Browsing by Subject "health behaviour"

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  • Tornivuori, Anna; Tuominen, Outi; Salantera, Sanna; Kosola, Silja (2020)
    Aims To define digital health services that have been studied among chronically ill adolescents and to describe e-health coaching elements that may have an impact on transition outcomes. Design Systematic review without meta-analysis. Data sources MEDLINE (Ovid), Pub Med, Scopus and CINAHL on 28 May 2018. Review methods Peer-reviewed articles published between January 2008-May 2018 were reviewed following the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses statement. Results Twelve randomized controlled trials were included. The interventions varied significantly in duration and content. E-coaching that included human and social support showed positive impact on transition outcomes. Digital health services incorporated into usual care provide efficient and accessible care. Conclusion E-coaching elements enable tailoring and personalization and present a tool for supporting and motivating chronically ill adolescents during transition of care. Future research should evaluate the effectiveness of e-coaching elements. Impact Digital services are considered a means for increasing adolescents' motivation for self-care and for increasing their accessibility to health care. The coaching elements in digital services consist of a theoretical basis, human support, interactive means and social support. Included interventions varied in terms of duration, dose, content and design. Our results may serve the development of digital health services for adolescents in transition. E-coaching can be used to engage and motivate chronically ill adolescents to improve health behaviour and self-management during transition of care.
  • Tarkiainen, Lasse; Moustgaard, Heta; Korhonen, Kaarina; Noordzij, J. Mark; Beenackers, Marielle A.; van Lenthe, Frank J.; Burstrom, Bo; Martikainen, Pekka (2021)
    Background Research evidence on the association between neighbourhood characteristics and individual mental health at older ages is inconsistent, possibly due to heterogeneity in the measurement of mental-health outcomes, neighbourhood characteristics and confounders. Register-based data enabled us to avoid these problems in this longitudinal study on the associations between socioeconomic and physical neighbourhood characteristics and individual antidepressant use in three national contexts. Methods We used register-based longitudinal data on the population aged 50+ from Turin (Italy), Stockholm (Sweden), and the nine largest cities in Finland linked to satellite-based land-cover data. This included individual-level information on sociodemographic factors and antidepressant use, and on neighbourhood socioeconomic characteristics, levels of urbanicity, green space and land-use mix (LUM). We assessed individual-level antidepressant use over 6 years in 2001-2017 using mixed-effects logistic regression. Results A higher neighbourhood proportion of low-educated individuals predicted lower odds for antidepressant use in Turin and Stockholm when individual-level sociodemographic factors were controlled for. Urbanicity predicted increased antidepressant use in Stockholm (OR=1.02; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.03) together with more LUM (OR=1.03; 1.01-1.05) and population density (OR=1.08; 1.05-1.10). The two latter characteristics also predicted increased antidepressant use in the Finnish cities (OR=1.05; 1.02-1.08 and OR=1.14; 1.02-1.28, respectively). After accounting for all studied neighbourhood and individual characteristics of the residents, the neighbourhoods still varied by odds of antidepressant use. Conclusions Overall, the associations of neighbourhood socioeconomic and physical characteristics with older people's antidepressant use were small and inconsistent. However, we found modest evidence that dense physical urban environments predicted higher antidepressant use among older people in Stockholm and the Finnish cities.
  • Niskanen, Mirka Carita; Mattila, Pauli Taneli; Niinimaa, Ahti Olavi; Vehkalahti, Miira Marjaliisa; Knuuttila, Matti (2020)
    Objective: The aim was to evaluate the association of behavioural and socioeconomic factors with the occurrence of periodontal disease and dental caries, paying special attention to the simultaneous occurrence of these diseases. Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 5255 dentate persons aged >= 30 years from a nationally representative survey. Caries and probing pocket depth were recorded by tooth and calculated in relation to the number of existing teeth. The groups were: non-affected (A), the two most affected quintiles for periodontal disease with little or no dental caries (B), the two most affected quintiles for dental caries with little or no periodontal disease (C) and the two most affected quintiles for both periodontal disease and dental caries (D). Presence of dental plaque was determined, and behavioural and socioeconomic factors were established. Results: Dental plaque, smoking, lack of regular dental check-ups, older age and a basic level of education were strongly associated with the simultaneous occurrence of periodontal disease and dental caries. Conclusions: There are many behavioural and socioeconomic factors that associate with the occurrence of both periodontal disease and dental caries. These factors also increase the risk of individuals having these diseases simultaneously.
