Browsing by Subject "globalization"

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  • Tienari, Janne; Vaara, Eero; Meriläinen, Susan (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2010)
    Purpose We address gender and management in contemporary globalization by focusing on the ways in which male top managers in a multinational corporation (MNC) construct their identities in interviews with researchers. Design/methodology/approach Our qualitative analysis is based on interviews with virtually all top managers in the Nordic financial services company Nordea (53 men and two women). Findings We specify how becoming international induces a particular masculine identity for the top managers. In becoming international, however, their national identification persists. The unstability of the MNC as a political constellation leaves room for questioning the transnational identity offered. Originality/value Our findings suggest that in the global world of business, national identity can also be interpreted as something positive and productive, contrary to how it has been previously treated in feminist and men’s studies literature.
  • Teivainen, Teivo Lauri (Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales, CLACSO, 2017)
  • Silfver, Olga (2008)
    This study examines the immigration reasons, the process of choosing the country and acculturation strategies of highly educated post-Soviet employees working in Finland. The main research questions of this study are: 1. Why do post-Soviet professionals leave their home countries? 2. Do post-Soviet highly educated professionals perceive they have a choice as far as their migration is concerned? 3. Why do the post-Soviet professionals choose Finland as the country of residence? 4. What is the main acculturation strategy for post-Soviet professionals in Finland, and why`? The thesis is a qualitative study that uses ten half-structured interviews as its material. It combines different theoretical perspectives: acculturation theory, thesis of global professionals, Bourdieu's concepts on transformation of resources and theories of cultural and ethnic identity. This study interprets the decision to immigrate and integration of the respondents as resource optimisation, ,where skills, networks, positions and cultural competences are used to achieve the best attainable position for the family. The main reason for the respondents to leave a home country was economic refuge. Social instability and search for better opportunities were also important factors. The majority of my respondents did not perceive to have a choice of country of immigration. Those who had selected Finland consciously did so due to networks or geographical proximity of the country. Mostly though, Finland was not well-known among highly educated post-Soviets, so the selection of Finland could be attributed ,more to a coincidence than to conscious Finnish state policy. The study emphasizes the sphere of work, since my respondents spend considerable portion of their daily time there and since workplace is an important integrating institution for work-related immigrants. The research concludes that the workplaces of the respondents are currently unable to fully support the needs of immigrant labour force. Commonly used short-term contracts cause a lack of stability, which lowers the motivation to integrate. I have discerned two processes operating in workplaces, selective racist labelling and double-level acceptance process, which both influence the process of integration of immigrants. Post-Soviet immigrants adopt a separatory acculturation strategy due to strong post-Soviet identity and rather slowly developing Finnish skills. They prefer to socialise with the Russian-speaking people, which has a negative effect on the speed of their integration into Finnish society. Global professionals have an additional slowing factor, i.e. poor motivation for language studies as long as the change of country is probable. Discriminatory attitudes of not only locals and post-Soviets, but also of post-Soviets towards other minorities ,strengthen the separatory acculturation strategy. All in all, I perceive my study group as a highly potential resource for the Finnish dwindling labour markets. They are attracted to Finnish orderliness, respect to law, and closeness of nature. However, the limitations of ,their legal status and the resulting instability, lack of knowledge and insufficient communication with local population pose challenges for their integration. In order to produce long-term advantages from immigrating workforce and avoid the problems of segregated society, these shortcomings have to be mitigated.
