Browsing by Subject "gluten-free diet"

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  • Leinonen, Heini; Kivelä, Laura; Lähdeaho, Marja-Leena; Huhtala, Heini; Kaukinen, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle (2019)
    The prevalence and associated factors of daily life restrictions due to a gluten-free diet in adult celiac disease patients diagnosed in childhood are poorly known. We investigated these issues by collecting the medical data of 955 pediatric patients and sending questionnaires evaluating various health outcomes to the 559 patients who had reached adulthood. Of the 231 respondents, 46% reported everyday life restrictions caused by dietary treatment. Compared with those without restrictions, they more often had anemia at diagnosis (37% vs. 22%, p = 0.014), but the groups were comparable in other diagnostic features. In adulthood, patients with restrictions reported more overall symptoms (32% vs. 17%, p = 0.006), although the symptoms measured with the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale questionnaire were comparable. Despite strict dietary adherence in both groups, the experience of restrictions was associated with dietary challenges (34% vs. 9%, p <0.001), health concerns (22% vs. 13%, p = 0.050), and lower vitality scores in the Psychological General Well-Being questionnaire. The groups did not differ in their current age, socioeconomic status, family history of celiac disease, general health or health-related lifestyle, the presence of co-morbidities, or regular follow up. Our results encourage healthcare professionals to discuss the possible health concerns and dietary challenges with patients to avoid unnecessary daily life restrictions, especially when young patients start to take responsibility for their treatment.
  • Hervonen, Kaisa; Salmi, Teea T.; Ilus, Tuire; Paasikivi, Kaija; Vornanen, Martine; Laurila, Kaija; Lindfors, Katri; Viiri, Keijo; Saavalainen, Paivi; Collin, Pekka; Kaukinen, Katri; Reunala, Timo (2016)
    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is a blistering skin disease, which is regarded as an extra-intestinal manifestation of coeliac disease. Refractory cases of coeliac disease, that do not respond to a gluten-free diet and which carry an increased risk of lymphoma, are well-known in coeliac disease. To determine whether refractory cases of DH with active rash and persistent small bowel atrophy occur we analysed our series of 403 patients with DH. Seven (1.7%) patients, who had been on a gluten-free diet for a mean of 16 years, but who still required dapsone to treat the symptoms of DH, were identified. Of these, one patient died from mucinous adenocarcinoma before re-examination. At re-examination skin immunoglobulin A (IgA) deposits were found in 5/6 refractory and 3/16 control DH patients with good dietary response. Small bowel mucosa was studied at re-examination from 5 refractory and 8 control DH patients and was normal in all 5 refractory and 7/8 control DH patients. One refractory DH patient died from adenocarcinoma, but no lymphoma developed in any of the patients. This study documents for the first time refractory DH, in which the rash is non-responsive to a gluten-free diet, but the small bowel mucosa heals. This differs from refractory coeliac disease, in which the small bowel mucosa does not heal on a gluten-free diet.
  • Airaksinen, Laura; Laurikka, Pilvi; Huhtala, Heini; Kurppa, Kalle; Salmi, Teea; Saavalainen, Päivi; Kaukinen, Katri; Lindfors, Katri (2020)
    The clinical phenotype of celiac disease varies considerably among patients and the dosage of HLA-DQ2.5 alleles has been suggested to be a contributing factor. We investigated whether HLA-DQ2.5 allele dosage is associated with distinct clinical parameters at the time of diagnosis and with patients' response to a gluten-free diet. The final cohort included 605 carefully phenotyped non-related Finnish celiac disease patients grouped as having 0, 1 or 2 copies of HLA-DQ2.5. Clinical data at the time of diagnosis and during gluten-free diet were collected systematically from medical records and supplementary interviews. An increasing HLA-DQ2.5 dose effect was detected for celiac disease antibody positivity at diagnosis (p = 0.021) and for the presence of any first-degree relatives with celiac disease (p = 0.011 and p = 0.031, respectively). Instead, DQ2.5-negative patients were suffering most often from classical symptoms at diagnosis (p = 0.007 between HLA groups). In addition, during follow-up they were most often symptomatic despite a gluten-free diet (p = 0.002 between groups). Our results thus suggest that increasing HLA-DQ2.5 dose only has a minor effect on the clinical picture of celiac disease. However, HLA-DQ2.5-negative patients should not be overlooked in clinical practice and particular attention should be paid to this patient group during gluten-free diet.
  • Kauma, Saana; Kaukinen, Katri; Huhtala, Heini; Kivelä, Laura; Pekki, Henna; Salmi, Teea; Saavalainen, Päivi; Lindfors, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle (2019)
    The factors determining the presentation of celiac disease are unclear. We investigated the phenotypic concordance and the distribution of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) risk haplotypes in affected siblings. One hundred sibling pairs were included. Clinical and histological parameters and HLA haplotypes were compared between the first diagnosed indexes and their siblings. The phenotype was categorized into gastrointestinal, extra-intestinal, malabsorption/anemia, and asymptomatic. The phenotype was fully concordant in 21 pairs. The most common concordant phenotype was gastrointestinal (14 pairs). Indexes had more anemia/malabsorption and extra-intestinal symptoms than siblings (45% vs. 20%, p <0.001 and 33% vs. 12%, p <0.001, respectively). Twenty siblings and none of the indexes were asymptomatic. The indexes were more often women (81% vs. 63%, p = 0.008). They were also more often seronegative (11% vs. 0%, p = 0.03) and younger (37 vs. 43 year, p <0.001), and had more severe histopathology (total/subtotal atrophy 79% vs. 58%, p = 0.047) at diagnosis. The indexes and siblings were comparable in other disease features. Pairs with discordant presentation had similar HLA haplotypes more often than the concordant pairs. The phenotype was observed to vary markedly between siblings, with the indexes generally having a more severe presentation. HLA did not explain the differences, suggesting that non-HLA genes and environmental factors play significant roles.