  • Jalo, Elli; Konttinen, Hanna; Vepsalainen, Henna; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Hu, Gang; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Fogelholm, Mikael (2019)
    Eating in response to negative emotions (emotional eating, EE) may predispose an individual to obesity. Yet, it is not well known how EE in children is associated with body mass index (BMI) and health behaviours (i.e., diet, physical activity, sleep, and TV-viewing). In the present study, we examined these associations in a cross-sectional sample of 5426 (54% girls) 9-11-year-old children from 12 countries and five continents. EE, food consumption, and TV-viewing were measured using self-administered questionnaires, and physical activity and nocturnal sleep duration were measured with accelerometers. BMI was calculated using measured weights and heights. EE factor scores were computed using confirmatory factor analysis, and dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis. The associations of EE with health behaviours and BMI z-scores were analyzed using multilevel models including age, gender, and household income as covariates. EE was positively and consistently (across 12 study sites) associated with an unhealthy dietary pattern ( = 0.29, SE = 0.02, p <0.0001), suggesting that the association is not restricted to Western countries. Positive associations between EE and physical activity and TV viewing were not consistent across sites. Results tended to be similar in boys and girls. EE was unrelated to BMI in this sample, but prospective studies are needed to determine whether higher EE in children predicts the development of undesirable dietary patterns and obesity over time.
  • Sulander, Tommi (2005)
    The main purpose of this study was to examine trends and associations of functional ability and health behaviour among a national sample of elderly people in Finland from the 1985 to 2003. Furthermore, sociodemographic variation of functional ability and health behaviour were assessed. Biennial surveys on health behaviour among 65-79-year-old Finnish population were used to study 13 232 men and women from 1985 to 2003. Response rate has surpassed 80 % on average. Self-reported activities of daily living were used to study functional ability. Indicators of health behaviour were diet, smoking, use of alcohol, physical activity and also body mass index. Furthermore chronic diseases were controlled for when examining associations between functional ability with health behaviours. Sociodemographic variation was studied through age groups, main occupation before retirement and marital status. Age adjusted trends and, logistic and ordinal regression analyses were computed to derive the results. The study revealed improving functional ability from the mid- 1980s to the shift of the millennium. Finnish elderly today eat healthier and smoke slightly less, but use more alcohol and are more often obese than their age-mates couple of decades ago. Healthy diet, smoking, alcohol consumption and obesity were most prevalent among youngest of the respondents. Former farmers had lowest prevalence of healthy diet and highest prevalence of obesity. Former office employees used more alcohol than others. Married elderly had higher prevalence of healthy diet and lower prevalence of smoking than non-married. Smoking, higher use of alcohol, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and obesity were associated with inferior functional ability. These behaviours and chronic diseases were found to be mediating factors for sociodemographic differences in functional ability. Improving functional ability together with some improvements in health behaviour indicates healthier years for future elderly people. Despite these improvements, sub-group disparities are still evident. These disparities together with information on rising prevalence of alcohol use and obesity are challenges for public health.
  • Hankonen, Nelli (2010)
    Health behaviour change is influenced by domain-specific, modifiable psychosocial factors and more generalized, stable personality traits. The previous have been extensively researched, and self-efficacy, action planning and social support have been identified to be important behaviour change predictors. However, the relevance of these determinants for men and women and their dynamic change processes have rarely been investigated. The role of personality in health behaviour change has remained a less studied area until recently. Gender-role related personality traits agency and communion, although established predictors of psychological adjustment and physical health for both genders, have not been studied in the context of lifestyle change interventions. Yet, they may facilitate favorable outcomes, in an interplay with domain-specific psychosocial factors. The research questions were: I) Are there gender differences in the changes in self-efficacy and planning, as well as the level of social support, and do they predict change in physical exercise similarly in men and women? II) How do gender-related personality traits contribute to changes in abdominal obesity for women and men, and how do they interplay with more proximal psychosocial variables in predicting changes in obesity? Finnish men and women, age 50–65, N=385, at an increased risk for type 2 diabetes were recruited from health care centres to participate in the GOAL Lifestyle Implementation Trial. The program aims were to improve participants' lifestyle (physical activity, nutrition) and to decrease their overweight. Domain-specific psychosocial factors and exercise were measured at baseline (T1) and at three months (T2). Waist circumference was measured at T1, one-year (T3) and three-year follow-ups (T4). Gender-related traits were measured at T4. In Study I, at baseline, men reported receiving more social support than women. Post-intervention, women reported having formed more exercise plans. Among women, increases in self-efficacy and planning predicted increases in exercise whereas for men, changes in planning played a less significant role. In Study II, higher agency was associated with 1-year waist circumference reduction among women, but not among men. Among women, high agency and self-efficacy increase during T1-T2 were associated with 1-year waist circumference decrease. High communion was associated with weight loss when social support was high. Three-year waist circumference reduction was only predicted by initial (T1-T2) self-efficacy increase. The results implicate that certain psychological and social resources are beneficial in pursuing health outcomes for women. The findings may reflect life circumstances allowing less spontaneous lifestyle decisions and a lower acceptance of lifestyle changes by women's social environment than for men.
