Browsing by Subject "histology"

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  • Mäkelä, Kati; Hodgson, Ulla; Piilonen, Anneli; Kelloniemi, Katariina; Bloigu, Risto; Sutinen, Eva; Salmenkivi, Kaisa; Rönty, Mikko; Lappi-Blanco, Elisa; Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Kaarteenaho, Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    To be published later.
  • Kaimio, Mirja; Malkamäki, Sanna; Kaukonen, Maria; Ahonen, Saija; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Rantala, Merja; Lohi, Hannes; Saijonmaa-Koulumies, Leena; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi (2021)
    American Cocker Spaniels (ACSs) develop aural ceruminous gland hyperplasia and ectasia more often than dogs of other breeds. Data on the cause and development of these breed characteristic histopathological changes are lacking. We performed video-otoscopic examinations and dermatological work-up on 28 ACSs, obtained aural biopsies from each dog and assessed the statistical associations between the presence of ceruminous gland hyperplasia and ectasia and disease history, clinical or microbiological findings and underlying cause of otitis externa (OE). Histological lesions of ceruminous gland hyperplasia and ectasia were observed in aural biopsies from 6/13 clinically healthy ears and 13/15 ears with OE from 19/28 examined dogs. Nine of 28 dogs had histologically normal ceruminous glands (odds ratio [OR] 6.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-36.6). Bacterial growth in microbiological culture of aural exudate (OR 14.1, 95% CI 2.1-95.3) was associated with ceruminous glandular changes, whereas previous history of OE, cutaneous findings or underlying allergies were not. Pedigree analysis and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) were performed on 18 affected and eight unaffected dogs based on histopathological diagnosis. While the GWAS indicated a tentative, but not statistically significant, association of ceruminous gland hyperplasia and ectasia with chromosome 31, a larger cohort is needed to confirm this preliminary result. Based on our results, ceruminous gland hyperplasia and ectasia may also precede clinical signs of OE in ACSs and a genetic aetiological component is likely Further studies with larger cohorts are warranted to verify our preliminary results. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Puhakka, Jani; Salonius, Eve; Paatela, Teemu; Muhonen, Virpi; Meller, Anna; Vasara, Anna; Kautiainen, Hannu; Kosola, Jussi; Kiviranta, Ilkka (2022)
    Objective The arthroscopic and histological International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) scores are designed to evaluate cartilage repair quality. Arthroscopic ICRS score can give a maximum score of 12 and the histological score can give values between 0% and 100% for each of its 14 subscores. This study compares these methods in an animal cartilage repair model. This study hypothesizes that there is a significant correlation between these methods. Design A chondral defect was made in the medial femoral condyle of 18 pigs. Five weeks later, 9 pigs were treated with a novel recombinant human type III collagen/polylactide scaffold and 9 were left untreated to heal spontaneously. After 4 months, the medial condyles were evaluated with a simulated arthroscopy using the ICRS scoring system followed by a histological ICRS scoring. Results This porcine cartilage repair model produced repaired cartilage tissue ranging from good to poor repair tissue quality. The mean arthroscopic ICRS total score was 6.8 (SD = 2.2). Histological ICRS overall assessment subscore was 38.2 (SD = 31.1) and histological ICRS average points were 60.5 (SD = 19.5). Arthroscopic ICRS compared with histological ICRS average points or its overall assessment subscore showed moderate correlation (r = 0.49 and r = 0.50, respectively). The interrater reliability with the intraclass correlation coefficients for arthroscopic ICRS total scores, histological ICRS overall assessment subscore, and ICRS average points showed moderate to excellent reliability. Conclusions Arthroscopic and histological ICRS scoring methods for repaired articular cartilage show a moderate correlation in the animal cartilage repair model.
  • Laakkonen, Juha (2021)
    In contrast to studies on domestic animals, few reports describe ventricular bands in wildlife, and none in aquatic mammals. Ventricular bands in the endangered Saimaa ringed seal (Pusa hispida saimensis) and the Baltic ringed seal (Pusa hispida botnica) were examined as part of an ongoing research on the comparative anatomy of ringed seal subspecies. The dissections illustrated that a varying number of thin or thick ventricular bands from the papillary muscles to the ventricular walls were visible in the ventricles of all ringed seal specimens examined. The histological appearance of the ventricular bands was characterized by a fibromuscular pattern.