  • Jakobsen, Morten (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    The present study examines the discursive construction of Nordic identity in a contemporary movement of the twenty-first century known as New Nordic Cuisine (NNC). It contributes to the sparsely researched topic of food and nationalism by uncovering how New Nordic Cuisine relies on a shared history of the Nordic nation-states and roots itself in a primordialist conception of nations in order to create a Nordic identity movement. The thesis incorporates theories and concepts from history, human geography, and political science as its foundation for answering how a Nordic identity is discursively constructed by the movement and what the societal implications are of this construction. The methodology used for this type of interdisciplinary analysis is Critical Discourse Analysis as envisioned by Norman Fairclough. The data consists of two cookbooks, three reports by the Nordic Council of Ministers (NCM), and one promotional brochure also by NCM. This range of material ensures that the main figures and initiators of the movement, meaning the chefs and the politicians of NCM, are represented. The analysis locates three discourses on globalization, terroir, and identity respectively. NNC adopts the French gastronomic term ‘terroir’ in order to explain a close connection between food, nature, and identity. The movement defines terroir as the eternal conditions in which produce grows, meaning all the natural elements of the weather and the soil, which together make a place unique. Due to the produce coming to life in these conditions, it is thought to embody the culture of that location. When humans consume the food, their conception of themselves transforms. Thus, the timeless identity of the land is experienced through food and, at the same time, affects the identity of people. The implications of this idea are that societies, who legitimize themselves based on a shared identity, are at least partly created based on the nature of that location. Such a terroir is argued to exist in Norden. The idea of a Nordic terroir means that the Nordic people, in order to establish a stable identity, need to experience the terroir-dimension in the food they consume. However, according to the movement the emergence of globalization has obfuscated a previously close connection to nature by industrializing and homogenising the production of food. This has resulted in a lack of Nordic identity. This thesis argues that the NNC movement due to their romantic vision of nature and people fail to see the creation of Nordic nation-states and the idea of Norden in a historical perspective. Globalization is not antithetical to nation-states, but was instead an essential facilitator in their emergence during the nineteenth century. Only by acknowledging the historical specificity of Norden and its nation-states as well as the changing nature of terroirs throughout history can we live with a vision of the world that complements history and scientific evidence.
  • Cosens, Barbara; Ruhl, J. B.; Soininen, Niko; Gunderson, Lance; Belinskij, Antti; Blenckner, Thorsten; Camacho, Alejandro E.; Chaffin, Brian C.; Craig, Robin Kundis; Doremus, Holly; Glicksman, Robert; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Larson, Rhett; Similä, Jukka (National Academy of Sciences, 2021)
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Sep 2021, 118 (36) e2102798118
    The speed and uncertainty of environmental change in the Anthropocene challenge the capacity of coevolving social–ecological–technological systems (SETs) to adapt or transform to these changes. Formal government and legal structures further constrain the adaptive capacity of our SETs. However, new, self-organized forms of adaptive governance are emerging at multiple scales in natural resource-based SETs. Adaptive governance involves the private and public sectors as well as formal and informal institutions, self-organized to fill governance gaps in the traditional roles of states. While new governance forms are emerging, they are not yet doing so rapidly enough to match the pace of environmental change. Furthermore, they do not yet possess the legitimacy or capacity needed to address disparities between the winners and losers from change. These emergent forms of adaptive governance appear to be particularly effective in managing complexity. We explore governance and SETs as coevolving complex systems, focusing on legal systems to understand the potential pathways and obstacles to equitable adaptation. We explore how governments may facilitate the emergence of adaptive governance and promote legitimacy in both the process of governance despite the involvement of nonstate actors, and its adherence to democratic values of equity and justice. To manage the contextual nature of the results of change in complex systems, we propose the establishment of long-term study initiatives for the coproduction of knowledge, to accelerate learning and synergize interactions between science and governance and to foster public science and epistemic communities dedicated to navigating transitions to more just, sustainable, and resilient futures.
  • Myers, Rodd; Rutt, Rebecca L.; McDermott, Constance; Maryudi, Ahmad; Acheampong, Emmanuel; Camargo, Marisa; Cam, Hoang (2020)
    Timber legality trade restrictions and verification are a bundle of contemporary mechanisms triggered by global concerns about forest degradation and deforestation. The European Union Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade initiative is a significant effort to not only screen out illegal timber and wood products from the EU, but also support trading partner countries to improve their legality definitions and verification processes. But by using bilateral agreements (Voluntary Partnership Agreements) as a key mechanism, the EU legitimizes trade partner nation-states as the authority to decide what is legal. We engage in a theoretical debate about the complexities of the meaning of legality, and then analyze empirical data collected from interviews in Ghana, Indonesia, Vietnam and Europe with policy, civil society and industry actors to understand how different actors understand legality. We find hegemonic notions of Westphalian statehood at the core of 'global' notions of legality and often contrast with local understandings of legality. Non-state actors understand these hegemonic notions of legality as imposed upon them and part of a colonial legacy. Further, notions of legality that fail to conform with hegemonic understandings are readily framed by nation- states as immoral or criminal. We emphasize the importance of understanding these framings to elucidate the embedded assumptions about what comprises legality within assemblages of global actors.
