Browsing by Subject "globalisation"

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  • Pareyon, Gabriel (Universidad de Guadalajara, 2010)
    This contribution deals with social and political aspects affecting cultural life in Jalisco (Mexico), during the last forty years. It is, especially, a critical view on the regional deterioration of experimental music, analysing ethnic, religion, gender and other social components in one of the culturally foremost states of Mexico.
  • Möller, Ada (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Avhandlingen ser på ekonomisk brottslighet (white-collar crime, på svenska ofta kallat manschettbrottslighet) speciellt i formen av förskingringar, och hur de visar sig i välfärdsstater såsom Finland och Sverige. Avhandlingen ger även en översikt över kriminologisk teori, manschettbrottslighet och dess kopplingar till globalisering. I ljuset av avhandlingens källmaterial är en kort diskussion beträffande kriminaljournalistik även inkluderad. Teorimässigt ligger fokus på hur manschettbrottslighet och kriminologiska teorier har utvecklats genom åren. Avhandlingens källmaterial och fallen som analyseras samlades genom användning av internetbaserade nyhetsmedier i januari och februari 2021. Som sökmotor användes Google, där sökningen begränsats till www.yle.fi och www.svt.se. Finland och Sverige blev valda tack vare deras många likheter samt relativt lätta jämförbarhet. Det som skiljer avhandlingen från andra studier inom samma område är dess fokus på Finland och Sverige, samt dess metod för datainsamling, vilket ter sig unikt, eftersom en liknande analys mellan länderna inte gjorts tidigare. Forskningens resultat visar på en variation mellan gärningsmannens ställning och tillvägagångssätt, där brottsmetoden ofta var överraskande enkel. Dessutom kan man i analysen finna påfallande likheter mellan Finland och Sverige. Några uppenbara slutsatser på globaliseringens direkta inverkan på själva brottet förblir dock tvetydigt. Hursomhelst kan det ändå konstateras att medan globalisering i sig inte är källan till allt det onda, är det ändå ofrånkomligt att fenomenet globalisering samt allt vad det innebär nog underlättat genomförandet av en del former av ekonomisk brottslighet. Dock visar även avhandlingens slutsatser på att den stereotypiska manschettbrottslingen som en manlig medelålders chef inte stöds av källmaterialet. Poängteras bör ändå också att definitionen av manschettbrottslighet, som den används i denna avhandling, samt omfattningen av vad som räknats som förskingring, tvingar betydelsen av denna traditionella, och aningen konservativa, stereotypen att minska i värde.
  • Palojoki, Päivi (Routledge, 2017)
    Routledge Studies in Culture and Sustainable Development
  • Rönkkö, Lauri Mikael (2008)
    This Master´s thesis analyses how the World Social Forum WSF has emerged as a new global civil society space in the context of the expansion of economism and general depolitisation (cf. Teivainen), facilitated by the internationalisation process and supranational opportunity structures (cf. Tilly and Tarrow). The WSF brings together besides national social movements and their transnational coalitions also new types of transnational social movements and networks. It challenges essentially the expanding democratic deficits at local and national levels, but especially at the international level. Recent research has confirmed the high degree of critical debate on democracy present in social forums: especially internal democracy emerges as an important topic of discussion for the activists (cf. Della Porta). One of the main debates of the WSF is found around the questions whether to favour efficiency over participation or specialization over equality, or vice versa. This dilemma is reflected in the dispute whether the WSF should continue to follow Open Space methodology or move towards a political actor. The aim of this study is to analyse these competing discourses and framings among WSF movements, mirroring discourses to the four models of public sphere presented by Ferree, Gamson, Gerhards and Rucht, and the four conception of internal democracy of Donatella della Porta, and how they are implemented in WSF internal practices. Study identifies three major framings: the movement of movements framing tends to advocate the representative democracy model and the vertical party-type organisations following associational democracy models, i.e., delegation of power and the majority decision-making. The horizontal framing typically criticize the vertical structures and representative practices, and have instead developed horizontal network politics and follow constructionist democracy ideals, emphasizing priority of the prefigurative politics over the efficiency of decision-making. Another main issue explaining the divisions among WSF movements is their divergent relation to the axis of national/ transnational spheres and the changing power relations between these spheres. The open space framing typically relates to the transnationalism as an opportunity like those sympathising horizontal framing. Although no satisfactory solution seems ready yet to address the main organizational dilemmas of the WSF, some progress can anyhow be observed. Consequently, the WSF should be seen as a laboratory of prefigurative politics, developing and testing new form of politics and alternative democratic practices, a global civil society space where excluded voices gather and discuss alternative political and economic practices. It empowers local, national and transnational social movements to create new projects and alliances, and creates new identities, as well, perhaps new type of transnational identities as well.
