Browsing by Subject "head trauma"

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  • Skrifvars, Markus B.; French, Craig; Bailey, Michael; Presneill, Jeffrey; Nichol, Alistair; Little, Lorraine; Durantea, Jacques; Huet, Olivier; Haddad, Samir; Arabi, Yaseen; McArthur, Colin; Cooper, D. James; Bellomo, Rinaldo; EPO-TBI Investigators & ANZICS (2018)
    The EPO-TBI study randomized 606 patients with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) to be treated with weekly epoetin alfa (EPO) or placebo. Six month mortality was lower in EPO treated patients in an analysis adjusting for TBI severity. Knowledge of possible differential effects by TBI injury subtype and acute neurosurgical treatment as well as timing and cause of death (COD) will facilitate the design of future interventional TBI trials. We defined COD as cerebral (brain death, cerebral death with withdrawal, or death during maximal care) and non-cerebral (death following withdrawal or during maximal care, which had a non-cerebral cause). The study included 305 patients treated with EPO and 297 treated with placebo, with COD recorded in 77 (99%) out of 78 non-survivors. Median time to death in patients dying of cerebral COD was 8 days (interquartile range [IQR] 5-16) compared with 29 days (IQR 7-56) (p = 0.01) for non-cerebral COD. When assessing subgroups by admission CT scan injury findings, we found no significant differential effects of EPO compared with placebo. However, EPO appeared more effective in patients with an injury type not requiring a neurosurgical operation prior to intensive care unit (ICU) admission (odds ratio [OR] 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14-0.61, p = 0.001, p for interaction = 0.003) and in this subgroup, fewer patients died of cerebral causes in the EPO than in the placebo group (5% compared with 14%, p = 0.03). In conclusion, most TBI deaths were from cerebral causes that occurred during the first 2 weeks, and were related to withdrawal of care. EPO appeared to specifically reduce cerebral deaths in the important subgroup of patients with a diffuse type of injury not requiring a neurosurgical intervention prior to randomization.
  • Hautala, Maria; Koskela, Ulla; Pokka, Tytti; Rantala, Heikki; Uhari, Matti; Serlo, Willy; Mikkonen, Kirsi (2021)
    Aim To investigate the usefulness of the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) II head trauma decision rule in clinical practice for paediatric patients in a tertiary university hospital serving as the only paediatric hospital in the area. Methods We compared how doctors evaluated and examined patients with head injury during two time periods, before and after the introduction of NEXUS II decision rule. Multiple implementation strategies were used as follows: education, tutoring and written instructions for the use of NEXUS II. Results Two hundred and forty-four head injury patients visited the hospital before and 385 after the introduction of the NEXUS II decision rule. The number of hospital admissions (56%) and the mean duration of hospitalisation (2.5 days) remained the same during the two periods. In the NEXUS II evaluated group, there was a decrease of 40% in the number of hospital admissions. NEXUS II was applied in only 62 (16%) cases. The number of head imaging procedures remained the same. No patients with a clinically significant head injury were missed with the NEXUS II evaluation. Conclusion NEXUS II was ineffective as our implementation failed. When used, NEXUS II reduced expenses in our study population by decreasing the number of hospital admissions.