  • Forsberg, Tuomas; Smith, Hanna; Pynnöniemi, Katri; Mäkinen, Sirke; Tynkkynen, Nina; Tynkkynen, Veli-Pekka (Routledge, 2021)
    Studies in Contemporary Russia
    This chapter looks at Russia’s modernization in the field of foreign policy and external relations. We distinguish between four different approaches to Russia’s foreign policy modernization: military, economic, soft power, and ecological. Each approach opens up a different perspective on what is meant by modernization, and what this means in terms of Russia’s foreign policy. Russia’s overall modernization has not followed a single paradigm, and the end result has therefore not been in line with any particular theoretical projection – since Russia has enough leeway to resist global trends. But neither has it been an outcome of Russia’s own ideas of modernization, since the global environment has been resistant to Russia’s own approaches. Russian foreign policy remains multi-dimensional, and contains within itself several tensions. Placing Russian foreign policy modernization in this context, we suggest a new vocabulary conceptualizing the tensions with two major antinomies; global processes versus nationalistic closing, and great powerness versus economic interdependency. Russia cannot avoid these tensions, nor is it an impotent agent; it must find ways to mediate them.
  • Saares, Taru (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The purpose of this thesis is to study practitioners' perceptions on internationalization of teaching. The aim was especially to identify and investigate the themes inside practitioner's descriptions of international teaching. The practitioners that are considered in this study are teachers and academic developers in university context who develop and practice both teaching and internationalization. Their perceptions were studied by asking: how is international teaching described by developers of teaching? In previous literature, the meaning of internationalization is often seen as unclear. Two solutions are: trying to capture a common definition or accepting the different interpretations on internationalization. In previous studies, the internationalizing environment in universities has often been described as globalizing, which requires changes in universities and its duties. Simultaneously, universities' internationalization is considered as an original and essential characteristic of universities. According to the previous literature, I expected to obtain different descriptions of international teaching and its importance. The chosen methods were used to collect descriptions on internationalization and identify the themes that were discussed in these descriptions. Six interviews were implemented where international teaching and universities internationalization was discussed by use of predetermined themes and assistance questions. The collected data was analyzed by use of thematic analysis. As a result of the analysis, six themes were recognized from the descriptions of university teachers and academic developers on international teaching. These themes were categorized as either international interaction or international content. Both international interaction and content were described as desirable goals but were also recognized as problematic. Additionally, international teaching was described as a response to the changes in the globalizing environment and as a defining characteristic of universities. The results of this study can be used as tools for thinking and as framework for understanding international teaching and universities' internationalization.
  • Rytkönen, Antti (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Finnish sawmill industry's competitiveness has recently been poor due to the worsen economic situation, collapsed demand and the inactivity on the timber market. The sawmill industry has attempted to operate as domestic business by creating a long-term welfare for the Finnish society. However, this attempt requires, that the domestic sawmilling industry can operate in conditions, which is enabling profitable business. The market share of Finnish sawmill industry in Europe and the world is so small that it has no practical ability to determine the level of prices in international markets. Therefore it must adapt to the prevailing world market prices and demand fluctuations. Sawmill industry is in a turning point, which led to the examination of the current state and industry-related perspectives. The theoretical framework bases on McGahan (2004) book How Industries Evolve. It is a descriptive framework for the trajectory of industry change. The descriptive framework is combined with Porter's Diamond model (1990), which he introduced in his book “The Competitive Advantage of Nations” (Porter 1990). The aim of the Diamond is to describe the business environment, where the Finnish sawmilling industry is operating in. Resource based view by Barney (Barney 1991) will describe the corporate environment and resources of the sawmilling companies. SWOT analysis was used to evaluate the results. The study was conducted as a qualitative work. Primarydata was acquired by expert interviews and secondarydata consists of the literature, publications and internet sources. According to the results in order to improve the competitiveness of Finnish sawmilling industry a common understanding needed of a number of related changes. Attempts to improve the competitiveness should be implemented so that all the factor conditions are effective and try to regenerate. When the factor conditions are functioning, there is demand for wood products, prices are adequate and wood markets operate in balance. It is noteworthy that it was the sawmill industry pays more than 70% of the income for private forest owners, which is ensuring employment for the rural localities and creating economic welfare. Globalization will also modify business environment of the Finnish sawmilling industry therefore the state as a legislator needs to influence the industry's changing needs. Political decisions should be encouraging the industry to create new production possibilities so that industry can maintain their competitiveness in relation to other competing countries. The use of forests and wood can respond to the many challenges in the future. Finnish sawmilling will be supporting the targets of the Finnish government as well as the EU's priority areas: sustainable development, climate change adaptation and welfare development of the rural areas.
