Browsing by Subject "haihtuvat orgaaniset yhdisteet"

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  • Grönroos, Juha; Munther, Joonas; Luostarinen, Sari (Finnish Environment Institute, 2017)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 37/2017
    Agricultural gaseous nitrogen emissions are mostly related to manure management, grazing and fertilisation. These emissions include ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO) and di-nitrogen (N2). Most of the non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) emissions originate from livestock farming, but also from cultivated crops. All these emissions are inventoried and reported for the UN Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP), EU National Emission Ceilings Directive (2001/81/EC) and the UN Framework on Climate Change (UNFCC). In Finland, a specific national model for gaseous nitrogen emissions from agriculture has been used for the inventory since 1998. The revised calculation model documented here is tied to the Finnish Normative Manure System, which provides data on manure quality and quantity for various livestock categories. The emission calculation follows the flow of total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) and total nitrogen (N) through the manure management systems, starting from excretion and ending at manure spreading. The main manure management phases considered in the calculation are livestock housing, manure storing and manure field application. The calculation also embeds estimations on emissions from grazing and outdoor yards, as well as emissions from the use of mineral fertilisers. The nitrogen calculation model provides data for the calculation of agricultural NMVOC emissions. All calculations are constructed in compliance with the Tier 2 method of the EMEP/EEA emission inventory guidebook (2016).
  • Karvosenoja, Niko (Finnish Environment Institute, 2008)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 32
    Air pollution emissions are produced in a wide variety of sources. They often result in detrimental impacts on both environments and human populations. To assess the emissions and impacts of air pollution, mathematical models have been developed. This study presents results from the application of an air pollution emission model, the Finnish Regional Emission Scenario (FRES) model, that covers the emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and primary particulate matter (TSP, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) in high 1 ´ 1 km2 spatial resolution over the area of Finland. The aims of the study were to identify key emission sources in Finland at present and in the future, to assess the effects of climate policies on air pollution, and to estimate emission reduction potentials and costs. Uncertainties in emission estimates were analyzed. Finally, emission model characteristics for use in different air pollution impact applications were discussed.The main emission sources in Finland are large industrial and energy production plants for SO2 (64% of 76 Gg a-1 total in the year 2000). Traffic vehicles are the main contributors for NOx (58% of 206 Gg a-1), NMVOCs (54% of 152 Gg a-1) and primary PM2.5 (26% of 31 Gg a-1) emissions. Agriculture is the key source for NH3 (97% of 33 Gg a-1). Other important sources are domestic wood combustion for primary PM2.5 (25%) and NMVOCs (12%), and fugitive dust emissions from traffic and other activities for primary PM10 (30% of 46 Gg a-1).In the future, the emissions of traffic vehicle exhaust will decrease considerably, by 76% (NMVOCs), 74% (primary PM2.5) and 60% (NOx), from 2000 to 2020, because of tightening emission legislations. Rather smaller decrease is anticipated in the emissions of large combustion plants, depending on future primary energy choices. Sources that are not subject to tight emission standards, e.g. domestic combustion and traffic-induced fugitive dust (i.e. non-exhaust), pose a risk for increasing emissions.The majority of measures to abate climate change, e.g. energy saving and non-combustion based energy production, lead to co-benefits as reduced air pollution emissions, especially of SO2 (20% to 28% reduction). However, promotion of domestic wood combustion poses a risk for increase in PM2.5 and NMVOCs emissions. Further emission reductions with feasible control costs are possible mainly for PM2.5 in small energy production plants and domestic combustion sources. Highest emission uncertainties were estimated for primary PM emission factors of domestic wood combustion, traffic non-exhaust sources and small energy production plants.The most important characteristics of emission models are correct location information of flue gas stacks of large plants for the assessment of acidification, and description of small polluters with high spatial resolution when assessing impacts on populations. Especially primary PM2.5 emissions originate to a considerable degree from small low-altitude sources in urban areas, and therefore it is important to be able to assess the impacts that take place near the emission sources. Detailed descriptions of large plants and 1 ´ 1 km2 spatial resolution for small emission sources applied in the FRES model enable its use in the assessment of various national environmental impacts and their reduction possibilities.The main contribution of this work was the development of a unique modeling framework to assess emission scenarios of multiple air pollutants in high sectoral and spatial resolution in Finland. The developed FRES model provides support for Finnish air pollution polices and a tool to assess the co-benefits and trade-offs of climate change strategies on air pollution.
