Browsing by Subject "history"

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  • Halonen, Lauha (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This work stems from the various debates of the definition, authenticity and plurality of yoga traditions both among yoga practitioners and scholars. The work has two aims: to move away from these debates by constructing a new theoretical perspective, and to study yoga as a lived, non-ascetic practice in India because based on ethnography, because such ethnographic study has not been done properly. The material of this work is based on official field work in the city of Bangalore, in Karnātaka state, India, from the end of October 2005 towards the end of February 2006. This thesis then seeks to map the social reality of yoga as it existed in the mid 2000’s among the of middle-aged, middle-class Hindu practitioners. In this work, it is analyzed how they narrate yoga. Overview of yoga history is presented as a frame that both provides an intertextual library and guides interpretation as an authoritative voice of “past in the present”. Similarly, the traditional sources of authoritative knowledge in India, the Sanskritic textual canon and the institution of the guru are discussed. The yoga narratives gathered in Bangalore essentially informs the re-theorizing of yoga, shifting focus from tradition to knowledge. Knowledge is taken as the main analytical category of the discussion. The dialogic relationship of theory and practice is at the core this work which then translates into exploring yoga knowledge as two interconnected categories: objectified knowledge, that is theory and philosophy of yoga, and embodied knowledge, meaning not only the practiced techniques of yoga but essentially all yoga knowledge that is performed. Yoga classes and narratives are observed as knowledge performances. Lastly, practitioner narratives are analyzed by using the concepts of objectified and embodied knowledge, hierarchies of knowledge and participant roles in addition to exploring the narratives in their ethnographic context. As a result, the work concludes: each performance has the potential to integrate the theory and practice, and despite all the differences, all yoga is yoga.
  • Laitakari, Erkki (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1961)
  • Hämeen-Anttila, Jaakko (Brill, 2017)
    Al-Maqrīzī's (d. 845/1442) last work, al-Ḫabar ʿan al-bašar, was completed a year before his death. This volume, edited by Jaakko Hämeen-Anttila, covers the history of pre-Islamic Iran from the Creation to the Parthians. Al-Maqrīzī's work shows how Arab historians integrated Iran into world history and how they harmonized various currents of historiography (Middle Persian historiography, Islamic sacred history, Greek and Latin historiography). Among al-Ḫabar's sources is Kitāb Hurūšiyūš, the Arabic translation of Paulus Orosius' Historiarum adversum paganos libri vii. This source has only been preserved in one defective copy, and al-Maqrīzī's text helps to fill in some of its lacunae.
  • Minard, Nathanaelle (Finska Vetenskaps-Societeten, 2016)
    The construction of Russian representations of Finland and their functions in the polite culture of early-nineteenth-century Russia is the subject of the present dissertation. Based on travellers written accounts, the study examines in particular the interaction between travellers perceptions of Finland and the imperial context. Applying postcolonial theory, and in particular Edward Said s findings with regard to the role and place of culture in the construction of empires, I propose a new approach to Russian perceptions of Finland during a period that has too often been described as simply Romantic without any further characterisation. As a survey of the history of ideas based on literary sources, my work borrows elements from classical literary analysis, but focuses more strongly on the attitudes of a social group − the Russian nobility − and on the values of these representations. The first part of the dissertation explores the construction of a formal framework enabling the appreciation of Finland s terrain in Russia during the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries. The practices of Russian tourists and the discourse they elaborated on Finland were in many ways typical of the Romantic shift in the Grand Tour at the beginning of the nineteenth century: through a change of focus from classical canons to the individual impressions of the narrator, European sentimental literature and pastoral aesthetics constructed a grammar through which to approach and describe the Finnish wilderness. Part 2 examines how Russians travelled in Finland, and notably the dominance during the first half of the nineteenth century of what sociologist John Urry defined as the tourist gaze . Given the focus on scenic pleasure in the travelling experiences of Russians, their descriptions constructed Finland as an infinite collection of visual delights but also as a desolate territory in terms of culture. The travelogues thus left little space for the representation of Finnish elites who, when they appeared at all, were endowed with the same pastoral virtues of simplicity, fraternal spirit and honesty as the talonpoika (peasant, in Finnish). Part 3 presents how Russian travel literature constructed Finland as an ideal colony of an ideal empire. The idyllic image of Finns as agrarian people, essentially loyal to the Monarch who had given them a fatherland, showed the imperial project and the country s annexation in a favourable light. Although apparently less antagonistic than the images developed about the Caucasus and Poland during the same period, the pastoral descriptions of Finland similarly contributed to establishing Russia s cultural superiority and political domination over a primitive and underdeveloped borderland.
  • Makkonen, Olli (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1967)
  • Fellman, Susanna; Shanahan, Martin (2020)
  • Durand, Rodolphe; Vaara, Eero (2009)
    Causation is still poorly understood in strategy research, and confusion prevails around key concepts such as competitive advantage. In this paper, we define epistemological conditions that help to dispel some of this confusion and to provide a basis for more developed approaches. In particular, we argue that a counterfactual approach – that builds on a systematic analysis of ‘what-if’ questions – can advance our understanding of key causal mechanisms in strategy research. We offer two concrete methodologies – counterfactual history and causal modeling – as useful solutions. We also show that these methodologies open up new avenues in research on competitive advantage. Counterfactual history can add to our understanding of the context-specific construction of resource-based competitive advantage and path dependence, and causal modeling can help to reconceptualize the relationships between resources and performance. In particular, resource properties can be regarded as mediating mechanisms in these causal relationships.
