Browsing by Subject "hematite"

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  • Sharygin, Victor V.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Zhitova, Liudmila M.; Belousov, Alexander B.; Abersteiner, Adam (2018)
    Cu-rich magnesioferrite was found in vesicular basaltic trachyandesite in one of lava tubes (Duplex) that formed during the 2012-2013 eruption of the Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka. This mineral is commonly associated with hematite, tenorite, halite, sylvite, and Ca-rich silicates (mainly, esseneite and Na-rich melilite) in high-temperature (800-1000 degrees C) reactionary zones (up to 100 mu m) covering vesicular rocks and lava stalactites in the Duplex tube. The mineral relationships of this assemblage indicate the following crystallization sequence: Ca-rich silicates + hematite -> Cu-rich magnesioferrite -> tenorite -> chlorides. This formed due to the reaction of hot gases containing Cu, alkalis, and Cl with solidified lava rock. The composition of magnesioferrite varies strongly in CuO (5.8-17.3 wt %; cuprospinel end-member-15-47 mol %), whereas the contents of other oxides are minor, indicating the main isomorphic substitution is Mg2+ Cu2+. Compositions with maximal CuO content nominally belong to Mg-rich cuprospinel: (Cu0.48Mg0.41Mn0.09Zn0.02Ca0.02) (Fe1.943+Al0.03Ti0.02)O-4. Increasing CuO content of the Duplex Cu-rich magnesioferrite is reflected in Raman spectra by moderate right shifting bands at approximate to 700-710 and 200-210 cm(-1) and the appearance of an additional band at 596 cm(-1). This supports the main isomorphic scheme and may indicate a degree of inversion in the spinel structure.
  • Smith, Kurt F.; Morris, Katherine; Law, Gareth T. W.; Winstanley, Ellen H.; Livens, Francis R.; Weatherill, Joshua S.; Abrahamsen-Mills, Liam G.; Bryan, Nicholas D.; Mosselmans, J. Frederick W.; Cibin, Giannantonio; Parry, Stephen; Blackham, Richard; Law, Kathleen A.; Shaw, Samuel (2019)
    Understanding interactions between iron (oxyhydr)oxide nanoparticles and plutonium is essential to underpin technology to treat radioactive effluents, in cleanup of land contaminated with radionuclides, and to ensure the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. These interactions include a range of adsorption, precipitation, and incorporation processes. Here, we explore the mechanisms of plutonium sequestration during ferrihydrite precipitation from an acidic solution. The initial 1 M HNO3 solution with Fe(III)((aq)) and Pu-242(IV)((aq)) underwent controlled hydrolysis via the addition of NaOH to pH 9. The majority of Fe(III)((aq)) and Pu(IV)((aq)) was removed from solution between pH 2 and 3 during ferrihydrite formation. Analysis of Pu-ferrihydrite by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy showed that Pu(IV) formed an inner-sphere tetradentate complex on the ferrihydrite surface, with minor amounts of PuO2 present. Best fits to the EXAFS data collected from Pu-ferrihydrite samples aged for 2 and 6 months showed no statistically significant change in the Pu(IV)-Fe oxyhydroxide surface complex despite the ferrihydrite undergoing extensive recrystallization to hematite. This suggests the Pu remains strongly sorbed to the iron (oxyhydr)oxide surface and could be retained over extended time periods.