Browsing by Subject "history"

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  • Halonen, Lauha (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This work stems from the various debates of the definition, authenticity and plurality of yoga traditions both among yoga practitioners and scholars. The work has two aims: to move away from these debates by constructing a new theoretical perspective, and to study yoga as a lived, non-ascetic practice in India because based on ethnography, because such ethnographic study has not been done properly. The material of this work is based on official field work in the city of Bangalore, in Karnātaka state, India, from the end of October 2005 towards the end of February 2006. This thesis then seeks to map the social reality of yoga as it existed in the mid 2000’s among the of middle-aged, middle-class Hindu practitioners. In this work, it is analyzed how they narrate yoga. Overview of yoga history is presented as a frame that both provides an intertextual library and guides interpretation as an authoritative voice of “past in the present”. Similarly, the traditional sources of authoritative knowledge in India, the Sanskritic textual canon and the institution of the guru are discussed. The yoga narratives gathered in Bangalore essentially informs the re-theorizing of yoga, shifting focus from tradition to knowledge. Knowledge is taken as the main analytical category of the discussion. The dialogic relationship of theory and practice is at the core this work which then translates into exploring yoga knowledge as two interconnected categories: objectified knowledge, that is theory and philosophy of yoga, and embodied knowledge, meaning not only the practiced techniques of yoga but essentially all yoga knowledge that is performed. Yoga classes and narratives are observed as knowledge performances. Lastly, practitioner narratives are analyzed by using the concepts of objectified and embodied knowledge, hierarchies of knowledge and participant roles in addition to exploring the narratives in their ethnographic context. As a result, the work concludes: each performance has the potential to integrate the theory and practice, and despite all the differences, all yoga is yoga.
  • Laitakari, Erkki (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1961)
  • Hämeen-Anttila, Jaakko (Brill, 2017)
    Al-Maqrīzī's (d. 845/1442) last work, al-Ḫabar ʿan al-bašar, was completed a year before his death. This volume, edited by Jaakko Hämeen-Anttila, covers the history of pre-Islamic Iran from the Creation to the Parthians. Al-Maqrīzī's work shows how Arab historians integrated Iran into world history and how they harmonized various currents of historiography (Middle Persian historiography, Islamic sacred history, Greek and Latin historiography). Among al-Ḫabar's sources is Kitāb Hurūšiyūš, the Arabic translation of Paulus Orosius' Historiarum adversum paganos libri vii. This source has only been preserved in one defective copy, and al-Maqrīzī's text helps to fill in some of its lacunae.
  • Minard, Nathanaelle (Finska Vetenskaps-Societeten, 2016)
    The construction of Russian representations of Finland and their functions in the polite culture of early-nineteenth-century Russia is the subject of the present dissertation. Based on travellers written accounts, the study examines in particular the interaction between travellers perceptions of Finland and the imperial context. Applying postcolonial theory, and in particular Edward Said s findings with regard to the role and place of culture in the construction of empires, I propose a new approach to Russian perceptions of Finland during a period that has too often been described as simply Romantic without any further characterisation. As a survey of the history of ideas based on literary sources, my work borrows elements from classical literary analysis, but focuses more strongly on the attitudes of a social group − the Russian nobility − and on the values of these representations. The first part of the dissertation explores the construction of a formal framework enabling the appreciation of Finland s terrain in Russia during the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries. The practices of Russian tourists and the discourse they elaborated on Finland were in many ways typical of the Romantic shift in the Grand Tour at the beginning of the nineteenth century: through a change of focus from classical canons to the individual impressions of the narrator, European sentimental literature and pastoral aesthetics constructed a grammar through which to approach and describe the Finnish wilderness. Part 2 examines how Russians travelled in Finland, and notably the dominance during the first half of the nineteenth century of what sociologist John Urry defined as the tourist gaze . Given the focus on scenic pleasure in the travelling experiences of Russians, their descriptions constructed Finland as an infinite collection of visual delights but also as a desolate territory in terms of culture. The travelogues thus left little space for the representation of Finnish elites who, when they appeared at all, were endowed with the same pastoral virtues of simplicity, fraternal spirit and honesty as the talonpoika (peasant, in Finnish). Part 3 presents how Russian travel literature constructed Finland as an ideal colony of an ideal empire. The idyllic image of Finns as agrarian people, essentially loyal to the Monarch who had given them a fatherland, showed the imperial project and the country s annexation in a favourable light. Although apparently less antagonistic than the images developed about the Caucasus and Poland during the same period, the pastoral descriptions of Finland similarly contributed to establishing Russia s cultural superiority and political domination over a primitive and underdeveloped borderland.
