Browsing by Subject "haastattelu"

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  • Edvardsson, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract Aim of the Study: Firstly, the purpose of this study is to examine how teachers are supporting students and what kind of obstacles they face. Secondly, the purpose was to examine teachers experiences of support and it`s significance for society. This study is important and current. Resent studies have shown that supporting students in their studies has influence for student`s advancements of studies and prevents discontinuing studies. Also, the new legislation obligates teachers to plan for students an individual way to continue studies and support student s in many ways, even if, in the same time the financial support of vocational education has changed and decreased. Methods: This study was conducted using qualitative methods and it was based on the theme interviews of seven vocational teachers. One of them was working as a special vocational teacher. The theme interviews were analysed by using a qualitative analytic technique as the inductive content analysis method. Results and Conclusions: Firstly, teachers were supporting students in many ways. In this study teachers were supporting students in life management, learning and in difficult life situations. In the most severe cases, such as mental health issues and substance misuse issues, students did need occupational help from social and health services. Secondly, vocational teachers were also facing obstacles in supporting students. These obstacles that they were facing included lack of resources like time. Teachers considered importance in supporting students in equal ways, but they were facing obstacles to do so because of the large amount of support that was needed. Thirdly, there were also some vocational teachers who did not consider supporting students to be part of their work, only in the learning issues. On the other hand, some of the teachers considered the support of students have more wider consequences in the society: preventing discontinuing studies and social exclusion and it`s economical influence. From the point of view of social policy and preventing social exclusion, teacher`s role and how they will be educated, have importance in how students will be supported also in other things than just their learning issues. Also, the teacher education has an important role. It would be important to include in the teaching plans the issues considering the supporting students in different ways, not only about difficulties in learning. Vocational teacher needs competence to work in different kinds of networks also with student welfare services and with guardians. Vocational teachers need knowledge about social services and capability to guide students in these services. It demands the courage from teachers to meet students comprehensively. It is needed to develop the forms of vocational teaching and to do individual plans for the students and it is needed to provide more time for graduate for those who need it. Vocational education should have more resources to support students in many ways and possibilities to co-operate with all teachers, vocational counselors, vocational special teachers and with the whole student welfare services. These are the most important ways to prevent students to discontinue studies and to prevent social exclusion.
  • Höylänen, Jenni (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Objectives.The aim of this study is to qualitatively study the experiences of Makumestari tour's visitors. Makumestari tour was organised by Ruokakulttuurikeskus Ruukku Ry. The research findings will evaluate the success of the event and will provide development suggestions for the future Makumestari tour events. Furthermore, visitors' thoughts based on how the event can have an impact on children's food habits will be evaluated in this study. Insufficient diet and lack of vegetables in the diet are the most common problems concerning children and families' food habits. The aim of the flavour education, based on Sapere method, is to provide food education to children, diversify families' diets, and to eliminate neophobia. All this is meant to be carried out with children enjoying themselves with learning. Methodology. Material of this study was collected by interviewing children and adults visiting Makumestari events in Autumn 2015. Adults and children were interviewed in small groups, in six different cities. Interviews were executed after visitors had performed series of tasks concerning different human basic senses. 66 groups and total of 165 people including 93 adults, 41 girls and 31 boys were interviewed for the study. Material was analysed with the content analysis through arranging material by themes and categories based on research questions. Results and conclusions. According to the study Makumestari tour was a successful and well organized event. The event was believed to increase interest towards food, widen notions about food and decrease food neophobia. The event helped people to understand their own senses and people learnt to recognise how important every sense is when it comes to food. In this event children seemed to have the courage to taste new flavours and the children are believed to continue trying new flavours in the future due to the event. The visitors found the event useful and important. On the other hand, visitors were concerned whether the event only reaches people who are already interested in food and healthy eating habits and questioned if the one single event is enough to change people's food habits permanently. In the future the events should be arranged more regularly at public places or in schools and nurseries in order for the event to reach a wider audience.