  • Muranen, Sampo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tree shoot architecture research is important due to its significance in fields such as timber production, fruit and nut production and aesthetics of common areas. Also, research on genetic factors that regulate shoot and root system architecture might provide novel methods to store more carbon in forests and, hence, mitigate global warming in the future. LAZY1 is one of the major genes that affects branch and tiller angle in herbaceous and woody species such as Arabidopsis, rice and peach tree. LAZY1 has been under scrutiny over a decade but its molecular function remains unknown. However, it is known that lazy1 mutation affects polar auxin transport. Here it is studied how LAZY1 affects initial branch angle, fiber length and reaction wood development in silver birch (Betula pendula). Also, transcript levels of few shoot architecture related genes were analyzed. LAZY phylogenetic analysis provided evidence of a duplication of LAZY1 in three studied tree species (Betula pendula, Prunus persica, Populus trichocarpa), duplicated genes are here named LAZY1a and LAZY1b. Plant material employed in this study was a segregating population (50:50) of back-cross 1 of weeping birch (B. pendula ´Youngii´) which has a truncated lazy1a. Histological samples of branches were prepared by cryo-sectioning, stained with carbohydrate binding Alcian Blue and lignin binding Safranin dyes to reveal patterns of tension wood development. Due to the large size of branch sections, samples were imaged with a microscope and the images were merged together in a Photoshop application. Branch angles were measured manually with a protractor (angle) tool from stem to the middle of a branch. The data was analyzed using mixed linear models due to the nature of used plant material. We could not use clones because of major issues in in vitro propagation. Branch samples were macerated, fibers imaged and measured by ImageJ software. LAZY1a gene expression levels were analyzed by RT-qPCR method. RNA-sequence analysis indicated that the expression pattern of LAZY1a and LAZY1b is similar in B. pendula. However, one should construct a promoter-reporter line to study with better resolution if their expression is spatially analogous. Initial branch angle was significantly different in wild type compared to lazy1a mutant. For future, one could generate single and double knock out lines of lazy1a/b to study if they have cumulative effect on the branch angle, an important factor in timber quality. Tension wood formation was difficult to quantify with the employed method, due to issues in segregating G-layered tension wood from thick-walled reaction wood. A chemical analysis of cellulose content might provide a more objective method to observe tension wood in branches. RT-qPCR method indicated that LAZY1a transcript levels are higher in wild type compared to mutant. A complementation or knock down experiment would provide sound evidence that lazy1a induces the weeping phenotype. X-ray diffraction method could be employed to study the orientation of cellulose microfibril angle in branches of the wild type vs. mutant. Generation of effective tensional stress requires a cellulose microfibril angle less than 10 and this angle is affected by auxin concentration. It is possible, that this angle is larger in lazy1a due to defect in polar auxin transport.
  • Fagerstedt, Klaus W.; Böhling, Tom; Sihto, Harri; Salonen, Tarja; Zhao, Fang; Kero, Mia; Andersson, Leif C.; Arola, Johanna (2021)
    Mixed neuroendocrine-non-neuroendocrine neoplasms (MINEN) are rare tumors that consist of at least 30% of both neuroendocrine and non-neuroendocrine components. The data concerning the pathogenesis of MINEN suggest a monoclonal origin. We describe a spontaneously immortalized cell line derived from gastric MINEN called GNEN-1. Primary tumor consisted of components of high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The GNEN-1 cell line was initiated from metastatic tumor cells of peritoneal fluid and expresses a purely neuroendocrine phenotype. The GNEN-1 cell line grows as monolayers and has retained the neuroendocrine phenotype with positivity for chromogranin A in immunohistochemistry. Electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic dense core granules and axon hillocks. The karyotype revealed alterations typical of both adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma such as trisomy 7 and 8. GNEN-1 cells were also positive for stanniocalcin-1, a marker of poor prognosis in gastric carcinomas. Expression of several markers related to neuroendocrine tumors was found. There have been only a few studies on the pathogenesis of MINEN and management of the disease due to the rarity of this tumor type. Here we describe for the first time an immortalized cell line derived from mixed gastric NEN. The GNEN-1 line offers a tool for future research on gastric NEN. © 2021 The authors.
