Browsing by Subject "hiukkaset"

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  • Seppänen, Vanamo (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Tässä tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin viljelykäytössä olevan happaman sulfaattimaan Ap- ja Bg1- horisonttien aggregaattien stabiilisuudessa tapahtuvia muutoksia neljän viikon tulvituksen aikana. Tulvitus estää maan kaasunvaihdon, mikä aiheuttaa hapen puutetta maaperässä. Tästä seuraa muutoksia maan kemiallisissa olosuhteissa, muun muassa maan rakennetta stabiloivan raudan liukoisuus lisääntyy. Tutkimus suoritettiin laboratoriokokeena. Aggregaattien stabiilisuuden mittarina käytettiin märkäseulonnassa irtoavien alle 250 ?m:n kokoisten hiukkasten sekä kolloidiaineksen (< 2 ?m) määrää. Märkäseulonnassa irtoavan maa-aineksen määrää selvitettiin gravimetrisillä mittauksilla sekä laservaloon perustuvilla menetelmillä. Työssä käytetyt laservaloon perustuvat menetelmät olivat dynaaminen valonsironta sekä partikkelilaskenta. Dynaamista valonsirontaa käytettiin kolloidiaineksen määrän mittaamiseen. Menetelmän ongelmana oli tulosten välinen suuri hajonta. Alle 250 ?m:n kokoisten hiukkasten määrää mitattiin partikkelilaskurilla. Tätä mittausta vaikeutti laitteen vaatima pieni partikkelikonsentraatio sekä suurimpien partikkelien jääminen mittauksen ulkopuolelle. Aggregaattien stabiilisuuden tarkastelussa käytettiin gravimetristen mittausten tuloksia. Tulosten perusteella Bg1-horisontin murut olivat huomattavasti Ap-horisontin muruja kestävämpiä. Tähän saattoi olla syynä raudan suurempi määrä Bg1-horisontissa. Ap-horisontin näytteissä sekä makro- että mikroaggregaattien stabiilisuus väheni kokeen aikana. Myös Bg1- horisontin näytteissä mikroaggregaattien kestävyys heikkeni, mutta ei yhtä paljon kuin Aphorisontin näytteissä. Ap-horisontin makroaggregaattien stabiilisuuden heikkenemiseen saattoi olla syynä niitä koossa pitävien juurten mikrobiologinen hajoaminen. Bg1-horisontin mikroaggregaattien hajoaminen oli mahdollisesti seurausta raudan liukenemisesta. Aggregaattien stabiloituminen kokeen loppua kohti aiheutui luultavasti johtokyvyn noususta näytteissä. Syyt stabiilisuusmuutoksiin kaipaavat kuitenkin vielä jatkotutkimuksia.
  • Karvosenoja, Niko (Finnish Environment Institute, 2008)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 32
    Air pollution emissions are produced in a wide variety of sources. They often result in detrimental impacts on both environments and human populations. To assess the emissions and impacts of air pollution, mathematical models have been developed. This study presents results from the application of an air pollution emission model, the Finnish Regional Emission Scenario (FRES) model, that covers the emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and primary particulate matter (TSP, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) in high 1 ´ 1 km2 spatial resolution over the area of Finland. The aims of the study were to identify key emission sources in Finland at present and in the future, to assess the effects of climate policies on air pollution, and to estimate emission reduction potentials and costs. Uncertainties in emission estimates were analyzed. Finally, emission model characteristics for use in different air pollution impact applications were discussed.The main emission sources in Finland are large industrial and energy production plants for SO2 (64% of 76 Gg a-1 total in the year 2000). Traffic vehicles are the main contributors for NOx (58% of 206 Gg a-1), NMVOCs (54% of 152 Gg a-1) and primary PM2.5 (26% of 31 Gg a-1) emissions. Agriculture is the key source for NH3 (97% of 33 Gg a-1). Other important sources are domestic wood combustion for primary PM2.5 (25%) and NMVOCs (12%), and fugitive dust emissions from traffic and other activities for primary PM10 (30% of 46 Gg a-1).In the future, the emissions of traffic vehicle exhaust will decrease considerably, by 76% (NMVOCs), 74% (primary PM2.5) and 60% (NOx), from 2000 to 2020, because of tightening emission legislations. Rather smaller decrease is anticipated in the emissions of large combustion plants, depending on future primary energy choices. Sources