  • Blyth, Pascale-L. (Science Direct, 2020)
    Energy Research Social Science 70 (2020), 101574
    Arguably the most powerful artifact of the 20th century, the private car brought profound spatial, social, and cultural changes, as well as wide-ranging mobility justice implications. Autonomous mobility technologies, with the power to supplant part or all of the action of the driver by collecting and processing large quantities of fine grained data, promise to shift power away from users to engineers and create new important spatial and social implications for mobility justice, of which little are known. This research draws from Foucauldian conceptualizations adapted for the study of geographies of power to investigate how autonomous mobility technology may diagram spatial rationalities and moralities into the built environment. To that effect, it draws from 30 interviews of intermediaries in Finland–a country actively pursuing a transition to automated and shared mobility as part of an ICT-driven innovation policy. Examining autonomous mobility through a Foucauldian lens helps highlight the complex power relations it affords–in terms of changes in social structure and infrastructure, and social justice. By shedding light on how technology may structure the built environment, the Foucauldian perspective shows itself to be a valuable tool for planning and policymaking, providing insight into how autonomous mobility (in)justice may be assembled.
  • Mäkinen, Emilia (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Tutkielma käsittelee saksanopettajien asenteita ja reaktioita sähköistyvää ylioppilastutkintoa kohtaan. Pienen kirjoittajamäärän vuoksi saksa oli maantiedon ja filosofian kanssa ensimmäinen sähköisesti kirjoitettava aine ylioppilaskirjoituksissa syksyllä 2016. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää, millaisia ajatuksia ylioppilastutkinnon sähköistyminen saksan opettajissa aiheuttaa ja miten he valmistautuvat muutokseen. Tutkielmassa kartoitetaan myös sähköistyvien ylioppilaskirjoitusten vaikutuksia käytännön saksan kielen opetukseen opettajien näkökulmasta. Tutkielman teoreettisessa osassa tarkastelen muun muassa ylioppilaskirjoitusten historiaa, koulumaailman digitalisoitumista sekä opettajien suhtautumista koulutusuudistuksiin. Tutkielmaa varten haastateltiin neljää saksanopettajaa ennen sähköisten ylioppilaskirjoitusten voimaan tuloa alkuvuodesta 2016. Heidän haastattelunsa nauhoitettiin ja nauhoitteista tehtyjen litterointien perusteella haastattelut analysoidaan tutkielmassa teemoittain. Haastatteluissa käsitellään opettajien rektioita ja asenteita uudistusta kohtaan, heidän keinojaan valmistautua muutokseen ja kartoitetaan heidän saamaansa tukea ja koulutusta reformiin liittyen. Analyysin pohjalta selviää, että saksanopettajat suhtautuvat pääosin positiivisesti edessä olevaan uudistukseen. Huolenaiheita ovat esimerkiksi lisääntyvät työmäärä, uudistuksen tekninen toteutus sekä oma tekninen osaaminen. Haastatteluista tulee ilmi, että osa opettajista on havainnut tai kokenut muutosvastarintaa mutta se liitetään usein uudistuksen alkuvaiheeseen. Opettajayhteisön ja oman koulun tuki nousee haastatteluissa esille korvaamattoman tärkeänä. Saksan opetuksen sisältöihin saksanopettajat uskovat sähköisen ylioppilaskokeen tuovan enemmän digitaalista materiaalia.