  • Laivuori, Mirjami; Tolva, Johanna; Lokki, A. Inkeri; Linder, Nina; Lundin, Johan; Paakkanen, Riitta; Albäck, Anders; Venermo, Maarit; Mäyränpää, Mikko I.; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha (2020)
    Lamellar metaplastic bone, osteoid metaplasia (OM), is found in atherosclerotic plaques, especially in the femoral arteries. In the carotid arteries, OM has been documented to be associated with plaque stability. This study investigated the clinical impact of OM load in femoral artery plaques of patients with lower extremity artery disease (LEAD) by using a deep learning-based image analysis algorithm. Plaques from 90 patients undergoing endarterectomy of the common femoral artery were collected and analyzed. After decalcification and fixation, 4-μm-thick longitudinal sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, digitized, and uploaded as whole-slide images on a cloud-based platform. A deep learning-based image analysis algorithm was trained to analyze the area percentage of OM in whole-slide images. Clinical data were extracted from electronic patient records, and the association with OM was analyzed. Fifty-one (56.7%) sections had OM. Females with diabetes had a higher area percentage of OM than females without diabetes. In male patients, the area percentage of OM inversely correlated with toe pressure and was significantly associated with severe symptoms of LEAD including rest pain, ulcer, or gangrene. According to our results, OM is a typical feature of femoral artery plaques and can be quantified using a deep learning-based image analysis method. The association of OM load with clinical features of LEAD appears to differ between male and female patients, highlighting the need for a gender-specific approach in the study of the mechanisms of atherosclerotic disease. In addition, the role of plaque characteristics in the treatment of atherosclerotic lesions warrants further consideration in the future.
  • on behalf of the EACSGE Study Group; Fiocca, Roberto; Mastracci, Luca; Lugaresi, Marialuisa; Ristimäki, Ari; Räsänen, Jari; Mattioli, Sandro (2021)
    Stage significantly affects survival of esophageal and esophago-gastric junction adenocarcinomas (EA/EGJAs), however, limited evidence for the prognostic role of histologic subtypes is available. The aim of the study was to describe a morphologic approach to EA/EGJAs and assess its discriminating prognostic power. Histologic slides from 299 neoadjuvant treatment-naïve EA/EGJAs, resected in five European Centers, were retrospectively reviewed. Morphologic features were re-assessed and correlated with survival. In glandular adenocarcinomas (240/299 cases—80%), WHO grade and tumors with a poorly differentiated component ≥6% were the most discriminant factors for survival (both p < 0.0001), distinguishing glandular well-differentiated from poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas. Two prognostically different histologic groups were identified: the lower risk group, comprising glandular well-differentiated (34.4%) and rare variants, such as mucinous muconodular carcinoma (2.7%) and diffuse desmoplastic carcinoma (1.7%), versus the higher risk group, comprising the glandular poorly differentiated subtype (45.8%), including invasive mucinous carcinoma (5.7%), diffuse anaplastic carcinoma (3%), mixed carcinoma (6.7%) (CSS p < 0.0001, DFS p = 0.001). Stage (p < 0.0001), histologic groups (p = 0.001), age >72 years (p = 0.008), and vascular invasion (p = 0.015) were prognostically significant in the multivariate analysis. The combined evaluation of stage/histologic group identified 5-year cancer-specific survival ranging from 87.6% (stage II, lower risk) to 14% (stage IVA, higher risk). Detailed characterization of histologic subtypes contributes to EA/EGJA prognostic prediction.
  • Nuotio, Krista; Koskinen, Suvi M.; Mäkitie, Laura; Tuimala, Jarno; Ijäs, Petra; Heikkilä, Hanna M.; Saksi, Jani; Vikatmaa, Pirkka; Sorto, Pia; Kasari, Sonja; Paakkari, Ilari; Silvennoinen, Heli; Valanne, Leena; Mäyränpää, Mikko I.; Soinne, Lauri; Kovanen, Petri T.; Lindsberg, Perttu J. (2021)
    Background: Long-term treatment with the vitamin K antagonist warfarin is widely used for the prevention of venous thrombosis and thromboembolism. However, vitamin K antagonists may promote arterial calcification, a phenomenon that has been previously studied in coronary and peripheral arteries, but not in extracranial carotid arteries. In this observational cohort study, we investigated whether warfarin treatment is associated with calcification of atherosclerotic carotid arteries. Methods: Overall, 500 consecutive patients underwent carotid endarterectomy, 82 of whom had received long-term warfarin therapy. The extent of calcification was assessed with preoperative computed tomography angiography, and both macroscopic morphological grading and microscopic histological examination of each excised carotid plaque were performed after carotid endarterectomy. Results: Compared with non-users, warfarin users had significantly more computed tomography angiography-detectable vascular calcification in the common carotid arteries (odds ratio 2.64, 95% confidence interval 1.51-4.63, P < 0.001) and even more calcification in the internal carotid arteries near the bifurcation (odds ratio 18.27, 95% confidence interval 2.53-2323, P < 0.001). Histological analysis revealed that the intramural calcified area in plaques from warfarin users was significantly larger than in plaques from non-users (95% confidence interval 3.36-13.56, P = 0.0018). Conclusions: Long-lasting warfarin anticoagulation associated with increased calcification of carotid atherosclerotic plaques, particularly in locations known to be the predilection sites of stroke-causing plaques. The clinical significance of this novel finding warrants further investigations.