  • Durand, Rodolphe; Vaara, Eero (John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2010)
    Causation is still poorly understood in strategy research, and confusion prevails around key concepts such as competitive advantage. In this paper, we define epistemological conditions that help to dispel some of this confusion and to provide a basis for more developed approaches. In particular, we argue that a counterfactual approach – that builds on a systematic analysis of ‘what-if’ questions – can advance our understanding of key causal mechanisms in strategy research. We offer two concrete methodologies – counterfactual history and causal modeling – as useful solutions. We also show that these methodologies open up new avenues in research on competitive advantage. Counterfactual history can add to our understanding of the context-specific construction of resource-based competitive advantage and path dependence, and causal modeling can help to reconceptualize the relationships between resources and performance. In particular, resource properties can be regarded as mediating mechanisms in these causal relationships.
  • Koponen, Juhani (2020)
    This article provides an alternative reading of the history of development by tracing how the concept of development has accumulated its present power. It starts from the premise that whatever development is, it is also a concept which is deeply ingrained in our 'Western' habitus and can inform and guide our actions. Contrary to suggestions that it was 'invented' once - at whatever date - and then spread elsewhere, I argue that it emerged gradually by being born and reborn several times in different contexts. Thus, its history is not of direct genealogical continuities from a single origin but rather of parallels generated by similar structural circumstances. Although development is commonly criticised for its ambiguity, I argue that much of its power actually stems from its linguistic polyvalence: its different meanings make it useful for many different purposes. Yet the concept is held together by a more coherent structural frame which combines three main senses: ideal, processual and intentional. Building on research on colonial history, I locate a birth of development in European colonialism, where it worked as an unacknowledged condition of colonial exploitation. It also has other antecedents that remain insufficiently understood. Having been introduced in the South as a notion for colonial exploitation of local resources, after World War II its function changed again. At the dissolution of the colonial empires, it was taken into its present use as soft power by Western powers and anti-colonial nationalists alike and was transformed into the foundational concept of developmentalism. But its power has limits. Ultimately, while concepts can and do affect people's behaviour, they work within the dynamics of material and mental interests.
  • Elovirta, Pertti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1979)
  • Peltonen, Matti (2004)
    I would argue that a problem lies in the way Foucault's texts were introduced in the mid to late 1980s. The problem is that most of the methodological work in the social sciences and cultural studies treats Foucault's method primarily as discourse analysis. This is, however, an excessively narrow view, especially when we take into account not just his methodological texts, but also his empirical works and in particular Discipline and Punish and The History of Sexuality. This failure holds the danger of forgetting what was most original and interesting in Foucault's thinking. In several of his more popular empirical studies Foucault was interested in a much wider phenomenon than discourse. He also studied practices and an abstraction that he called dispositifs, by which he meant historically specific totalities of discourses and practices. In English translations of Foucault's works dispositifis translated using various terms (apparatus, deployment, construct, alignment, positivities, etc.) which together make the central importance of the concept unnecessarily difficult to detect. Seeing Foucault only as a discourse theorist also gives the new cultural history an excessively narrow view of culture. This perhaps helps to explain why it has not led to the intellectual breakthrough expected in the late 1980s.
  • Bouchat, Pierre; Licata, Laurent; Rosoux, Valerie; Allesch, Christian; Ammerer, Heinrich; Babinska, Maria; Bilewicz, Michal; Bobowik, Magdalena; Bovina, Inna; Bruckmuller, Susanne; Cabecinhas, Rosa; Chryssochoou, Xenia; Cserto, Istvan; Delouvee, Sylvain; Durante, Federica; Ernst-Vintila, Andreea; Flassbeck, Christine; Franc, Renata; Hilton, Denis; Keles, Serap; Kesteloot, Chantal; Kislioglu, Resit; Krenn, Alice; Macovei, Irina; Mari, Silvia; Medugorac, Vanja; Petrovic, Nebojsa; Polya, Tibor; Raudsepp, Maaris; Sa, Alberto; Sakki, Inari; Turjacanin, Vladimir; Turken, Salman; van Ypersele, Laurence; Vojak, Danijel; Volpato, Chiara; Warland, Genevieve; Klein, Olivier (2019)
    The present study examines current social representations associated with the origins of the Great War, a major event that has profoundly affected Europe. A survey conducted in 20 European countries (N = 1906 students in social sciences) shows a high consensus: The outbreak of the war is attributed to the warring nations' leaders while the responsibility of the populations is minimized. Building on the concept of social representation of history (Liu & Hilton, 2005), we suggest that the social representations of the Great War fulfill social psychological functions in contemporary Europe. We suggest that WWI may function as a charter for European integration. Their content also suggests a desire to distinguish a positively valued ingroup ("the people") from powerful elites, construed as an outgroup.