  • Nevalainen, Emmi (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Tutkin pro gradu -työssäni henkilöviittauksia haastattelussa eli sitä, kuinka haastatellut viittaavat haastattelutilanteen ulkopuolisiin henkilöihin. Selvitän, millaisia henkilöviittauksia aineistossa esiintyy ja mikä on haastattelijan vaikutus henkilöviittauksiin. Analysoin aineistoani nimistöntutkimuksen ja keskustelunanalyysin keinoin. Aineistoni koostuu kymmenestä Helsingin puhekielen pitkittäiskorpukseen tallennetusta haastattelusta. Kahdeksan aineistoni haastatelluista on naisia ja kaksi miehiä. Haastattelutilanteessa on läsnä kaksi henkilöä, haastattelija ja haastateltava, jotka ovat toisilleen ennalta tuntemattomia. Puheenaiheena haastatteluissa ovat mm. haastateltujen asumis- ja koulutushistoria sekä perhe-elämä. Työni jakautuu kahteen analyysilukuun, joista ensimmäisessä esittelen yhdeksän haastattelun henkilöviittauksia. Toisessa analyysiluvussa keskityn yhteen haastatteluun ja pohdin sen osalta tarkemmin haastattelijan vaikutusta henkilöviittauksiin. Keskityn työssäni yksilöihin tehtyihin henkilöviittauksiin. Jaottelen viittaukset proprisiin viittauksiin (Laura), appellatiivisiin viittauksiin (vaimo) sekä proprisiin ja appellatiivisiin viittauksiin (mun serkku Mallu). Tärkein huomioni on, että aineistoni haastatellut noudattavat henkilöviittauksissaan odotusta, jonka mukaan puhuja pyrkii tulemaan ymmärretyksi mahdollisimman yksinkertaisella viittauksella. Haastatellut eivät käytä henkilöviittauksissa propreja, jos he eivät ole varmoja haastattelijan tunnistavan sen referentin. Appellatiivien yhteyteen he liittävät usein esimerkiksi genetiivimuotoisen persoonapronominin (m(in)un tai mei(d)än), mikä kiinnittää referentin haastatellun huomiopiiriin ja osoittaa haastattelijalle, ettei hänen odoteta identifioivan viittauksen kohdetta
  • Ahola, Juuso (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of this thesis is to describe, analyze and interpret the meanings that the administrative representatives of the City of Jämsä Education and Culture Department give to the Music Institute as part of the Education and Cultural Services. The study is a qualitative case study and the data is analyzed according to phenomenographic analysis. The research is motivated not only by the researcher's personal interests in music and musical hobbies, but also by the interest in decision-making and its preparation. The research questions are based on the history of the national music school system and the local music institute, research on folk and music school and their social significance, research on Finnish leisure music hobbies, documents and regulations governing the activities of the city and the Music School, their organization and strategy. Three administrative representatives of the Education and Cultural Services in the City of Jämsä were interviewed for the study. The theme interviews were recorded and transcribed. The analysis of the material proceeded according to the phenomenographic analysis. The results of the study show that the Music School has also cultural, service and collaborative responsibilities in addition to its educational duties. The music school’s strengths include competent, long-term and motivated staff, content and collaboration. Weaknesses are related to financial aspects. The life-cycle perspective of the Quality-of-life Services is comprehensively realized in the Music School. According to representatives of the educational administration, the Music School is an actor to prevent inequality and exclusion, although fees and entrance examinations limit the opportunities for participation. From a communal point of view, the Music School creates a community in itself and it has many successful partners. Related to health improving aspect, the Music School first and foremost improves mental health. According to the interviewees, the Music School strengthens both local music culture and cultural activities. Through its activities, the Music School has been a part of the nationwide history of music schools, for example, by training experts in important musical positions. There have been structural, operational, economic, political and cultural changes in the administration and services of the City of Jämsä. In particular, the Music School supports the fields of well-being and vitality of the “Jämsä 2025” strategy. Economic, cultural and operational challenges are mentioned for the future.
  • Saresvirta, Marleena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The purpose of this Master’s thesis is to research how elementary school teachers implement the assessment in physical education after the reform of the assessment and evaluation in physical education. The purpose is also to find out, what kind of changes the new National Core Curriculum for Basic Education has brought to the assessment in physical education. The theory consists of assessment in elementary school, physical education and pupil assessment in physical education. Student assessment both in general and concerning physical education is presented by exploring among other things the Basic Education Act, the Basic Education Decree and the National Core Curriculum for Basic education (2014, 2004). The different nature of physical education as a school subject compared to other school subjects is also being covered. The research was executed as a qualitative research using e-form interview as the interview method. The e-form was sent to the teachers via e-mail and they all answered to the questions alone. Three physical education teaching elementary school teachers from southern Finland were interviewed for the research. They had all been a part of my Bachelor’s thesis’ research, too. The dataset was gathered in April 2018. The analysis of the dataset was executed by using theory directive content analysis with which the dataset was divided into seven different upper categories. These upper categories divided again under two main categories which were the implementation of the assessment in physical education and the teachers' views on the assessment. The research showed that teachers implement the assessment in PE quite similarly. The biggest change comparing to the teachers’ history in implementing the assessment in physical education was that the teachers used the assessment methods more diversely. They had mostly added a lot of self-evaluation and peer evaluation to their teaching in physical education. The research also revealed that all the teachers keep the National Core Curriculum for Basic Education as the premise of their assessment. The teachers emphasized in their assessment especially the pupils’ attitude towards physical education and their working skills, and their learning process in physical education, which are the fields that the National Core Curriculum for Basic Education (2014) orders to assess in physical education.
