Browsing by Subject "hiilen sidonta"

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  • Ojanen, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The purpose of this study is to understand how to utilize forests as a climate change mitigation method. This thesis introduces practical forest management methods that increase the carbon sink of forests in Finland. The perspective of this thesis is market-based and voluntary-based. The research method of this thesis was to simulate two forest estates from different regions of Finland. The forest estate data consisted of two forests, one of which is located in Eastern Finland and the other in Western Finland. Both forests are pine dominated, although the one in Western Finland contains quite a lot of spruce as well. The forest in Eastern Finland is sub-xeric and the one in Western Finland is mesic. The changes in increment, harvesting, growing stock, carbon sink and the cost of carbon sink were analyzed comparing different scenarios. The best practice guidelines by Tapio were used as a baseline and two carbon cases were created for both forest estates. The changes in forest management included altering the rotation and the amount, timing and volume of thinnings. For example fertilization and planting density were not included in creating the two carbon scenarios. The result is that it is possible to increase the carbon sink in forests. The yield from total harvesting over the analysis period of 80 years increased compared to the baseline, however the changes in assortment distribution were considerable. The rotations were shorter, which decreased the harvesting yield of logs and increased the harvesting yield of pulpwood. It takes decades for the benefits of forest carbon management to start to show, which is a long time period to commit to. The results depend on the state of the forest, i.e. the development and age class distribution. As this thesis compares different cases, no generalized practice guidelines can be derived based on the results of this study. How the results change in different forests should be examined. The cost of the forest carbon management depends on the payment method, but in these forest estates it was possible to keep the cost reasonable: under 50 euros. The main conclusion of this thesis is that CO2 sequestration can be increased cost-efficiently in Finland. The benefits begin to show after decades, which is a long time to commit to. Some market mechanisms to increase CO2 sequestration in forests have emerged at a global level, but so far in the Nordics only some private companies have taken voluntary action to mitigate climate change.
  • Hänninen, Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Solutions to mitigate climate change are continuously sought, and one of the most considerable way is to increase carbon seques-tration in forests. Climate impact of Finnish forests has been positive over the last ten years but carbon sequestration is possible to further increase. In Finland, most of the forests are privately owned, so the addition of carbon sequestration requires changes in forest management to support carbon sequestration. The study examines the Helsinki metropolitan area private forest owners’ attitude to increase carbon sequestration in their own forests. Attitude is considered from the perspective of forest owners’ percep-tions on climate change, the importance of forest ownership, and acceptability of the various possible ways to increase carbon sequestration. The data was collected between November and December 2015 by thematic interviews (n = 15) of the Pääkau-punkiseudun metsänomistajat ry (PKMO) members. Forest owners’ attitude to increase carbon sequestration in their own forests was favorable but the majority consider compensation as the most important condition for participation. Forest owners could be divided into four types concerning their views on storing carbon in their own forests. Forest owners’ willingness to participate is influenced by their knowledge of the link between climate change and forests, the factors related to owners and their parcels, as well as to acceptability of possible policy instruments and programs. In terms of political guidance, it is important to provide flexible and cost-effective ways to increase carbon sequestration in private forests. Designing political instruments, the potential link between economic incentives and increasing awareness should be taken into account. In addition, the aim of political instruments is to primarily reach potentials, because pioneers are already taking measures to sequester carbon in their forests. Deniers are able to get involved in carbon sequestration by offering various ways to increase carbon sequestration as well as compensation that is equivalent to the lost in timber sales revenue. From the perspective of political guidance, the most problematic forest owners to reach in carbon sequestration programs are indifferent owners.
  • Setälä, Heikki Martti; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa Johannes; Tanhuanpää, Topi-Mikko Tapio; Viippola, Juho Viljami (2018)