  • Ouakrim-Soivio, Najat; Kupiainen, Sirkku; Rantala, Jukka (2020)
    The role of motivation plays an important role in learning and in international studies of learning outcomes. However, the cross-sectional nature of international studies does not allow causal conclusions regarding the relations between students’ attainment and attitudes. A shared understanding of the intertwined relation between the two relies on evidence from other, more restricted longitudinal studies. In this article, we use longitudinal data to study the role of Finnish students’ history and social studies-related attitudes and school achievement in explaining their attainment in a national test at the end of lower secondary education, and the impact of these on students’ choice of and success in the respective exam(s) in the matriculation examination at the end of upper secondary education. Our results show that students grouped according to their choice of the history and/or social studies exam(s) in the matriculation examination differed significantly from each other in their subject-related attitudes, attainment in the national test, and school grades in the two subjects already three years prior to the examination. To end the paper, we will shortly discuss the results in terms of improving teachers´ and students’ understanding of how motivational attitudes are associated with learning outcomes and through them guide students’ later educational and exam choices.
  • Hietala, Satu (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    The layman’s sample practice of the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is a unique national practice in raw material exploration and research. Its main purpose is to increase knowledge related to Finnish raw material resources. The operation is quite rare on a global scale. A layman’s sample (kansannäyte) is a sample of rock, mineral, or soil sent to a geologist or other type of expert by a rock hobbyist. The Layman’s Sample Office of the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) receives thousands of samples from all over Finland every year. The office handles ore samples, industrial minerals, dimensional stone, precious stone and gemstone discoveries, and metals of technological interest. The concept of layman’s sample reflects the action of its history and original purpose. The practice started in the 18th century and has continued uninterrupted since then. Thirtytwo of the metallic mines in Finland have been discovered on the basis of a layman's sample. Currently, further new mining operations, on which the first reference sample has been sent by the public, are being launched. In addition to the economic benefit, the practice also has other tasks. The sample office answers geology-related questions sent in by the general public and provides competent and up-to-date information on the importance of raw materials to the society. The challenge in the future is to improve the quality of the samples. Also in the future, the development of digital applications will be important including web and mobile applications, for example teaching map services and platforms. The new applications could also inspire young people to the rock hobby in general as well as increase the geological knowledge of the general public. The digital archive of layman’s samples contains information on more than 60 000 bedrock and boulder samples. Layman’s samples and metallogenic zones can be compared with each other. Geologically ore potential zones could be identified and sampled. The archive also reveals new areas with ore potential.
  • Mäntyniemi, Päivi (2017)
    The present article is the first part of a snapshot of macroseismology in Finland from the 1730s to the 2000s. In the 1730s, more numerous and informative earthquake reports began to appear. Continuing up until the early 1880s, these reports were often by-products of compilations of statistics and weather conditions; afterwards, felt earthquake observations were the objective of specific macroseismic surveys. During the Swedish era until 1809, earthquake reports are attributed to the developing press, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and the Statistical Office. In the Grand Duchy of Finland, learned societies collected data on different natural phenomena. In the Republic of Finland since 1917, the designing and use of macroseismic questionnaires shifted to the established seismological units. The designing and dissemination of macroseismic questionnaires constitute the core of macroseismic surveys in Finland. This part focuses on the design. Seven generations of printed macroseismic questionnaires are identified. The first questionnaire in 1882 was designed by a geologist. The second-generation questionnaire was produced by the Geological Commission. In the 1900s, the third-generation questionnaire was owned by the Geographical Society of Finland, the fourth by the seismological station of the University of Helsinki, the fifth by the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory of the Finnish Academy of Science and Letters, the sixth by the Department of Geophysics of the University of Oulu and the seventh of the Institute of Seismology of the University of Helsinki. At the turn of the 2000s the questionnaire was placed on the Internet.
  • Mäntyniemi, Päivi Birgitta (2017)
    The present article is the second part of a snapshot of macroseismology in Finland from the 1730s to the 2000s. In the 1730s, more numerous and informative earthquake reports began to appear. The article begins with an outline of the connection between academia and macroseismology. The main focus is on the dissemination of macroseismic questionnaires and the respondents. The standard practice in Finland is to conduct macroseismic surveys remotely. Postal services were widely used to disseminate questionnaires in the areas affected by earthquakes. The newspaper press has frequently been utilized in the surveys. Since the latter half of the 1800s, telephones and telegraphs made instant communication possible. Macroseismic field surveys have sometimes been conducted after important local earthquakes to interview eyewitnesses and to disseminate questionnaires on the spot. The group of earthquake reporters that stands out throughout the centuries is the clergy. Its leading position waned only in the 1900s. Finns became more literate, acquiring their writing skills during the 1800s. The occupational groups of the respondents became more versatile in the 1900s, reflecting the evolution of macroseismology into a genuine citizen science. Macroseismic reporting mirrors the development of society throughout the centuries. In particular, new technologies have an immediate effect on the surveys.
  • Tammisto, Tuomas (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2019)
    Studia Fennica Anthropologica