  • Hauta-alus, Helena (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Humans all over the world are selecting food items from a larger pool of potentially edible foods and are creating prohibitions and preferences for certain foods. These are called food beliefs and they are an important part of the local culture. Reasoning to them often lies in health or social respect. Many food beliefs still exist in Africa and pregnant and breastfeeding women and children are often the target of these beliefs. Under the suboptimal nutritional status or food insecurity the possible food beliefs might considerably affect the nutritional status and health of these vulnerable groups. Malnutrition is still a major problem in Africa and other developing countries. The aim of this thesis was to study whether and what types of food beliefs concerning pregnant and breastfeeding women can be found in the rural area of the Zambezia province, Mozambique. Furthermore, the aim was to evaluate their possible significance on nutritional status. Five group interviews in three villages and 10 individual interviews in two villages were done. Interviewees were women of 12 to 78 years of age and all together 27 women were interviewed. Interpretation, sensitivity of the topic and the inexperience of the interviewer caused challenges in conducting the interviews. Because of this the method was altered and changed from group interview to individual interview during the study. Food beliefs differed between villages and within villages but some common characteristics can be found. There are several food beliefs concerning pregnant and breastfeeding women in the study area. Pregnant women were advised not to eat protein rich foods such meat and fish but were recommended to eat vegetables, fruits and cereal foods during pregnancy. Eggs were both recommended and forbidden during pregnancy. In addition, there was an intentional habit for pregnant women to eat less cassava porridge or less food in general („eating down?). During breastfeeding nothing was forbidden in general but coconut and vegetables were recommended. Most of the reasonings were related to the health of a mother and a child. The reasonings can be divided into the following groups: enhances breast milk production, causes stomach pain, maintains fitness and prevents stomach growth, mother will be strong and healthy and she?ll get vitamins, the child?s appearance changes, child will be strong and healthy, child?s behaviour changes, causes miscarriage, causes easy or difficult delivery. Food beliefs were partly mixed with education from health authorities. Almost all women said that they do follow these beliefs. Few women expressed their concerns about following the beliefs on recommended foods since food availability makes it sometimes difficult. Food belief that forbids good protein sources from pregnant women can increase the risk of protein deficiency. Eating down increases the risk of having not enough energy during pregnancy. The recommended foods are mainly nutritious and likely promote health. It can be stated that when starting a research in a foreign culture, it is necessary to have a flexible research method. It is be very important that the method can be adjusted during the study. The conclusion of this thesis was that individual interviews would have been the most suitable method when studying food beliefs in this area. Individual interviews should have only one interviewer, interviewee and interpreter if needed. All should be the same sex and the age group. From the health and nutrition viewpoint it is vital to be aware of the food beliefs in the society under investigation and to study these specifically in the area because these can vary markedly even in the same village or community.
  • Laukkanen, Antti (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Goals. In my masters thesis I want to research teachers', whom teach PE, opinions about groupings in PE lessons. I want to find arguments, why PE is usually arranged in Finland so, that boys and girls move in different groups in PE lessons. In addition I want to discuss the aspects of why this kind of boy-girl – grouping can be problematic. Methods. In this thesis I made a pilot study interviewing three (3) teachers who teach PE. Two of them taught PE mainly in a secondary school and one of them taught PE mainly in primary school. I made semistructured interviews with teachers. I wanted to hear both positive and negative arguments about ways to make groups in PE. I transcribed the interviews. I separated meaningful comments from the transcribed interviews and introduced them in my material in the results part. I also supplemented my study with a short interview form targeted to Facebook group members called "Alakoulun aarreaitta". I wanted to know how many of the teachers have faced problems with gender equality in PE classes and what was the nature of these problems. Results and conclusions. As a result I got valuable arguments both ways of dealing groups in PE. As a conclusion may be considered that teachers' preferences about ways to deal the groups in PE correlate with their work experience and their training. Still all three of the teachers found both, positive and negative arguments in both ways of grouping the students. Interview form gave me numbers that one from three teachers had faced the gender equality problems teaching PE.
