conducted a survey (n = 67) and an interactive workshop (n = 35) for ECR attendees of the 5th European Congress of Conservation Biology (2018). Building on these data and discussions, we identified ongoing and forthcoming advances in conservation science. These include increased transdisciplinarity, science communication, advocacy in conservation, and adoption of a transformation-oriented social-ecological systems approach to research. The respondents and participants had diverse perspectives on how to achieve sustainability. Reformist actions were emphasized as paving the way for more radical changes in the economic system and societal values linked to the environment and inequality. Our findings suggest that achieving sustainability requires a strategy that (1) incorporates the multiplicity of people's views, (2) places a greater value on nature, and (3) encourages systemic transformation across political, social, educational, and economic realms on multiple levels. We introduce a framework for ECRs to inspire their research and practice within conservation science to achieve real change in protecting biological diversity.
  • Fountain, Toby Edward Soames; Nieminen, Marko Juhani; Siren, Jukka Pekka; Wong, Swee Chong; Lehtonen, Rainer Juhani; Hanski, Ilkka Aulis (2016)
    Describing the evolutionary dynamics of now extinct populations is challenging, as their genetic composition before extinction is generally unknown. The Glanville fritillary butterfly has a large extant metapopulation in the Åland Islands in Finland, but declined to extinction in the nearby fragmented southwestern (SW) Finnish archipelago in the 20th century. We genotyped museum samples for 222 SNPs across the genome, including SNPs from candidate genes and neutral regions. SW Finnish populations had significantly reduced genetic diversity before extinction, and their allele frequencies gradually diverged from those in contemporary Åland populations over 80 y. We identified 15 outlier loci among candidate SNPs, mostly related to flight, in which allele frequencies have changed more than the neutral expectation. At outlier loci, allele frequencies in SW Finland shifted in the same direction as newly established populations deviated from old local populations in contemporary Åland. Moreover, outlier allele frequencies in SW Finland resemble those in fragmented landscapes as opposed to continuous landscapes in the Baltic region. These results indicate selection for genotypes associated with good colonization capacity in the highly fragmented landscape before the extinction of the populations. Evolutionary response to habitat fragmentation may have enhanced the viability of the populations, but it did not save the species from regional extinction in the face of severe habitat loss and fragmentation. These results highlight a potentially common situation in changing environments: evolutionary changes are not strong enough to fully compensate for the direct adverse effects of environmental change and thereby rescue populations from extinction.
  • Lewandowska, Aleksandra; Jonkers, Lukas; Auel, Holger; Freund, Jan A.; Hagen, Wilhelm; Kucera, Michal; Hillebrand, Helmut (2020)
    Aim Biodiversity dynamics comprise evolutionary and ecological changes on multiple temporal scales from millions of years to decades, but they are often interpreted within a single time frame. Planktonic foraminifera communities offer a unique opportunity for analysing the dynamics of marine biodiversity over different temporal scales. Our study aims to provide a baseline for assessments of biodiversity patterns over multiple time-scales, which is urgently needed to interpret biodiversity responses to increasing anthropogenic pressure. Location Global (26 sites). Time period Five time-scales: multi-million-year (0-7 Myr), million-year (0-0.5 Myr), multi-millennial (0-15 thousand years), millennial (0-1,100 years) and decadal (0-32 years). Major taxa studied Planktonic foraminifera. Methods We analysed community composition of planktonic foraminifera at five time-scales, combining measures of standing diversity (richness and effective number of species, ENS) with measures of temporal community turnover (presence-absence-based, dominance-based). Observed biodiversity patterns were compared with the outcome of a neutral model to separate the effects of sampling resolution (the highest in the shortest time series) from biological responses. Results Richness and ENS decreased from multi-million-year to millennial time-scales, but higher standing diversity was observed on the decadal scale. As predicted by the neutral model, turnover in species identity and dominance was strongest at the multi-million-year time-scale and decreased towards the millennial scale. However, contrary to the model predictions, modern time series show rapid decadal variation in the dominance structure of foraminifera communities, which is of comparable magnitude as over much longer time periods. Community turnover was significantly correlated with global temperature change, but not on the shortest time-scale. Main conclusions Biodiversity patterns can be to some degree predicted from the scaling effects related to different durations of time series, but changes in the dominance structure observed over the last few decades reach higher magnitude, probably forced by anthropogenic effects, than those observed over much longer durations.