  • Makkonen, Olli (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1967)
  • Fellman, Susanna; Shanahan, Martin (2020)
  • Durand, Rodolphe; Vaara, Eero (2009)
    Causation is still poorly understood in strategy research, and confusion prevails around key concepts such as competitive advantage. In this paper, we define epistemological conditions that help to dispel some of this confusion and to provide a basis for more developed approaches. In particular, we argue that a counterfactual approach – that builds on a systematic analysis of ‘what-if’ questions – can advance our understanding of key causal mechanisms in strategy research. We offer two concrete methodologies – counterfactual history and causal modeling – as useful solutions. We also show that these methodologies open up new avenues in research on competitive advantage. Counterfactual history can add to our understanding of the context-specific construction of resource-based competitive advantage and path dependence, and causal modeling can help to reconceptualize the relationships between resources and performance. In particular, resource properties can be regarded as mediating mechanisms in these causal relationships.
  • Durand, Rodolphe; Vaara, Eero (John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2010)
    Causation is still poorly understood in strategy research, and confusion prevails around key concepts such as competitive advantage. In this paper, we define epistemological conditions that help to dispel some of this confusion and to provide a basis for more developed approaches. In particular, we argue that a counterfactual approach – that builds on a systematic analysis of ‘what-if’ questions – can advance our understanding of key causal mechanisms in strategy research. We offer two concrete methodologies – counterfactual history and causal modeling – as useful solutions. We also show that these methodologies open up new avenues in research on competitive advantage. Counterfactual history can add to our understanding of the context-specific construction of resource-based competitive advantage and path dependence, and causal modeling can help to reconceptualize the relationships between resources and performance. In particular, resource properties can be regarded as mediating mechanisms in these causal relationships.
  • Meier, H. E. Markus; Kniebusch, Madline; Dieterich, Christian; Gröger, Matthias; Zorita, Eduardo; Elmgren, Ragnar; Myrberg, Kai; Ahola, Markus P.; Bartosova, Alena; Bonsdorff, Erik; Börgel, Florian; Capell, Rene; Carlén, Ida; Carlund, Thomas; Carstensen, Jacob; Christensen, Ole B.; Dierschke, Volker; Frauen, Claudia; Frederiksen, Morten; Gaget, Elie; Galatius, Anders; Haapala, Jari J.; Halkka, Antti; Hugelius, Gustaf; Hünicke, Birgit; Jaagus, Jaak; Jüssi, Mart; Käyhkö, Jukka; Kirchner, Nina; Kjellström, Erik; Kulinski, Karol; Lehmann, Andreas; Lindström, Göran; May, Wilhelm; Miller, Paul A.; Mohrholz, Volker; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Pavón-Jordán, Diego; Quante, Markus; Reckermann, Marcus; Rutgersson, Anna; Savchuk, Oleg P.; Stendel, Martin; Tuomi, Laura; Viitasalo, Markku; Weisse, Ralf; Zhang, Wenyan (Copernicus GmbH, 2022)
    Earth System Dynamics
    Based on the Baltic Earth Assessment Reports of this thematic issue in Earth System Dynamics and recent peer-reviewed literature, current knowledge of the effects of global warming on past and future changes in climate of the Baltic Sea region is summarised and assessed. The study is an update of the Second Assessment of Climate Change (BACC II) published in 2015 and focuses on the atmosphere, land, cryosphere, ocean, sediments, and the terrestrial and marine biosphere. Based on the summaries of the recent knowledge gained in palaeo-, historical, and future regional climate research, we find that the main conclusions from earlier assessments still remain valid. However, new long-term, homogenous observational records, for example, for Scandinavian glacier inventories, sea-level-driven saltwater inflows, so-called Major Baltic Inflows, and phytoplankton species distribution, and new scenario simulations with improved models, for example, for glaciers, lake ice, and marine food web, have become available. In many cases, uncertainties can now be better estimated than before because more models were included in the ensembles, especially for the Baltic Sea. With the help of coupled models, feedbacks between several components of the Earth system have been studied, and multiple driver studies were performed, e.g. projections of the food web that include fisheries, eutrophication, and climate change. New datasets and projections have led to a revised understanding of changes in some variables such as salinity. Furthermore, it has become evident that natural variability, in particular for the ocean on multidecadal timescales, is greater than previously estimated, challenging our ability to detect observed and projected changes in climate. In this context, the first palaeoclimate simulations regionalised for the Baltic Sea region are instructive. Hence, estimated uncertainties for the projections of many variables increased. In addition to the well-known influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation, it was found that also other low-frequency modes of internal variability, such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability, have profound effects on the climate of the Baltic Sea region. Challenges were also identified, such as the systematic discrepancy between future cloudiness trends in global and regional models and the difficulty of confidently attributing large observed changes in marine ecosystems to climate change. Finally, we compare our results with other coastal sea assessments, such as the North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment (NOSCCA), and find that the effects of climate change on the Baltic Sea differ from those on the North Sea, since Baltic Sea oceanography and ecosystems are very different from other coastal seas such as the North Sea. While the North Sea dynamics are dominated by tides, the Baltic Sea is characterised by brackish water, a perennial vertical stratification in the southern subbasins, and a seasonal sea ice cover in the northern subbasins.