  • Sihvonen, Lauri (Helsingfors universitet, 2004)
    Tutkielma käsittelee Suomen Kuvalehden Hän-henkilöjuttuja tekstilajina. Lehti on itse nimennyt sarjan, mikä tukee ajatusta omasta tekstilajista. Marraskuusta 1989 lähtien Suomen Kuvalehdessä on ilmestynyt viikottain kahden aukeaman henkilöjuttu, jonka tekstin määrä ja jaottelu, otsikointi, taitto ja kuvitus ovat pysyneet lähes samana vuosien ajan. Jutut ovat pääosin tunnettujen suomalaisten haastatteluja. Hän-henkilöjutut ovat instituutio Suomen aikakauslehdistössä. Hän-henkilöjuttuja tarkastellaan tekstintutkimuksen keinoin. Teoreettisena viitekehyksenä on tekstilaji- eli genreteoria. Keskeiset teorialähteet ovat Swales (1990) ja Bhatia (1993). Työn aluksi Hän-henkilöjutut kontekstualisoidaan, mikä on olennaista tekstilajin tutkimisessa. Johdatuksessa perehdytään niin Hän-juttujen historiaan, Suomen Kuvalehden toimituksen näkemyksiin kuin journalistiikan oppikirjojen ohjeisiinkin. Hän-juttuja on ilmestynyt yli 700. Tutkimusaineisto rajataan pääosin vuoden 2003 juttuihin, mutta sarjan historiaa kerratessa juttuja tarkastellaan laajemmalti. Hän-logo, yhtenäiset otsikot ja tekstin asettelu ovat huomattavia tekstilajin määrittäjiä. Ne tekevät sarjaan toistuvuuden, jota vahvistetaan visuaalisesti. Hän-henkilöjuttujen valokuvia tarkastellaan Kressin ja van Leeuwenin visuaalisen kieliopin (1996) avulla. Kuvien säännönmukaisuus näkyy muun muassa niin, että vuoden 2003 Hän-juttujen kuvissa henkilö on useimmiten sijoitettu kuvan keskelle, ja tämä katsoo lähes poikkeuksetta suoraan kohti. Lisäksi henkilö on pienessä kuvassa rajattu tiukemmin kuin jutun pääkuvassa, joka täyttää 2/3 jutun ensimmäisestä aukeamasta. Kertojan havaittavuus tekstissä on omalaatuista Hän-henkilöjutuissa. Aihetta tarkastellaan käymällä tarkasti läpi yhden Hän-jutun koko kerronta. Taustalla on kirjallisuustieteen narratologian näkemys fyysisen tekijän ja kertojan eriävyydestä. Hän-henkilöjutussa Maskun Kalustetalon toimitusjohtajasta Toivo Sukarista (Suomen Kuvalehti 39/2003) havaitaan, että kertoja on jatkuvasti läsnä. Ainoastaan havaittavuuden aste vaihtelee. Kertoja esittää kysymyksiä, hän käskee lukijaa, huudahtaa, havainnoi kohdehenkilöä ja tapahtumaympäristöä, ottaa kantaa, esittää yhteenvetoja ja käyttää nimeämisen valtaa. Tuloksia kertojan havaittavuudesta testataan 15:een Hän-henkilöjuttuun. Niistä 12 on vuodelta 2003, lisäksi mukana on yksi juttu vuodelta 1990, 1995 ja 2000. Jutuista hahmotetaan tekstilajin kertojaa, joksi kirjallisuustieteen sisäistekijää kutsun. Tekstilajin kertojan rajoitukset ovat väljät, mutta havaittavuus näyttää olevan sidoksissa käsiteltävän henkilön tunnettuuteen. Mitä tunnetumpi henkilö, sitä enemmän kertoja voi tekstissä näyttäytyä. Lopuksi kartoitetaan Hän-henkilöjuttujen aloituksia. Niissä hahmottuu päätyyppejä, kuten tapahtuma-aloitus, havaintoaloitus ja referointialoitus, mutta tarkkarajaista luokittelua niistä ei voi tehdä. Osaksi sen perusteella voidaan väittää, että Hän-henkilöjutuilla ei ole kaavaa.
