Browsing by Subject "health services research"

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  • Cheng, Ivy; Taylor, David; Schull, Michael J.; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Kiss, Alex; Castren, Maaret; Brommels, Mats; Yeoh, Michael; Kerr, Fergus (2019)
    Objective To compare performance and factors predicting failure to reach Ontario and Australian government time targets between a Canadian (Sunnybrook Hospital) and an Australian (Austin Health) academic tertiary-level hospitals in 2012, and to assess for change of factors and performance in 2016 between the same hospitals. Methods This was a retrospective, observational study of patient administrative data in two calendar years. The main outcome measure was reaching Ontario and Australian ED time targets for admissions, high and low urgency discharges. Secondary outcomes were factors predicting failure to reach these targets. Results Between 2012 and 2016, Sunnybrook and Austin experienced increased patient volume of 10.2% and 19.2%, respectively. Bed capacity decreased at Sunnybrook (-10.8%) but increased at the Austin (+30.3%). For both years, Austin failed to achieve the Australian time target, but succeeded for all Ontario targets except for low urgency discharges. Sunnybrook failed all targets irrespective of year. The top factors for failing Ontario ED length-of-stay targets for both hospitals in 2012 and 2016 were bed request greater than 6 h, access block greater than 1 h, use of cross-sectional imaging, consultation and waiting for the emergency physician greater than 2 h. Conclusion Austin outperformed Sunnybrook for Ontario and Australian government time targets. Both hospitals failed the Australian targets. Factors predicting failure to achieve targets were different between hospitals, but were mainly clinical resources. Sunnybrook focussed on increasing human resources. Austin focussed on increasing human resources, observation unit and hospital beds. Intrinsic hospital characteristics and infrastructure influenced target success.
  • Satokangas, Markku; Arffman, Martti; Antikainen, Harri; Leyland, Alastair H.; Keskimäki, Ilmo (2021)
    Background: Measuring primary health care (PHC) performance through hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) remains controversial-recent cross-sectional research claims that its geographic variation associates more with individual socioeconomic position (SEP) and health status than PHC supply. Objectives: To clarify the usage of ACSCs as a PHC performance indicator by quantifying how disease burden, both PHC and hospital supply and spatial access contribute over time to geographic variation in Finland when individual SEP and comorbidities were adjusted for. Methods: The Finnish Care Register for Health Care provided hospitalizations for ACSCs (divided further into subgroups of acute, chronic, and vaccine-preventable causes) in 2011-2017. With 3-level nested multilevel Poisson models-individuals, PHC authorities, and hospital authorities-we estimated the proportion of the variance in ACSCs explained by selected factors at 3 time periods. Results: In age-adjusted and sex-adjusted analysis of total ACSCs the variances between hospital authorities was nearly twice that between PHC authorities. Individual SEP and comorbidities explained 19%-30% of the variance between PHC authorities and 25%-36% between hospital authorities; and area-level disease burden and arrangement and usage of hospital care a further 14%-16% and 32%-33%-evening out the unexplained variances between PHC and hospital authorities. Conclusions: Alongside individual factors, areas' disease burden and factors related to hospital care explained the excess variances in ACSCs captured by hospital authorities. Our consistent findings over time suggest that the local strain on health care and the regional arrangement of hospital services affect ACSCs-necessitating caution when comparing areas' PHC performance through ACSCs.
  • Mustonen, Katri; Kauppila, Timo; Rahkonen, Ossi; Kantonen, Jarmo; Raina, Marko; Mäki, Tiina; Pitkälä, Kaisu (2019)
    Objective: It is generally expected that the growth of the older population will lead to an increase in the use of health care services. The aim was to examine the changes in the number of visits made to general practitioners (GP) by the older age groups, and whether such changes were associated with changes in mortality rates. Design and setting: A register-based observational study in a Finnish city where a significant increase in the older population took place from 2003 to 2014. The number of GP visits made by the older population was calculated, the visits per person per year in two-year series, together with respective mortality rates. Subjects: The study population consisted of inhabitants aged 65 years and older (65+) in Vantaa that visited a GP in primary health care. Main outcome measures: The number of GP visits per person per year in the whole older population during the study years. Results: In 2009-2010, there was a sudden drop in GP visits per person in the younger (65-74 years) age groups examined. In the population aged 85+, use of GP visits remained at a fairly constant level. The mortality rate decreased until the year 2008. After that, the positive trend ended and the mortality rate plateaued. Conclusions: Simultaneously with the decline in GP visits per person in the older population, the mortality rate leveled off from its positive trend in 2009-2010. Factors identified being associated with the number of GP consultations were organizational changes in primary health care, economic recession causing retrenchment, and even vaccinations during the swine flu epidemic.