  • Vaara, Eero; Tienari, Janne; Laurila, Juha (Organization Studies 27(6): 789–810, 2007)
    Despite the central role of legitimacy in social and organizational life, we know little of the subtle meaning-making processes through which organizational phenomena, such as industrial restructuring, are legitimated in contemporary society. Therefore, this paper examines the discursive legitimation strategies used when making sense of global industrial restructuring in the media. Based on a critical discourse analysis of extensive media coverage of a revolutionary pulp and paper sector merger, we distinguish and analyze five legitimation strategies: (1) normalization, (2) authorization, (3) rationalization, (4) moralization, and (5) narrativization. We argue that while these specific legitimation strategies appear in individual texts, their recurring use in the intertextual totality of the public discussion establishes the core elements of the emerging legitimating discourse.
  • Vaara, Eero; Fay, Eric (Hanken School of Economics, 2012)
    Accepted Article/Accepted Manuscript on the 3 Feb 2012
    Despite a proliferation of critical studies on management education, there is a paucity of knowledge of the ways in which problematic beliefs, values and practices are reproduced in and through management education. By drawing on and extending Bourdieu’s seminal work, this paper offers a new perspective on reproduction on the global scale. Our framework spans three inter-related levels of analysis: the dominant beliefs, values and practices (nomos and doxa) of management in global society, the structuration of the field of management education on a global scale, and the prevailing pedagogical practices in management education programs. Our analysis adds to critical studies of management education by elucidating the overwhelming institutional forces of reproduction and thus explaining how difficult it is to effect change in the prevailing ideas, values and practices. Unlike most critical analyses, we also explain how change might take place and what it would require. Thus, our analysis advances studies of reproduction in this era of globalization more generally. It also provides an example of how Bourdieusian ideas can be applied and expanded upon in novel ways in research on education in general and management education in particular.
  • Patomäki, Heikki Olavi (Oxford University Press, 2017)
    The Anarchical Society outlines various possible world orders, such as New Medievalism and world state, as alternatives to the anarchic order of the modern states-system. In this chapter, I evaluate critically the factual and normative premises of his arguments concerning possible, likely and desirable future world orders (factual and normative are intertwined but not inseparable). A key point is that Bull somewhat underestimated the sway of globalizing forces, including the gradual emergence of elements of world statehood. My main argument, however, is that because of his omission of political economy, Bull would have been puzzled about the causes of the re-emergence of great power conflicts. For the same reason, he also misjudged the importance of building better common institutions.
  • Søndergaard, Casper (2006)
    The aim of this thesis is to scrutinize the political discourses of the global economy and how different policies are legitimised by the discourse of the global economy. The thesis ponders whether different welfare state models and different perceptions of globalization influence the discursive constructions of legitimacy. Discourse analysis constitutes the methodological framework of the thesis. I propose a model distinguishing between different ways of constructing legitimacy. Based on this model, I isolate the legitimising discourses of the global economy in relation to other possible ways of constructing legitimacy of economic policies. This model and the general ‘discursive’ tools of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe are applied to analyse the discourses of the global economy in Britain, Germany and Finland. Based on recent theories on the relationship between globalization and the welfare state, I confront two conflicting approaches, the hyperglobalization approach and the contingent globalization approach, from which antagonistic hypotheses are deduced. The hyperglobalization approach (of which Kenichi Ohmae is the most important theorist) foresees that neo-liberal reform discourses - calling for reforms due to the global economy - should be more radical and salient in ‘expensive’ (by means of high levels of taxation, a large public sector and a generous welfare state) welfare regimes such as the Social Democratic (represented by Finland) welfare state and the Corporatist welfare state (represented by Germany) than in the Liberal welfare state (represented by Britain), which, in the optic of the hyperglobalization approach, is more ready and fit for the global economy. By contrast, the contingent globalization approach (of which Colin Hay, Ben Rosamond, Vivian Schmidt, Ronen Palan and Angus Cameron are the most important theorists) would expect that discourses concerning the effects of the global economy reflect context-dependent factors, actors’ perception of the nature of globalization, ideological orientation and cognitive filters. The analysis, using different sources including speeches in Parliament, party manifestos and key reports on globalization, finds that different discursive constructions of the global economy stress and focus on different factors (or moments as discourse analysis has it), but all actors seem to agree on the fact that a transformation of the global economy has taken place. Different external and internal policies are legitimised with reference to the global economy, but it is worth stressing that neo-liberal discourses are dominant. Most actors, however, also call for some sort of steering of globalization. In conclusion, I reject the hypotheses of the hyperglobalization approach, in that neo-liberal discourses referring to the global economy in fact are more radical and salient in Britain than in Finland – entirely contrary to the predictions of the hyperglobalization approach. The results are in general in conformity with the contingent globalization approach. Cognitive filters and ideology appear to be the most powerful determinants of how discourses of the global economy are constructed, by whom they are (most often) articulated and how they are used to justify certain policies.