  • Siikala, Jukka (Helsinki University Press, 2021)
    Culture and History in the Pacific is a collection of essays originally published in 1990. The texts explore from different perspectives the question of culture as a repository of historical information. They also address broader questions of anthropological writing at the time, such as the relationship between anthropologists’ representations and local conceptions. This republication aims to make the book accessible to a wider audience, and in the region it discusses, Oceania. A new introductory essay has been included to contex­tualize the volume in relation to its historical setting, the end of the Cold War era, and to the present study of the Pacific and indigenous scholarship. The authors of Culture and History in the Pacific include prominent anthropologists of the Pacific, some of whom - Roger Keesing and Marilyn Strathern, to name but two - have also been influential in the anthropology of the late 20th and early 21st century in general.
  • Koponen, Juhani (2020)
    This article provides an alternative reading of the history of development by tracing how the concept of development has accumulated its present power. It starts from the premise that whatever development is, it is also a concept which is deeply ingrained in our 'Western' habitus and can inform and guide our actions. Contrary to suggestions that it was 'invented' once - at whatever date - and then spread elsewhere, I argue that it emerged gradually by being born and reborn several times in different contexts. Thus, its history is not of direct genealogical continuities from a single origin but rather of parallels generated by similar structural circumstances. Although development is commonly criticised for its ambiguity, I argue that much of its power actually stems from its linguistic polyvalence: its different meanings make it useful for many different purposes. Yet the concept is held together by a more coherent structural frame which combines three main senses: ideal, processual and intentional. Building on research on colonial history, I locate a birth of development in European colonialism, where it worked as an unacknowledged condition of colonial exploitation. It also has other antecedents that remain insufficiently understood. Having been introduced in the South as a notion for colonial exploitation of local resources, after World War II its function changed again. At the dissolution of the colonial empires, it was taken into its present use as soft power by Western powers and anti-colonial nationalists alike and was transformed into the foundational concept of developmentalism. But its power has limits. Ultimately, while concepts can and do affect people's behaviour, they work within the dynamics of material and mental interests.
  • Lindholm, Tapio; Heikkilä, Raimo; Kuznetsov, Oleg (International Mire Conservation Group and International Peatland Society, 2019)
    Mires and Peat 24 (2019), 12, 1–18
    In this article we compile wartime botanical information about mires in Olonets region (Russian Karelia) and compare it with new data collected as part of the Finnish-Russian cooperation in mire research. We also describe the historical background of both the local economy and the visits of Finnish botanists, which date back to the days of the Grand Duchy of Finland and the Russian Empire but were most active during the Second World War. For Finnish mire research, these excursions have allowed important comparisons between the mostly degraded rich fens of southern Finland and largely pristine examples in Olonets region. In the 2000s, 176 vascular plant and 53 moss species, corresponding to 40–50 % of the Karelian mire flora, have been recorded in this area; more than 20 different mire plant communities (associations) have been identified; and one site has been confirmed as the oldest studied mire in East Fennoscandia (12,700 years). The understanding arising from this research is especially important for nature conservation work in the Republic of Karelia.