  • Hällfors, Maria; Antao, Laura; Itter, Malcolm; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Lindholm, Tanja Marjukka; Roslin, Tomas; Saastamoinen, Marjo (2020)
    Breeding timed to match optimal resource abundance is vital for the successful reproduction of species, and breeding is therefore sensitive to environmental cues. As the timing of breeding shifts with a changing climate, this may not only affect the onset of breeding but also its termination, and thus the length of the breeding period. We use an extensive dataset of over 820K nesting records of 73 bird species across the boreal region in Finland to probe for changes in the beginning, end, and duration of the breeding period over four decades (1975 to 2017). We uncover a general advance of breeding with a strong phylogenetic signal but no systematic variation over space. Additionally, 31% of species contracted their breeding period in at least one bioclimatic zone, as the end of the breeding period advanced more than the beginning. We did not detect a statistical difference in phenological responses of species with combinations of different migratory strategy or number of broods. Nonetheless, we find systematic differences in species responses, as the contraction in the breeding period was found almost exclusively in resident and short-distance migrating species, which generally breed early in the season. Overall, changes in the timing and duration of reproduction may potentially lead to more broods co-occurring in the early breeding season-a critical time for species' reproductive success. Our findings highlight the importance of quantifying phenological change across species and over the entire season to reveal shifts in the community-level distribution of bird reproduction.
  • Hudson, Lawrence N.; Newbold, Tim; Contu, Sara; Hill, Samantha L. L.; Lysenko, Igor; De Palma, Adriana; Phillips, Helen R. P.; Senior, Rebecca A.; Bennett, Dominic J.; Booth, Hollie; Choimes, Argyrios; Correia, David L. P.; Day, Julie; Echeverria-Londono, Susy; Garon, Morgan; Harrison, Michelle L. K.; Ingram, Daniel J.; Jung, Martin; Kemp, Victoria; Kirkpatrick, Lucinda; Martin, Callum D.; Pan, Yuan; White, Hannah J.; Aben, Job; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Adum, Gilbert B.; Aguilar-Barquero, Virginia; Aizen, Marcelo A.; Ancrenaz, Marc; Arbelaez-Cortes, Enrique; Armbrecht, Inge; Azhar, Badrul; Azpiroz, Adrian B.; Baeten, Lander; Baldi, Andras; Banks, John E.; Barlow, Jos; Batary, Peter; Bates, Adam J.; Bayne, Erin M.; Beja, Pedro; Berg, Ake; Berry, Nicholas J.; Bicknell, Jake E.; Bihn, Jochen H.; Boehning-Gaese, Katrin; Boekhout, Teun; Boutin, Celine; Bouyer, Jeremy; Brearley, Francis Q.; Brito, Isabel; Brunet, Joerg; Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Buscardo, Erika; Cabra-Garcia, Jimmy; Calvino-Cancela, Maria; Cameron, Sydney A.; Cancello, Eliana M.; Carrijo, Tiago F.; Carvalho, Anelena L.; Castro, Helena; Castro-Luna, Alejandro A.; Cerda, Rolando; Cerezo, Alexis; Chauvat, Matthieu; Clarke, Frank M.; Cleary, Daniel F. R.; Connop, Stuart P.; D'Aniello, Biagio; da Silva, Pedro Giovani; Darvill, Ben; Dauber, Jens; Dejean, Alain; Diekoetter, Tim; Dominguez-Haydar, Yamileth; Dormann, Carsten F.; Dumont, Bertrand; Dures, Simon G.; Dynesius, Mats; Edenius, Lars; Elek, Zoltan; Entling, Martin H.; Farwig, Nina; Fayle, Tom M.; Felicioli, Antonio; Felton, Annika