  • Vihmari-Henttonen, Elsa (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    The aim of the study. This study's focus is on children's agency. The aim is to clarify which modalities of agency are manifested in children's speech, how children describe their life and experiences with the help of the modalities and how children use portfolios as an aid in the interviews. This study is based on the sociocultural view of learning in which it is seen that learning is tied to interaction with others in a specific cultural context and that cultural artefacts are used in all learning processes. Children's agency has been a central interest in educational sciences as it is seen to be an important element in all learning endeavours. Jyrkämä's (2008) theory of the modalities of agency serves as a theoretical tool to understand the different elements of a person's agency. The modalities are to know how, to feel, be able to, have to, to have the possibility and to want. In earlier studies it has been shown that documents of children's lives can serve as a tool for them to discuss their agency in wide variety. Methods. This study was conducted in a day care centre in Helsinki by interviewing six six-year-old children individually. The children were interviewed in December 2016 and in January 2017. Thematic portfolios that were collected from mainly adult led activities during the children's earlier year in day care were the subject of the discussions with children. The analysis of the data was conducted using content analysis method. Main results. The results show that all the modalities of agency were prominent in the children's speech, but the amount varied according to the modality and between children. The modality of knowing how was most manifested as children spoke mostly of what they had done or what they knew. The modality of to feel and to be able to could also be seen widely. The modality of To feel was attached mostly to what children appreciated and to be able to the fact that children weren't able to remember what the pictures were connected to. Children used the portfolios as an aid in their interaction in different ways. Mostly they used pointing to different elements to name them and to clarify their message. Documents of children's lives can give a good base for discussing children's experiences and for supporting children's agency. The discussions are dependent on the contents of the portfolio. For the documents to have more meaning to children, it would be important to document experiences that are important to children, involve them in the whole documentation process and use the documents as a base for discussions with children.
  • Johansson, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Artificial light that produces some adverse effects is called light pollution. Light pollution has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem – it has been noticed to have adverse effects to organisms, ecosystems, human health and their well-being. The purpose of this study is to combine two aspects of light pollution that have so far gained little attention: the public’s point of view and the lighting solutions of municipalities and forest industry enterprises. These two aspects can be connected to each other through a concept called condition of lighting. Here the conditions of lighting consist of three areas with notable differences in lighting: city centers, countryside and forest industry production plants along with their surroundings. The study was conducted in South Karelia, Finland, and it was divided into two sections. The first section dealt with the public’s point of view on light pollution. The objective was to find out how South Karelians perceive the effects and obtrusiveness of artificial light both generally and also within areas of differing conditions of lighting. In addition, the intention was to uncover other factors that might influence the opinions of people. The second section of the study concerned the lighting solutions of municipalities and forest industry enterprises. The objective was to examine their lighting planning and implementation as well as the role of light pollution in the process. Interview was selected as the method of research in both sections of the study. The public considered electronic billboards and car headlights as the most obtrusive sources of light pollution. Bright lights and glare, on the other hand, were considered the most obtrusive types of light pollution. Most valued benefits of artificial light were its influence on safety, crime prevention and its positive effect on mood. Not being able to see the stars or experience natural darkness were considered as the biggest disadvantages of artificial light. The conditions of lighting in different areas also influenced the respondents’ experiences: people living in the countryside did not feel insecure in dark places outside the cities and did not consider abundant lighting pleasant. They also felt that being able to experience natural darkness was important. Among other factors, nature orientedness, light sensitivity, environmental attitudes and gender strongly affected the views of the respondents. In the municipalities and forest industry enterprises, the lighting planning concentrated on territorial plans. All but one of the municipalities and enterprises had taken light pollution into consideration at some level at least, but the forms and means varied. In the future both municipalities and forest industry enterprises will invest more in LED technology. The results show that artificial light can cause inconvenience to people who live outside the brightly lighted areas and who were not particularly interested in light pollution. Behind the inconvenience and disturbance were mostly the experiences, habits, values and attitudes of the respondents. The municipalities and enterprises have a lot to improve when it comes to light pollution. They should, for example, invest in comprehensive lighting planning, avoid over-illumination and pay attention to suitable direction and positioning of the light fixtures. In the future, it is important to examine the public’s opinion and to map the landscape of lights at a local scale. This would help in finding the most suitable lighting solutions for different areas. In the opinion polls, the subjective characteristics affecting the views of the respondents should be taken into consideration. Research regarding the municipalities and enterprises should be directed to the areas where light pollution is not regulated, in order to gather information on motivation and implementation of the voluntary activities reducing light pollution.