  • Lindfors, Teppo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Within the last forty years, capital has increased its share of national income at the expense of labour across developed and developing economies, with few exceptions. The trajectory has been successfully linked to technological change, globalisation and the erosion of the bargaining power of employees in theoretical and empirical examinations. Due to short time series, it has remained unclear whether the increase in capital share is a consequence of modern trends, such as hyperglobalisation or the ICT-boom. Recognizing the mechanisms behind the increase is worthwhile from the social planner’s viewpoint, because of factor shares’ connection with personal income inequality and unemployment, both triggers of social unrest. This thesis examines the connection between labour income share and its potential determinants in Finnish industry, namely technological change, globalisation, union power, devaluations, capital mobility and public expenditure between 1907 and 2015. The main empirical strategy used was the fixed effects regression, where the first three aforementioned determinants were proxied with capital intensity, total factor productivity (TFP), import and export exposure, union density and the number of strike days per worker, while controlling for branch fixed effects, common national trends and branch-specific trends. The last three country-level determinants were studied using time series analysis. The primary data source was Bank of Finland’s Growth studies, which was complemented with the data in various volumes of the Official Statistics of Finland, in addition to selected separate publications. According to the results, technological change has a negative effect on labour share, while union power and import exposure have a positive impact. Periodizing, the increase in capital intensity can more than explain the decrease in labour share from 1907 to 1943. Between 1943 and 1991 the quadrupling of union density accounts around a third of the 28.2 percentage point increase in labour share. From 1991 to 2007, the acceleration of TFP growth rate can predict around 60% of the 23.7 percentage point decline in labour share. The findings suggest, that technology is the key driver of functional income distribution also in the long-term, which complements its importance in the recent increase in capital shares, covered in previous research. Moreover, in the early 20th century technology appears to have worked more as a substitute for labour, while after mid-century it has become rather complementary and efficiency-improving. In addition, the ICT era has brought along an increase in market concentration, implying that technology operates also potentially through rising economic rents. Union power had a non-trivial role in inflating labour share during the post-WWII decades. Finally, import exposure has increased labour share presumably by squeezing profits, but its significance is overshadowed by the other covariates.
  • Folkersma, Liisa Karoliina (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    The aim of this thesis is to examine migration of educated Dominicans in light of global processes. Current global developments have resulted in increasingly global movements of people, yet people tend to come from certain places in large numbers rather than others. At the same time, international migration is increasingly selective, which shows in the disproportional number of educated migrants. This study discovers individual and societal motivations that explain why young educated Dominicans decide to migrate and return. The theoretical framework of this thesis underlines that migration is a dynamic process rooted in other global developments. Migratory movements should be seen as a result of interacting macro- and microstructures, which are linked by a number of intermediate mechanisms, meso-structures. The way individuals perceive opportunity structures concretises the way global developments mediate to the micro-level. The case of the Dominican Republic shows that there is a diversity of local responses to the world system, as Dominicans have produced their own unique historical responses to global changes. The thesis explains that Dominican migration is importantly conditioned by socioeconomic and educational background. Migration is more accessible for the educated middle class, because of the availability of better resources. Educated migrants also seem less likely to rely on networks to organize their migrations. The role of networks in migration differs by socioeconomic background on the one hand, and by the specific connections each individual has to current and previous migrants on the other hand. The personal and cultural values of the migrant are also pivotal. The central argument of this thesis is that a veritable culture of migration has evolved in the Dominican Republic. The actual economic, political and social circumstances have led many Dominicans to believe that there are better opportunities elsewhere. The globalisation of certain expectations on the one hand, and the development of the specifically Dominican feeling of ‘externalism’ on the other, have for their part given rise to the Dominican culture of migration. The study also suggests that the current Dominican development model encourages migration. Besides global structures, local structures are found to be pivotal in determining how global processes are materialised in a specific place. The research for this thesis was conducted by using qualitative methodology. The focus of this thesis was on thematic interviews that reveal the subject’s point of view and give a fuller understanding of migration and mobility of the educated. The data was mainly collected during a field research phase in Santo Domingo, the Dominican Republic in December 2009 and January 2010. The principal material consists of ten thematic interviews held with educated Dominican current or former migrants. Four expert interviews, relevant empirical data, theoretical literature and newspaper articles were also comprehensively used.