M.; Ficetola, Gentile F.; Filgueiras, Bruno K. C.; Fonte, Steven J.; Fraser, Lauchlan H.; Fukuda, Daisuke; Furlani, Dario; Ganzhorn, Joerg U.; Garden, Jenni G.; Gheler-Costa, Carla; Giordani, Paolo; Giordano, Simonetta; Gottschalk, Marco S.; Goulson, Dave; Gove, Aaron D.; Grogan, James; Hanley, Mick E.; Hanson, Thor; Hashim, Nor R.; Hawes, Joseph E.; Hebert, Christian; Helden, Alvin J.; Henden, John-Andre; Hernandez, Lionel; Herzog, Felix; Higuera-Diaz, Diego; Hilje, Branko; Horgan, Finbarr G.; Horvath, Roland; Hylander, Kristoffer; Isaacs-Cubides, Paola; Ishitani, Masahiro; Jacobs, Carmen T.; Jaramillo, Victor J.; Jauker, Birgit; Jonsell, Mats; Jung, Thomas S.; Kapoor, Vena; Kati, Vassiliki; Katovai, Eric; Kessler, Michael; Knop, Eva; Kolb, Annette; Koroesi, Adam; Lachat, Thibault; Lantschner, Victoria; Le Feon, Violette; LeBuhn, Gretchen; Legare, Jean-Philippe; Letcher, Susan G.; Littlewood, Nick A.; Lopez-Quintero, Carlos A.; Louhaichi, Mounir; Loevei, Gabor L.; Lucas-Borja, Manuel Esteban; Luja, Victor H.; Maeto, Kaoru; Magura, Tibor; Mallari, Neil Aldrin; Marin-Spiotta, Erika; Marshall, E. J. P.; Martinez, Eliana; Mayfield, Margaret M.; Mikusinski, Grzegorz; Milder, Jeffrey C.; Miller, James R.; Morales, Carolina L.; Muchane, Mary N.; Muchane, Muchai; Naidoo, Robin; Nakamura, Akihiro; Naoe, Shoji; Nates-Parra, Guiomar; Navarrete Gutierrez, Dario A.; Neuschulz, Eike L.; Noreika, Norbertas; Norfolk, Olivia; Noriega, Jorge Ari; Noeske, Nicole M.; O'Dea, Niall; Oduro, William; Ofori-Boateng, Caleb; Oke, Chris O.; Osgathorpe, Lynne M.; Paritsis, Juan; Parra-H, Alejandro; Pelegrin, Nicolas; Peres, Carlos A.; Persson, Anna S.; Petanidou, Theodora; Phalan, Ben; Philips, T. Keith; Poveda, Katja; Power, Eileen F.; Presley, Steven J.; Proenca, Vania; Quaranta, Marino; Quintero, Carolina; Redpath-Downing, Nicola A.; Reid, J. Leighton; Reis, Yana T.; Ribeiro, Danilo B.; Richardson, Barbara A.; Richardson, Michael J.; Robles, Carolina A.; Roembke, Joerg; Romero-Duque, Luz Piedad; Rosselli, Loreta; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Roulston, T'ai H.; Rousseau, Laurent; Sadler, Jonathan P.; Safian, Szabolcs; Saldana-Vazquez, Romeo A.; Samnegard, Ulrika; Schueepp, Christof; Schweiger, Oliver; Sedlock, Jodi L.; Shahabuddin, Ghazala; Sheil, Douglas; Silva, Fernando A. B.; Slade, Eleanor M.; Smith-Pardo, Allan H.; Sodhi, Navjot S.; Somarriba, Eduardo J.; Sosa, Ramon A.; Stout, Jane C.; Struebig, Matthew J.; Sung, Yik-Hei; Threlfall, Caragh G.; Tonietto, Rebecca; Tothmeresz, Bela; Tscharntke, Teja; Turner, Edgar C.; Tylianakis, Jason M.; Vanbergen, Adam J.; Vassilev, Kiril; Verboven, Hans A. F.; Vergara, Carlos H.; Vergara, Pablo M.; Verhulst, Jort; Walker, Tony R.; Wang, Yanping; Watling, James I.; Wells, Konstans; Williams, Christopher D.; Willig, Michael R.; Woinarski, John C. Z.; Wolf, Jan H. D.; Woodcock, Ben A.; Yu, Douglas W.; Zaitsev, Andrey S.; Collen, Ben; Ewers, Rob M.; Mace, Georgina M.; Purves, Drew W.; Scharlemann, Joern P. W.; Purvis, Andy (2014)
  • Overland, James; Dunlea, Edward; Box, Jason E.; Corell, Robert; Forsius, Martin; Kattsov, Vladimir; Olsen, Morten Skovgård; Pawlak, Janet; Reiersen, Lars-Otto; Wang, Muyin (Elsevier, 2019)
    Polar Science
