Browsing by Subject "hippokampus"

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  • Alafuzoff, Aleksander (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Background. Birth asphyxia is a pathological state that occurs if fetal gas exchange is disrupted for an extended period of time during delivery. Prolonged birth asphyxia causes brain damage and can even lead to death, but which in mild and moderate cases causes motor and cognitive disability. One of the brain regions often damaged is the hippocampus, which is known to play a major role in memory processing. Thus, damage to the hippocampus may in part explain the long-term cognitive consequences of birth asphyxia. In the neonatal brain hippocampal network activity is discontinuous, dominated by sharp waves and oscillatory bouts, of which the former are thought to be important for memory consolidation in the adult brain. Later in development sharp waves exhibit fast oscillations called ripples that organise hippocampal activity after learning. The aim of this thesis was to establish how sharp wave signalling in the neonatal hippocampus is affected by birth asphyxia. Methods. A rat model developed at the Laboratory of Neurobiology, University of Helsinki, was used to study birth asphyxia and a putative therapeutic strategy. Neonatal rat pups aged 5-8 days were used in the study. These animals were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups: naive control, sham control, asphyxia, and graded restoration of normocapnia. Hippocampal network activity was measured in vivo under urethane anaesthesia using local field potential (LFP) recordings 24 hours after the asphyxic insult. Sharp waves were detected and analysed in terms of event counts, timing, size, shape and ripple properties. Results and conclusions. After asphyxia, sharp waves occurred more frequently within clusters than in isolation. In addition, sharp wave ripples were detected for the first time during early neonatal development. In asphyxiated animals, the number and magnitude of detected ripples was statistically significantly decreased. Interestingly, animals that underwent graded restoration of normocapnia after asphyxia were no different from controls, suggesting a protective effect of the treatment. The abnormal SPW development after birth asphyxia may form a mechanism contributing to the emergence of cognitive deficits.
  • Leino, Sakari (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are ion channel receptors that consist of five subunits and have an important role in modulating neurotransmitter release in the central nervous system. The literature review part of this thesis presents an overview of the structure, function and diverse subunit composition of nicotinic receptors and reviews the scientific literature on their function as modulators of neurotransmitter release. Relevant literature on the role of the nicotinic receptors of the striatum, the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex in the modulation of the release of dopamine, glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine, noradrenalin and serotonin is reviewed. Finally, a summary for each of the brain areas and some conclusions are presented. The experimental part of this thesis consists of a series of experiments, where the ability of morphine to activate the presynaptic nicotinic receptors modulating dopamine release in the mouse striatum was investigated based on opioid-nicotine-interactions reported earlier. The possible effect of morphine was studied by measuring the release of radiolabeled dopamine from perfused synaptosomes prepared from mouse striatum. In addition, the effect of nicotine was studied to confirm the correct functioning of the method and to obtain data for comparison with the morphine results. Both nicotine and morphine elicited the release of [3H]dopamine from striatal synaptosomes. The release of [3H]dopamine elicited by morphine was blocked by nicotinic antagonists, suggesting that the effect of morphine was mediated by nicotinic receptors. Use of the selective antagonist α-conotoxin MII revealed that the effect of morphine, similar to nicotine, was mediated in part by α6β2* receptors and in part by other receptors, possibly α4β2*. In addition, the opioid antagonist naloxone blocked the effects of both nicotine and morphine, likely via direct antagonism of nicotinic receptors. However, the concentrations of morphine and naloxone needed for affecting [3H]dopamine release were very high, which suggests that the clinical relevance of the effects described here is likely to be small. The involvement of opioid receptors was deemed to be unlikely but, along with possible non-specific effects by high concentrations, could not be completely ruled out.
  • Kaukinen, Sami (University of Helsinki, 1997)