  • Kananen, Johannes (2004)
    This Thesis examines the extent to which labour market deregulation can provide a viable solution for problems associated with European labour markets. Compared to the US, Europe is said to have opted for equity instead of efficiency. Seemingly rigid labour markets have resulted in high and persistent levels of unemployment in times of post-industrialisation and globalisation. Labour market regulation is here understood in a wide sense, comprising employment protection legislation, but also wage setting, minimum wages and mandatory social security contributions. The Scandinavian regime would arguably have to make the greatest changes if all aspects of deregulation were implemented. Thus, the Thesis takes a closer at Finnish, Swedish and Danish employment policies. The Scandinavian model is contrasted with the liberal model of the UK. Data in the empirical section comes from OECD public databases. It is argued that recent changes in economic theory have influenced policy suggestions aiming at more flexible labour markets. The theory of the Natural Rate of Unemployment is associated with a different role of the state compared to traditional Keynesian theories. During the post-war period of stable economic growth and welfare state expansion, the state adopted in many countries an active role in the economy, and full employment was maintained by counter-cyclical demand management. Now the state has a much more limited role with regards to macroeconomic policy, and the idea of an undisturbed market is back in policy making. A trend towards the recommodification of labour is identified in the Thesis. It is argued that recent reductions in social security are an indication of this trend, and that labour market deregulation would strengthen it further. It will be concluded that Europe does not form a uniform area and that simple policy suggestions are therefore hard to find. Labour market deregulation is not an inevitable solution of European labour markets, and the social goals associated with employment policy are subject to political debate and not economic facts.
  • Elomaa, Terhi (2004)
    The aim of this thesis is to examine whether the ‘anti-globalisation movement’ really is ‘anti’, i.e. against, globalisation and a single movement. The so-called anti-globalisation movement emerged into the spotlight in 1999, during the World Trade Organisation’s ministerial meeting in Seattle when demonstrators managed to disrupt trade talks aiming to further liberalise world trade. In International Relations (IR) scholarship the movement is perceived to be an indication of an emerging global civil society. The theoretical framework supporting the objective of research is a post-positivist perspective of critical and feminist IR theory, which give reason to question the globalisation/anti-globalisation dichotomy. The comparative study is based on Finnish non-governmental organizations (NGOs) involved in the ‘anti-globalisation movement’. A sociological cognitive method of analysis is used to study the cosmological, technological, and organizational dimensions of Friends of the Earth Finland, the socialist union Sosialistiliitto, and Attac Finland. In other words, the worldviews, goals, and organizational aspects of the NGOs are examined. Research material used in the case studies consists of online documents provided on the NGO websites. The research material is limited to information provided on the websites because the ‘anti-globalisation movement’ is the first social movement to mobilise mainly through the Internet. According to this study, the term ‘anti-globalisation movement’ is misleading because the organizations’ criticism is restricted to the current direction of economic globalisation and all three NGOs advocate increased political globalisation. It is also concluded that the organizations’ aims differ to such a significant degree that they cannot be considered to form one single movement.
  • Etheridge, James (2008)
    This study challenges the perceived wisdom that economic globalisation has rendered social democracy a historically exhausted project. Utilising data gathered from election manifestos, the paper presents evidence to show that social democratic parties have continued to fashion a multitude of responses to globalisation and have not revised their ideological stances in ways that are consistent with the globalisation orthodoxy. In seeking to explain continued social democratic party diversity, the study draws on the fundamental insights of new-institutionalist theory. This approach examines the linkages between party positions and political institutions and shows how institutional configurations refract the pressures of globalisation and elicit a multitude of social democratic policy stances. The analysis focuses on the manifesto positions of social democratic parties on welfare policy from the 1970s to the late 1990s. Data on social democratic parties in more than 20 OECD democracies are obtained from a dataset produced by the Comparative Manifestos Project and examined longitudinally. The data are measures of the priority social democratic parties attach to welfare state expansion, welfare state limitation and social justice. The results show that party positions oscillated substantially between the 1970s and 1990s. There are no clearly visible patterns in the data and, importantly, no directional trends. In seeking to explain why social democratic parties continue to pursue a multitude of different policy paths, the paper draw on the insights of new-institutionalist theory. The approach is defined broadly, with the study utilising four strands of new-institutionalism. The bulk of the paper was given over to empirical institutionalism, the primary analytical tool deployed to uncover the influence of institutional variables on social democratic choices. The theoretical arguments of empirical institutionalist theory are operationalised into quantitative measures and a range of statistical methods are used to demonstrate the influence of institutional variables on party welfare-ideological profiles during the three-decade period. The explanatory power of new-institutionalism is further explored in a case study of the German Social Democratic Party and Agenda 2010, a radical package of welfare reforms the party launched in 2003. Three alternative new-institutionalist approaches are employed to illustrate how the role of institutions in influencing social democratic choices can be understood and explained in different ways.