  • Viitanen, Maiju (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Tarkastelen tutkielmassa sitä, millaisia puolisoiden yhteisiä ja itsenäisiä ammatti-identiteettejä rakentuu haastattelukeskustelun vastauksissa ja millaisin kielellisin ja vuorovaikutuksellisin keinoin. Aineistona käytän kahta 1,5–2 tuntia kestävää haastattelua, joissa kummassakin haastattelen aviopuolisoja, jotka omistavat yhdessä yrityksen ja työskentelevät siinä keskenään päivittäin. Sonja ja Lasse pitävät maitotilaa ja Harri ja Paula rakennus- ja sisustustarvikekauppaa. Haastattelun teemoina ovat työ, ammatti, pariskuntana oleminen ja näiden yhdistäminen. Puheenaiheet antavat perustan ammatti-identiteettien tutkimiselle. Ammatti-identiteetillä tarkoitan tässä tutkimuksessa yksinkertaistettuna tilanteisesti, vuorovaikutuksellisesti ja kielellisesti rakentuvaa kuvaa itsestä (ja puolisosta) suhteessa ammatillisiin kategorioihin ja ryhmiin. Tutkimuksen metodina on keskustelunanalyysi, jonka avulla tarkastelen keinoja, joilla puolisot osoittavat yhteyttä toisiinsa. Yhteyden osoittamisen myötä pariskuntana oleminen nousee relevantiksi toiminnaksi keskustelussa, jolloin voidaan puhua niin sanotusta pariskuntapuheesta. Toisaalta käsittelen keinoja, joilla puolisosta pyritään kielellisesti erottautumaan. Yhteenkuuluvuuden osoitusten kautta rakentuvat pariskunnan yhteiset ammatti-identiteetit. Puolisosta erottautuminen taas antaa tilan itsenäisten identiteettien muodostumiselle. Yhteyttä puolisoon voidaan osoittaa esimerkiksi samamielisyyden, samankaltaisuuden, solidaarisuuden ja yhteistyöhalukkuuden ilmauksilla. Keskeisinä kielellisinä keinoina toimivat usein persoonamuodot. Monikon 1. persoonalla käsitellään pariskuntaa yhtenäisenä subjektina. Geneerisesti käytetyllä yksikön 3. persoonalla puhuja puolestaan tarjoaa puolisolle kategoriaa, johon tämä voi halutessaan samastua käyttämällä itsestään samaa persoonamuotoa. Toistamalla puolison vuoron elementin puhuja nostaa vuorosta tärkeimmän asian ja osoittaa vahvaa samanmielisyyttä. Yhdessä rakennetulla vuorolla osoitetaan pääsyä yhteiseen tietoon. Puolisosta erottautumiseen puhuja käyttää itsenäisyyden ja erimielisyyden ilmauksia. Yksikön 1. persoonan viittauksella ilmaistaan omaa näkemystä. Viittaukseen liittyvä ainakin-partikkeli ottaa huomioon puolison mahdollisen samanmielisyyden tai erimielisyyden, jolloin erottautuminen lievenee. Puolisoon viittaavalla yksikön 2. persoonalla puhuja voi korjata puolison näkemystä. Vuoronalkuisilla kyllä-partikkelilla, ei-kieltoverbillä tai muulla verbillä muutetaan yhteisen, neuvottelun alla olevan vastauksen suuntaa. Eroa puolisoon puhuja voi osoittaa myös identifioitumalla yhteisesti luotuihin kategorioihin eri intensiteetillä puolisoon verrattuna. Puhujat identifioituvat ammattiin ja työhön monesta näkökulmasta joko yhdessä puolison kanssa tai itsenäisesti. Identiteetin muotoutuminen tapahtuu ammatinvalinnan, ammattiyhteisön ja työnjaon teemojen kautta. Aineistossa nousee esiin myös eroja pariskuntien identifioitumisen välillä. Paula ja Harri rakentavat alueellis-ammatillista identitettiä, kun taas Lassen ja Sonjan suhdetta ammattiin määrittää vapaa-ajan ja työn sekoittuminen.
  • Herva, Vesa-Pekka; Koskinen-Koivisto, Eerika; Seitsonen, Oula; Thomas, Suzie (2016)