  • Alavuotunki, Kaisa; Haapanen, Mika; Pirttilä, Jukka Olavi (2019)
    This paper examines the impact of the introduction of the value-added tax on inequality and government revenues using newly released macro data. We present both conventional country fixed effect regressions and instrumental variable analyses, where VAT adoption is instrumented using the previous values of neighbouring countries’ VAT systems as an instrument. The results reveal – in contrast to earlier work – that the revenue consequences of the VAT have not been positive. The results indicate that income-based inequality has increased due to the VAT adoption, whereas consumption inequality has remained unaffected.
  • Ferica, Imy (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    This study aims to examine the political, economic, social and cultural characteristics of TED as alternative media. TED (Technology, Entertainment and Design) is a non-profit global conference media organizer that curates formatted brief speech called TED Talk and presents it in its offline conferences as well as publishes in online platform. TED has a global network that has spread rapidly through TEDx, a replication of TED-like conference by local communities worldwide. This social phenomenon makes TED as the contemporary illustration of the latest development of alternative media. Earlier literature studies on alternative media from Atton (2002) and Downing et al. (2001) focus on alternative media’s role as civil society that radically opposes the dominant power of the state, market and mainstream media. This civic role is important in providing alternative voices in democracy. Castells (2008) argues that the advancement of communication technology in globalization process has extended alternative media’s civic engagement to global level and empowered the community to higher access and participation in alternative media. Bailey et al. (2008) surmise these developments into four approaches that see alternative media: first, in serving the community; second, as an alternative to mainstream media; third, as part of civil society; and fourth, as a rhizome-like hybrid media. This study utilizes these literature references along with the four frameworks above to present holistic view in understanding TED as alternative media. By studying TED, I seek to expand these theoretical discussions by looking at how alternative media build sustainable civil society movement through dynamically incorporating dominant values in achieving its alternative media goals. This hybrid approach also affects alternative media’s ways in serving the community, promoting democracy and prompting social changes. The methodology of this study is ethnography. Since TED has two social settings of offline conference and online media platform, the ethnographic approach of this study is conducted in both setting. I gathered field data through participation and observation on TEDx Jakarta event and interview with the founders as well as online observation on, TED Talk videos, TED’s forums and third party documents on TED. I analyzed the data with the help of coding tools and discussed the findings within the framework of literature references. The key findings of this study show that TED’s political, economic, social and cultural characteristics are contingent, rhizome-like and transhegemonic. These characteristics project TED as alternative media that adopts dominant practices such as commercialism and controlled editorial system and maintaining elitism to reach paradoxically its civic goals of democratizing knowledge sharing and making social changes. TED also builds flexible partnership with the market and mainstream media and is not entirely counter-hegemonic. Although TED maintains a centralized authority in policy making, its relationship with its communities is based on rhizome-like network which strives towards semi-hierarchical access and participation, multiple replications by community and heterogeneity of its community across geographical and cultural borders. However this hybrid strategy of alternative media brings up threats of over-commercialization, elitism within the community, and ideological bias.
  • Rajic, Miroslava (2011)
    Globalization is a process which influences most of the world to different extent, and is being defined in greater detail every day, and as such is a popular topic in academic as well as in media and popular discourse, all of which reflects its importance and relevance for the society today. In a sense it is an old process, the scope and influence of which has been increasing in magnitude in last decades through new technologies, new means of communication, and easier travel and mobility. This study deals with definitions and understandings of this complex concept among students at the University of Helsinki. Qualitative interviews were employed to bring to light how students see globalization affecting the world and their lives, and how do they talk about that. Both international and Finnish born students participated in the study. Since main focus of this research was on attitudes, opinions and ideas related to the globalization process and its perceived impact, I employed discourse analysis as a methodological framework. International students and their opinions on identity, consequences of globalization, such as standardization, increased mobility, and interconnectedness are a central part of this study. Also, one part of the study deals with various, often ambiguous feelings that globalization provokes. As a result this research showed various ways of how international students, being a specific social group, understand globalization and their place in the whole process.