    This article provides a synthesis of the latest observational trends and projections for the future of the Arctic. First, the Arctic is already changing rapidly as a result of climate change. Contemporary warm Arctic temperatures and large sea ice deficits (75% volume loss) demonstrate climate states outside of previous experience. Modeled changes of the Arctic cryosphere demonstrate that even limiting global temperature increases to near 2 °C will leave the Arctic a much different environment by mid-century with less snow and sea ice, melted permafrost, altered ecosystems, and a projected annual mean Arctic temperature increase of +4 °C. Second, even under ambitious emission reduction scenarios, high-latitude land ice melt, including Greenland, are foreseen to continue due to internal lags, leading to accelerating global sea level rise throughout the century. Third, future Arctic changes may in turn impact lower latitudes through tundra greenhouse gas release and shifts in ocean and atmospheric circulation. Arctic-specific radiative and heat storage feedbacks may become an obstacle to achieving a stabilized global climate. In light of these trends, the precautionary principle calls for early adaptation and mitigation actions.
  • Dañobeitia, Juan Jose; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Johannessen, Truls; Basset, Alberto; Cannat, Mathilde; Pfeil, Benjamin Gerrit; Fredella, Maria Incoronata; Materia, Paola; Gourcuff, Claire; Magnifico, Giuseppe; Delory, Eric; del Rio Fernandez, Joaquin; Rodero, Ivan; Beranzoli, Laura; Nardello, Ilaria; Iudicone, Daniele; Carval, Thierry; Gonzalez Aranda, Juan M.; Petihakis, George; Blandin, Jerome; Kutsch, Werner Leo; Rintala, Janne-Markus; Gates, Andrew R.; Favali, Paolo (2020)
    Research Infrastructures (RIs) are large-scale facilities encompassing instruments, resources, data and services used by the scientific community to conduct high-level research in their respective fields. The development and integration of marine environmental RIs as European Research Vessel Operators [ERVO] (2020) is the response of the European Commission (EC) to global marine challenges through research, technological development and innovation. These infrastructures (EMSO ERIC, Euro-Argo ERIC, ICOS-ERIC Marine, LifeWatch ERIC, and EMBRC-ERIC) include specialized vessels, fixed-point monitoring systems, Lagrangian floats, test facilities, genomics observatories, bio-sensing, and Virtual Research Environments (VREs), among others. Marine ecosystems are vital for life on Earth. Global climate change is progressing rapidly, and geo-hazards, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis, cause large losses of human life and have massive worldwide socio-economic impacts. Enhancing our marine environmental monitoring and prediction capabilities will increase our ability to respond adequately to major challenges and efficiently. Collaboration among European marine RIs aligns with and has contributed to the OceanObs’19 Conference statement and the objectives of the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021–2030). This collaboration actively participates and supports concrete actions to increase the quality and quantity of more integrated and sustained observations in the ocean worldwide. From an innovation perspective, the next decade will increasingly count on marine RIs to support the development of new technologies and their validation in the field, increasing market uptake and produce a shift in observing capabilities and strategies.