  • Kinnunen, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Johdanto: Suomalaisten nuorten terveyskäyttäytymisessä on viime vuosien aikana tapahtunut positiivisia muutoksia, erityisesti päihteiden käyttö on vähentynyt. Etelä-Pohjanmaalla väestön merkittävimpiä terveyshaasteita ovat nuorten vähäinen fyysisen aktiivisuuden määrä ja lisääntyvä ylipaino. Seinäjokelaisista nuorista 20 % harrastaa liikuntaa vähintään 60 minuuttia päivässä, nuoret viettävät yhä enemmän aikaa internetissä ja sosiaalisessa mediassa sekä kärsivät uniongelmista aiempaa enemmän. Ylipainon yleistyessä myös välipalojen kulutus ja välipaloista saadun energian määrä on kasvanut. Vaikka välipalojen käyttö on lisääntynyt merkittävästi viime vuosien aikana, on kasvisten, hedelmien ja marjojen sekä täysjyväviljan kulutus suositukseen nähden vähäistä. Keskeisimmät lasten ja nuorten ravitsemushaasteet liittyvät suolan ja sokerin liialliseen saantiin, joka näkyy etenkin makeisten ja juomien runsaana kulutuksena. Tavoitteet: Pro gradu -tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli tutkia, täyttyvätkö välipalojen ravitsemuslaadulle asetetut ravitsemussuositusten mukaiset tavoitteet seinäjokelaisilla 8.-9.-luokkalaisilla nuorilla välipalojen valinnassa. Välipalojen ravitsemuslaatua tarkasteltiin erityisesti kasvisten, hedelmien ja marjojen kulutuksen sekä välipalojen sisältämän rasvan määrän ja laadun, kuidun, sakkaroosin ja suolan osalta. Lisäksi tarkasteltiin välipalojen ravitsemuksellista laatua ja niiden käyttöön yhteydessä olevia terveyskäyttäytymiseen liittyviä tekijöitä. Terveyskäyttäytymiseen liittyvistä tekijöistä huomioitiin ateriarytmi, koululounaalle osallistuminen, fyysisen aktiivisuuden ja ruutuajan määrät, yöunen kesto ja riittävyys, tupakointi sekä alkoholin käyttö. Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin myös, eroaako välipalojen ravitsemuslaatu ylipainoisten ja normaalipainoisten nuorten välillä. Aineisto ja menetelmät: Tutkimusaineisto kerättiin sähköisellä kyselylomakkeella, johon vastasi 152 Seinäjoen lyseon 8.-9.-luokkalaista helmikuussa 2018. Tutkittavat kutsuttiin tutkimukseen satunnaisotannalla luokka-asteen mukaan. Välipalojen ravitsemuslaatua ja käyttötiheyttä tarkasteltiin ruoankäytönfrekvenssikyselyllä, jossa mukana oli yhteensä 52 välipaloiksi luokiteltavaa elintarviketta. Kyselyssä oli mukana osioita, joiden avulla selvitettiin nuorten terveyskäyttäytymistä. Tilastollisina menetelminä käytettiin ristiintaulukointia, Mann-Whitney U –testiä, Kruskal-Wallsin -testiä, yksisuuntaista varianssianalyysiä sekä logistista regressioanalyysiä. Tulokset: Nuorista suurin osa söi 1 – 2 välipalaa päivässä. Tytöt kuluttivat välipaloina poikia useammin kasviksia, hedelmiä, marjoja sekä täysjyvätuotteita. Terveyskäyttäytymiseen liittyvistä tekijöistä ruutuajan määrä sekä välipalojen runsaampi kulutus olivat yhteydessä etenkin runsaampaan energian saantiin sakkaroosia sisältävistä makeista välipaloista kuten kekseistä, muroista, makeisista ja jäätelöstä. Suurin osa nuorista kulutti välipaloja etenkin ruutuajan käytön yhteydessä. Fyysisen aktiivisuuden määrän lisääntyessä myös kasvisten (p=0,006), hedelmien (p=0,045) ja marjojen (p=0,000) käyttö lisääntyi. Kuitenkin