  • Mackie, Adam Gordon (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This thesis will explore the variance in support of the European Union between Scotland and England and explain the Brexit referendum vote through a focus on identity and nationalism. A theory of allegiance is developed to explain the linkage between Scottish and English nationalism and opinion formation vis-à-vis the European Union. The paper finds that national identity played a key role in how people voted in the Brexit referendum as it shapes where individuals locate the terminal political community.
  • Riad, Sally; Vaara, Eero; Zhang, Nathan (Hanken School of Economics, 2012)
    While studies on international management have focused on cultural differences and examined institutional specificities in various national business systems, conceptions of international relations have been left relatively underexplored. We argue that representations of international relations are relevant to international M&As and contend that intertextuality offers a novel approach to examine these relational features of international management. Our analysis focuses on Sino-US relations in the context of the acquisition of American IBM’s Personal Computer Division (PCD) by the Chinese company, Lenovo. We demonstrate the ways in which facets of international relations are produced in media accounts of this acquisition, and analyze the intertextual dynamics entwined with their production. The analysis consists of three sections: constitutive intertextuality, manifest intertextuality and intertextual ideological undercurrents. These illustrate the variation in producing international relations through discursive themes (threat to security/peaceful rise), emotion rhetoric (fear/cheer) and ideology (cold war/globalism). Altogether, the paper elucidates the ways in which international M&As are immersed in a seascape of intertextual international relations.
  • Ojala, Markus Mikael (University of Helsinki, Department of Social Research, 2017)
    Publications of the Faculty of Social Sciences
    Recent decades have seen an increase in the number of international forums and media that focus on current issues of the world economy and politics. They bring decision-makers from the spheres of politics, business and administration into a common conversation, and connect powerful individuals around the globe. This study defines these institutions as spaces for transnational elite communication (TEC) and examines their relevance in the processes of global economic integration and governance. Focusing on the World Economic Forum and the Financial Times as influential spaces for TEC, the study observes how they enable the powerful to network, develop shared ideas about the economy and negotiate differences between competing interests. Facilitating the definition of the values and principles of the globalising elite, international business-policy forums and media emerge as key pillars of the liberal international order.
  • Jyrkinen, Marjut (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2005)
    Economics and Society
    During recent years the commercialisation of sex has increased and intensified both locally and globally. This thesis explores the commercialisation of bodies, sex and sexualities, particularly the sex trade, and the impact of rapidly evolving information and communication technologies on this globalising trade. The main focus of this work is on the policies, discourses and policy developments in the area especially in the Finnish context. The study is based on multidisciplinary theoretical sources through which the framework of multiple linkages relevant to the commercialisation of sex is conceptualised. The sex trade functions through a web of intersecting linkages of a substantive, economic, organisational, temporal, spatial, cultural, technological, as well as of legislative and policy nature. This framework of linkages forms the basis for the analysis of the main empirical data, namely qualitative interviews with thirty key managers and professionals, who are responsible for the preparation and implementation of policies on commercial sex. In addition, the thesis addresses the policies and policy practices on the sex trade through the analysis of national and international policy instruments. In addition to analysing the processes of the commercialisation of sex and its effects, the study also discusses their further implications for organisational policy-making, research, and society more generally. The thesis thus seeks to contribute to practice, research and theory on gender, management and organisations.
  • Ranta, Eija (Taylor & Francis Group (Routledge), 2018)
    Presenting an ethnographic account of the emergence and application of critical political alternatives in the Global South, this book analyses the opportunities and challenges of decolonizing and transforming a modern, hierarchical and globally-immersed nation-state on the basis of indigenous terminologies. Alternative development paradigms that represent values including justice, pluralism, democracy and a sustainable relationship to nature tend to emerge in response to – and often opposed to – the neoliberal globalization. Through a focus on the empirical case of the notion of Vivir Bien (‘Living Well’) as a critical cultural and ecological paradigm, Ranta demonstrates how indigeneity – indigenous peoples’ discourses, cultural ideas and worldviews – has become such a denominator in the construction of local political and policy alternatives. More widely, the author seeks to map conditions for, and the challenges of, radical political projects that aim to counteract neoliberal globalization and Western hegemony in defining development. This book will appeal to critical academic scholars, development practitioners and social activists aiming to come to grips with the complexity of processes of progressive social change in our contemporary global world.