Browsing by Subject "heteronormativitet"

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  • Breitenstein, Selma (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    This Master's thesis is part of a project on marginalisation in school. The main focus of this study is to review how eighth-graders, reflect on and challenge structures of gender, gender roles, sexuality and heteronormativity in school. Although the school as an institution should be safe, inclusive and equal, structures that are problematic exist. The thesis used a feminist poststructuralist approach and gender was an important theme. The theoretical framework of the thesis described gender, sex and sexuality through both a societal perspective and a school perspective. The material for the study was collected from 2013 to 2014. The sample in this thesis consisted of 11 individual interviews and 4 group interviews with students in the eighth grade in a school in the capital area in Finland. The method of analysis was qualitative content analysis. How students challenge gender roles, heteronormativity and sexuality is something that there is not much research about. Hence, it was central to analyse what kind of structures exist in the school. It emerged that the students have to put up with stereotypical gender roles, threats of violence, appearance requirements, offensive name-calling, and a pressure to select a suitable hobby. Boys behave violently towards girls to a greater extent than the other way around. The results also indicate that the school is a very unsafe place for students with a non-heterosexual orientation. In school there is in general very little discussion about heteronormativity and sexuality. There were students in school who challenged the norms. There was a group of girls that explicitly challenged the structures. They questioned girl- and boy colours, and that educational materials, practices and environments in the school were heteronormative and gender-divided. Although there has been a change from previous research in that students are challenging structures, results indicate that gender roles and heteronormative structures still exist in school, which is problematic. Overall the thesis demonstrates that it is very hard to be a student in the eighth grade today. Bullying and excluding structures in school are common. The schools should actively review their own practices. Students who challenge the structures give hope to that despite everything, small changes in the everyday life in school are possible.
  • Litonius, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Since 2002, it has been possible for same-sex couples in Finland to register their partnership. In March 2017, same-sex marriage was legalized. The new law also gave same-sex couples equal parental rights. In the healthcare processes concerning pregnancy and parenthood, previous studies have shown that same-sex couples feel they have a good interaction with healthcare staff, but feel discriminated and offended by the healthcare processes and routines that have no preparedness for other forms of sexuality than heterosexuality. The purpose of this study is to examine how the concept of "family" is presented in the material given to prospective parents, and see whether the material projects an ideal of "family". Of interest is whether there is a heteronormative assumption that excludes all other forms of parenthood as aberrant. Methodologically, the study is based on a discourse-theoretical perspective, and the theoretical ground relates to educational research for social justice, with a link to critical family research and a queer-feminist research field, where the focus is on studying normative processes and power relations. The studied material consists of texts produced by the National Pension Institution (FPA) and the Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) in 2009-2017 and recommended to prospective parents. A total of nine guides, brochures and pamphlets were examined. The material constitutes government interpretations of a phenomena or, in cases where they are produced by other organizations, interpretations of phenomena that are socially approved. When authorities publish and distribute information sheets and pamphlets, they manage what is being presented and from what perspective the matter is discussed. The subject matter is governed by expert and professional perceptions of what is central knowledge and what parents are expected to know. They also strongly contribute to how the concept of family is perceived in the public space. In the material, the family is created in the process of becoming and being a parent. There are clear expectations and demands on parenthood, and heterosexuality is the dominating norm. Families and roles that challenge and break what is presented as normative are viewed as aberrant. Thus, in relation to the theoretical starting points, one can interpret the family by heteronormative processes, and those presented are assigned roles and "the right ones" are those closest to an assumption of a "natural heterosexuality".