  • Elovirta, Pertti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1979)
  • Pihlava, Kaisa-Maria (Suomen Eksegeettinen Seura, 2017)
    Suomen Eksegeettisen Seuran julkaisuja ; 113
    While once essential agents in early Christian communities, in centuries to come women hosts were forgotten. Kaisa-Maria Pihlava, Th.D., sets out to trace literary representations of women hosts in early Christian sources. She also discusses what we know of early Christian communities, women property owners, and heads of households in antiquity. She argues that women hosts had authority in their early Christian communities because of the domestic setting of these communities and the authority that hosts had irrespective of their gender. The authority that women hosts gained was not countercultural. Instead, socioeconomic hierarchy resulted in the authority positions of women hosts of early Christian gatherings. In Pihlava's study, women hosts are written into the narratives of early Christian beginnings.
  • Peltonen, Matti (2004)
    I would argue that a problem lies in the way Foucault's texts were introduced in the mid to late 1980s. The problem is that most of the methodological work in the social sciences and cultural studies treats Foucault's method primarily as discourse analysis. This is, however, an excessively narrow view, especially when we take into account not just his methodological texts, but also his empirical works and in particular Discipline and Punish and The History of Sexuality. This failure holds the danger of forgetting what was most original and interesting in Foucault's thinking. In several of his more popular empirical studies Foucault was interested in a much wider phenomenon than discourse. He also studied practices and an abstraction that he called dispositifs, by which he meant historically specific totalities of discourses and practices. In English translations of Foucault's works dispositifis translated using various terms (apparatus, deployment, construct, alignment, positivities, etc.) which together make the central importance of the concept unnecessarily difficult to detect. Seeing Foucault only as a discourse theorist also gives the new cultural history an excessively narrow view of culture. This perhaps helps to explain why it has not led to the intellectual breakthrough expected in the late 1980s.
  • Bouchat, Pierre; Licata, Laurent; Rosoux, Valerie; Allesch, Christian; Ammerer, Heinrich; Babinska, Maria; Bilewicz, Michal; Bobowik, Magdalena; Bovina, Inna; Bruckmuller, Susanne; Cabecinhas, Rosa; Chryssochoou, Xenia; Cserto, Istvan; Delouvee, Sylvain; Durante, Federica; Ernst-Vintila, Andreea; Flassbeck, Christine; Franc, Renata; Hilton, Denis; Keles, Serap; Kesteloot, Chantal; Kislioglu, Resit; Krenn, Alice; Macovei, Irina; Mari, Silvia; Medugorac, Vanja; Petrovic, Nebojsa; Polya, Tibor; Raudsepp, Maaris; Sa, Alberto; Sakki, Inari; Turjacanin, Vladimir; Turken, Salman; van Ypersele, Laurence; Vojak, Danijel; Volpato, Chiara; Warland, Genevieve; Klein, Olivier (2019)
    The present study examines current social representations associated with the origins of the Great War, a major event that has profoundly affected Europe. A survey conducted in 20 European countries (N = 1906 students in social sciences) shows a high consensus: The outbreak of the war is attributed to the warring nations' leaders while the responsibility of the populations is minimized. Building on the concept of social representation of history (Liu & Hilton, 2005), we suggest that the social representations of the Great War fulfill social psychological functions in contemporary Europe. We suggest that WWI may function as a charter for European integration. Their content also suggests a desire to distinguish a positively valued ingroup ("the people") from powerful elites, construed as an outgroup.
  • Ouakrim-Soivio, Najat; Kupiainen, Sirkku; Rantala, Jukka (2020)
    The role of motivation plays an important role in learning and in international studies of learning outcomes. However, the cross-sectional nature of international studies does not allow causal conclusions regarding the relations between students’ attainment and attitudes. A shared understanding of the intertwined relation between the two relies on evidence from other, more restricted longitudinal studies. In this article, we use longitudinal data to study the role of Finnish students’ history and social studies-related attitudes and school achievement in explaining their attainment in a national test at the end of lower secondary education, and the impact of these on students’ choice of and success in the respective exam(s) in the matriculation examination at the end of upper secondary education. Our results show that students grouped according to their choice of the history and/or social studies exam(s) in the matriculation examination differed significantly from each other in their subject-related attitudes, attainment in the national test, and school grades in the two subjects already three years prior to the examination. To end the paper, we will shortly discuss the results in terms of improving teachers´ and students’ understanding of how motivational attitudes are associated with learning outcomes and through them guide students’ later educational and exam choices.