Browsing by Subject "hippocampal sclerosis"

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  • Kero, Mia; Raunio, Anna; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Tienari, Pentti J.; Paetau, Anders; Myllykangas, Liisa (2018)
    Background: There are only few population-based studies that have systemically investigated the prevalence of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in the very old. The frequency of unilateral versus bilateral HS has been rarely studied. Objective: We investigated the prevalence and laterality of HS and its association with other neurodegenerative and vascular pathologies in a population-based sample of very elderly. Furthermore, the concomitant presence of immunoreactivity for TDP-43, p62, and HPtau was studied. Methods: The population-based Vantaa 85(+) study includes all inhabitants of the city of Vantaa, who were > 85 years in 1991 (n = 601). Neuropathological assessment was possible in 302 subjects. Severity of neuronal loss of CA sectors and subiculum was determined bilaterally by HE-staining. Immunohistochemistry performed using antibodies for TDP-43, p62, and HPtau. Results: Neuronal loss and pathological changes in the hippocampus sector CA1 and subiculum were observed in 47 of the 302 individuals (16%), and 51% of these changes were bilateral. HS without comorbid neurodegenerative pathology was found in 1/47 subjects with HS (2%). Dementia (p <0.001) and TDP-43 immunopositivity of the granular cell layer of the dentate fascia (p <0.001) were strongly associated with HS. The CERAD score, immunopositivity for HPtau and p62 in the granular cell layer of the fascia dentate were also associated. Conclusion: HS is prevalent (16%) in the oldest old population, but HS without any comorbid neurodegenerative pathology is rare. The high frequency of unilateral HS (49%) implied that bilateral sampling of hippocampi should be routine practice in neuropathological examination.
  • EClipSE Collaboration; Hokkanen, Suvi R. K.; Kero, Mia; Kaivola, Karri; Hunter, Sally; Keage, Hannah A. D.; Kiviharju, Anna; Raunio, Anna; Tienari, Pentti J.; Paetau, Anders; Matthews, Fiona E.; Fleming, Jane; Graff, Caroline; Polvikoski, Tuomo M.; Myllykangas, Liisa; Brayne, Carol (2020)
    Limbic-predominant age-related TAR-DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) encephalopathy with hippocampal sclerosis pathology (LATE-NC + HS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severe hippocampal CA1 neuron loss and TDP-43-pathology, leading to cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Polymorphisms in GRN, TMEM106B and ABCC9 are proposed as LATE-NC + HS risk factors in brain bank collections. To replicate these results in independent population-representative cohorts, hippocampal sections from brains donated to three such studies (Cambridge City over 75-Cohort [CC75C], Cognitive Function and Ageing Study [CFAS], and Vantaa 85+ Study) were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (n = 744) and anti-pTDP-43 (n = 713), and evaluated for LATE-NC + HS and TDP-43 pathology. Single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes in GRN rs5848, TMEM106B rs1990622 and ABCC9 rs704178 were determined. LATE-NC + HS (n = 58) was significantly associated with the GRN rs5848 genotype (chi(2)(2) = 20.61, P <0.001) and T-allele (chi(2)(1) = 21.04, P <0.001), and TMEM106B rs1990622 genotype (Fisher's exact test, P <0.001) and A-allele (chi(2)(1) = 25.75, P <0.001). No differences in ABCC9 rs704178 genotype or allele frequency were found between LATE-NC + HS and non-LATE-NC + HS neuropathology cases. Dentate gyrus TDP-43 pathology associated with GRN and TMEM106B variations, but the association with TMEM106B nullified when LATE-NC + HS cases were excluded. Our results indicate that GRN and TMEM106B are associated with severe loss of CA1 neurons in the aging brain, while ABCC9 was not confirmed as a genetic risk factor for LATE-NC + HS. The association between TMEM106B and LATE-NC + HS may be independent of dentate TDP-43 pathology.