Browsing by Subject "heart diseases"

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  • Lee, Jiwoo; Kiiskinen, Tuomo; Mars, Nina; Jukarainen, Sakari; Ingelsson, Erik; Neale, Benjamin; Ripatti, Samuli; Natarajan, Pradeep; Ganna, Andrea (2021)
    Background: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a clinically significant presentation of coronary heart disease. Genetic information has been proposed to improve prediction beyond well-established clinical risk factors. While polygenic scores (PS) can capture an individual's genetic risk for ACS, its prediction performance may vary in the context of diverse correlated clinical conditions. Here, we aimed to test whether clinical conditions impact the association between PS and ACS. Methods: We explored the association between 405 clinical conditions diagnosed before baseline and 9080 incident cases of ACS in 387 832 individuals from the UK Biobank. Results were replicated in 6430 incident cases of ACS in 177 876 individuals from FinnGen. Results: We identified 80 conventional (eg, stable angina pectoris and type 2 diabetes) and unconventional (eg, diaphragmatic hernia and inguinal hernia) associations with ACS. The association between PS and ACS was consistent in individuals with and without most clinical conditions. However, a diagnosis of stable angina pectoris yielded a differential association between PS and ACS. PS was associated with a significantly reduced (interaction P=2.87x10(-8)) risk for ACS in individuals with stable angina pectoris (hazard ratio, 1.163 [95% CI, 1.082-1.251]) compared with individuals without stable angina pectoris (hazard ratio, 1.531 [95% CI, 1.497-1.565]). These findings were replicated in FinnGen (interaction P=1.38x10(-6)). Conclusions: In summary, while most clinical conditions did not impact utility of PS for prediction of ACS, we found that PS was substantially less predictive of ACS in individuals with prevalent stable coronary heart disease. PS may be more appropriate for prediction of ACS in asymptomatic individuals than symptomatic individuals with clinical suspicion for coronary heart disease.
  • Key, Timothy J.; Appleby, Paul N.; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Sweeting, Michael; Wood, Angela; Johansson, Ingegerd; Kuehn, Tilman; Steur, Marinka; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Wennberg, Maria; Wuertz, Anne Mette Lund; Agudo, Antonio; Andersson, Jonas; Arriola, Larraitz; Boeing, Heiner; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Bonnet, Fabrice; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cross, Amanda J.; Ericson, Ulrika; Fagherazzi, Guy; Ferrari, Pietro; Gunter, Marc; Huerta, Jose Maria; Katzke, Verena; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Krogh, Vittorio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Matullo, Giuseppe; Moreno-Iribas, Conchi; Naska, Androniki; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Quiros, J. Ramon; Skeie, Guri; Sluijs, Ivonne; Sonestedt, Emily; Stepien, Magdalena; Tjonneland, Anne; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Tumino, Rosario; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Langenberg, Claudia; Forouhi, Nita; Wareham, Nick; Butterworth, Adam; Riboli, Elio; Danesh, John (2019)
    Background: There is uncertainty about the relevance of animal foods to the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease (IHD). We examined meat, fish, dairy products, and eggs and risk for IHD in the pan-European EPIC cohort (European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition). Methods: In this prospective study of 409 885 men and women in 9 European countries, diet was assessed with validated questionnaires and calibrated with 24-hour recalls. Lipids and blood pressure were measured in a subsample. During a mean of 12.6 years of follow-up, 7198 participants had a myocardial infarction or died of IHD. The relationships of animal foods with risk were examined with Cox regression with adjustment for other animal foods and relevant covariates. Results: The hazard ratio (HR) for IHD was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.06-1.33) for a 100-g/d increment in intake of red and processed meat, and this remained significant after exclusion of the first 4 years of follow-up (HR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.09-1.42]). Risk was inversely associated with intakes of yogurt (HR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89-0.98] per 100-g/d increment), cheese (HR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.86-0.98] per 30-g/d increment), and eggs (HR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.88-0.99] per 20-g/d increment); the associations with yogurt and eggs were attenuated and nonsignificant after exclusion of the first 4 years of follow-up. Risk was not significantly associated with intakes of poultry, fish, or milk. In analyses modeling dietary substitutions, replacement of 100 kcal/d from red and processed meat with 100 kcal/d from fatty fish, yogurt, cheese, or eggs was associated with approximate to 20% lower risk of IHD. Consumption of red and processed meat was positively associated with serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and systolic blood pressure, and consumption of cheese was inversely associated with serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions: Risk for IHD was positively associated with consumption of red and processed meat and inversely associated with consumption of yogurt, cheese, and eggs, although the associations with yogurt and eggs may be influenced by reverse causation bias. It is not clear whether the associations with red and processed meat and cheese reflect causality, but they were consistent with the associations of these foods with plasma non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and for red and processed meat with systolic blood pressure, which could mediate such effects.
  • Almeida Ferreira, Monica; Santos, Hélder A. (2019)
    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are responsible for the highest mortality rates globally. About one-third of the CVD-related casualties derive from ischemic heart diseases, which cause an irreversible injury to the myocardium. As a result of the very limited capacity of the heart tissue to recover from the ischemic insult, this usually leads to remodeling and scarring of the cardiac tissue, eventually progressing to irreversible heart failure. Currently, there is no major discovery of an effective cure to restore the function of an injured heart. Therefore, there is an unmet need to find a permanent solution for patients suffering from ischemic heart disease (IHD) and heart failure. In this regard, nanoparticles made of biomaterials called the attention of the scientific community as potential platform to deliver different therapeutics to the injured heart. Particulate nanomedicines, currently at the pre-clinical stage, are arising as a promising tool to provide minimally invasive treatment, an important aspect to take into account for clinical translation and patient compliance, and specifically deliver therapeutics to the injured myocardium. Here, we discuss about the current knowledge on the nanomedicines investigated for myocardial infarction, and how we see they can help and support medical doctors in shaping the future of IHD treatments.