  • Leivuori, Mirja; Hovi, Hanna; Koivikko, Riitta; Tuomi, Tapani; Tervonen, Keijo; Lanteri, Sari; Ilmakunnas, Markku (Finnish Environment Institute, 2018)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 2/2018
    Proftest SYKE carried out the interlaboratory comparison for TVOC thermodesorption measurements (ISO 16000-6) from native indoor air samples in Tenax TA thermodesorption tubes (IDA 09/17) in October-November 2017. 2EH (2-ethyl-1-hexanol), naphthalene, styrene, toluene, and TXIB (2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate) measurements were also tested with synthetic sample. In total 10 participants took part in the intercomparison. In total 68 % of the participants reported satisfactory results, when deviation of 20–30 % from the assigned value was accepted. The calculated values were used as the assigned values for the synthetic sample for the results reported as compound specific responses. For the other measurands and samples the average of the results of the homogeneity measurements and the test results of the expert laboratory were used as the assigned value. The evaluation was based on the z scores. Warm thanks to all the participants of this interlaboratory comparison!
  • Koivikko, Riitta; Nuutinen, Jari; Tervonen, Keijo; Lanteri, Sari; Kutramoinen, Helena; Väisänen, Ritva; Ilmakunnas, Markku (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2017)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 5/2017
    Proftest SYKE järjesti marraskuussa 2016 pätevyyskokeen laboratorioille, jotka määrittävät haihtuvia orgaanisia yhdisteitä (VOC) vedestä ja maasta. Osallistujille toimitettiin synteettinen näyte, talous- ja pintavesinäytteet sekä maanäyte. Pätevyyskokeeseen osallistui 10 laboratoriota. Vertailuarvona käytettiin testisuureesta ja näytteestä riippuen laskennallista arvoa tai osallistujien tulosten keskiarvoa. Pätevyyden arvioinnissa käytettiin z-arvoa ja sitä laskettaessa tuloksille sallittiin näytteestä ja testisuureesta riippuen 15–35 %:n poikkeama vertailuarvosta. Tulosaineistossa oli hyväksyttäviä tuloksia 81 %. Testisuureelle ETBE ei näytteen M4V osalta voitu tulosten vähäisen määrän vuoksi laskea z-arvoja, vaan tuloksia on arvioitu D%- ja En-arvoilla. Kiitos pätevyyskokeen osallistujille!
  • Antson, Heli; Hakala, Irina; Karjalainen, Anneli; Koivula, Krister; Gyllenberg, Pirjo; Hirvikallio, Hilkka; Lahti, Jarmo; Soljamo, Kari; Silvo, Kimmo; Silander, Sirpa; Tikkanen, Seppo; Villikka, Jaana (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2008)
    Suomen ympäristö 23/2008
    Tähän BAT-raporttiin on koottu tietoa parhaan käytettävissä olevan tekniikan (BAT) mukaisista liuottimia käyttävän pintakäsittelyn prosesseista ja keinoista päästöjen rajoittamiseen ja hallintaan. Liuottimia käyttävän pintakäsittelyn tärkeimmät ympäristövaikutukset liittyvät VOC-yhdisteiden päästöihin ilmaan ja jätevesiin, syntyviin jätteisiin, maaperän ja pohjaveden suojeluun sekä meluun. Tässä selvityksessä on keskitytty pieniin ja keskisuuriin laitoksiin. Julkaisussa kerrotaan muun muassa liuottimia käyttävän pintakäsittelyn toimintojen lainsäädännöllisestä taustasta, menetelmistä VOC-päästöjen rajoittamiseen ja hallintaan. Raportissa on kuvattu erityisesti maalauksen ja painatuksen toimintojen BAT-tekniikoita ja menetelmiä, mutta sitä voidaan käyttää soveltuvin osin hyväksi myös muiden orgaanisia liuottimia ja haihtuvia orgaanisia yhdisteitä käyttävien toimintojen VOC-päästöjen rajoittamisessa. Selvitys on tarkoitettu toiminnanharjoittajille, ympäristölupa- ja valvontaviranomaisille sekä muille toimialasta kiinnostuneille parhaan käytettävissä olevan tekniikan vertailuinformaatioksi.
  • Korhonen-Ylönen, Kaija; Nuutinen, Jari; Leivuori, Mirja; Ilmakunnas, Markku (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2013)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 7/2013
    Proftest SYKE carried out the proficiency test for analysis of volatile organic compounds from water and soil in October 2012. One artificial sample and one river water sample and one soil sample were distributed. In total, 15 laboratories participated in the proficiency test. Either the calculated concentration or the robust mean value was chosen to be the assigned value for the measurement. The performance of the participants was evaluated by using z scores. In this proficiency test 72 % of the results were satisfactory when the deviation of 15–40 % from the assigned value was accepted.
  • Korhonen-Ylönen, Kaija; Nuutinen, Jari; Leivuori, Mirja; Ilmakunnas, Markku (Finnish Environment Institute, 2011)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 5/2011