fyysisesti aktiivisemmat nuoret söivät lähes yhtä paljon tai useammin sokeroituja ja happamia juomia verrattuna vähän liikkuviin. Nuoret, jotka nukkuivat riittävästi, söivät todennäköisemmin tuoreita kasviksia, hedelmiä ja marjoja välipaloinaan (p=0,000). Nuoret, jotka tupakoivat (OR=0,12; [95 % CI=0,02-0,64]) ja joiden yöuni oli riittämätöntä (OR=0,11; [95 % CI=0,04-0,28]) söivät myös ravitsemuksellisesti vähemmän laadukkaampia välipalakokonaisuuksia. Energiatiheiden välipalojen käyttö on yhteydessä epäsäännölliseen ateriarytmiin (p=0,001), koululounaan syömättä jättämiseen (p=0,040), runsaampaan ruutuajan viettoon (p=0,002), riittämättömään yöuneen (p=0,003) sekä päihteiden käyttöön (p=0,001). Välipalojen ravitsemuslaatu ei tässä tutkimuksessa pääosin eronnut normaalipainoisten ja ylipainoisten nuorten välillä. Johtopäätökset: Tässä työssä saatujen tulosten perusteella seinäjokelaisten nuorten välipalojen ravitsemuslaatua ja käyttöfrekvenssejä koskevat ravitsemussuositukset toteutuvat vain osittain. Nuoret syövät liian vähän kasviksia, hedelmiä ja marjoja välipaloillaan. Myös täysjyvätuotteiden ja rasvattomien maitovalmisteiden kulutus on suositusta pienempää. Tämä saattaa johtaa ylipainoon ja lihavuuteen liittyvien terveysriskien ilmenemiseen ja yleistymiseen nuoruudessa. Tutkimuksessa havaittiin useita terveyskäyttäytymiseen liittyviä tekijöitä, jotka olivat yhteydessä välipalojen ravitsemuslaatuun. Tulevaisuuden ravitsemusohjauksessa, hankkeissa ja interventiossa olisi tärkeää kiinnittää huomiota nuorten välipalatottumuksiin ja kannustaa nuoria terveellisten välipalojen valintaan. Myös välipalojen ravitsemukselliseen täysipainoisuuteen tulee kiinnittää huomiota. Lasten ja nuorten ylipaino on kasvava kansanterveyshaaste, jonka puitteissa tarvitaan lisätutkimusta painon nousua hillitsevistä ruokavaliotekijöistä.
  • Kuusi, Tero; Martikainen, Pekka; Valkonen, Tarmo (2020)
    We quantify the impact of old-age retirement on health using longitudinal Finnish register data for the period 2000–2012. The data allows for a strict isolation of the effects of transition from work to retirement for both mental and physical health indicators. We use the lowest statutory eligibility age for full old-age pensions, 63 years, as an instrument in FE-IV estimation to ensure causal inference. We find that (1) retirement at age 63 moderately decreases the use of antidepressants, especially for women. The effect is sharp, while it is somewhat reversed in the later years; (2) the beneficial effects of retirement on the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal conditions are smaller and more diffused; (3) for occupational classes, our results show a reduction in antidepressant use for women in almost all occupations, whereas for men it is significant for manual workers and farmers; (4) we find stronger declines in the anti-depressant use among men and women who retire from low- and mid-income work, as well as more robust decrease in the risk of cardiovascular diseases for high-income and non-single; and (5) our test of external validity shows that the beneficial effects in antidepressant use can be extended to apply to most Finns retiring at ages 62–64.