that are not subject to tight emission standards, e.g. domestic combustion and traffic-induced fugitive dust (i.e. non-exhaust), pose a risk for increasing emissions.The majority of measures to abate climate change, e.g. energy saving and non-combustion based energy production, lead to co-benefits as reduced air pollution emissions, especially of SO2 (20% to 28% reduction). However, promotion of domestic wood combustion poses a risk for increase in PM2.5 and NMVOCs emissions. Further emission reductions with feasible control costs are possible mainly for PM2.5 in small energy production plants and domestic combustion sources. Highest emission uncertainties were estimated for primary PM emission factors of domestic wood combustion, traffic non-exhaust sources and small energy production plants.The most important characteristics of emission models are correct location information of flue gas stacks of large plants for the assessment of acidification, and description of small polluters with high spatial resolution when assessing impacts on populations. Especially primary PM2.5 emissions originate to a considerable degree from small low-altitude sources in urban areas, and therefore it is important to be able to assess the impacts that take place near the emission sources. Detailed descriptions of large plants and 1 ´ 1 km2 spatial resolution for small emission sources applied in the FRES model enable its use in the assessment of various national environmental impacts and their reduction possibilities.The main contribution of this work was the development of a unique modeling framework to assess emission scenarios of multiple air pollutants in high sectoral and spatial resolution in Finland. The developed FRES model provides support for Finnish air pollution polices and a tool to assess the co-benefits and trade-offs of climate change strategies on air pollution.
  • Tohka, Antti; Karvosenoja, Niko (Finnish Environment Institute, 2006)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 21/2006
  • Savolahti, Mikko; Karvosenoja, Niko; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Paunu, Ville-Veikko; Sippola, Olli; Jokiniemi, Jorma (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2009)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 30/2009
  • Antila, Marko; Mattila, Inga; Isomoisio, Heikki; Kataja, Jari; Salmela, Hannu; Koskinen, Heli; Alanko, Tommi (Teknologian tutkimuskeskus VTT Oy, 2018)
  • Rautio, Mikko (Etelä-Savon ympäristökeskus, 2007)
    ESAra 1/2007
    Julkaisu sisältää tietoa Etelä-Savon ympäristökeskuksen toiminta-alueella (Etelä-Savon maakunta) aiheutuvasta ympäristökuormituksesta. Tiedot on koottu Ympäristöhallinnon ylläpitämästä Valvonta- ja kuormitustietojärjestelmästä (VAHTI), jonne ympäristölupavelvolliset vuosittain ilmoittavat tiedot mm. ilma- ja vesipäästöistä sekä jätemääristä. Raportti keskittyy vuoden 2005 tietoihin, mutta osa tiedoista on aikaisemmilta vuosilta, jos vuoden 2005 tietoja ei ole ollut saatavilla. Raporttiin on koottu tietoa myös aikaisempien vuosien kuormituksesta, jotta voidaan seurata kuormituksen kehittymistä. Ihmisen aiheuttama ympäristökuormitus Etelä-Savossa on erittäin vähäistä verrattuna muuhun Suomeen. Etelä- Savosta puuttuu lähes kokonaan suuret teollisuuslaitokset, jotka ovat suuria piste-kuormittajia. Maakunnan asukasmäärä ja –tiheys ovat pieniä verrattuna keskimäärin muuhun Suomeen, jolloin yhdyskuntien pistekuormittajat (esim. voimalaitokset ja jätevedenpuhdistamot) ovat kooltaan melko pieniä ja kuormitus vähäistä.
  • Kukkonen, Jaakko; Karppinen, Ari; Sofiev, Mikhail; Kangas, Leena; Karvosenoja, Niko; Johansson, Matti; Tuomisto, Jouni; Aarnio, Päivi; Kousa, Anu; Pirjola, Liisa; Kupiainen, Kaarle (2008)
    Tutkimuksia - Undersökningar - Studies
  • Makkonen, Ulla; Saarnio, Karri; Ruoho-Airola, Tuija; Hakola, Hannele (Ilmatieteen laitos, 2016)
    Raportteja - Rapporter - Reports 2016:2
    Tiivistelmä Itämeren pahimpana ongelmana pidetään typpi- ja fosforikuormituksen aiheuttamaa rehevöitymistä. Typpeä ja fosforia joutuu Itämereen paitsi valumana rantavaltioista myös merkittävissä määrin ilman kautta. Ilmaperäisen typpilaskeuman määrää ja sen kehitystä on selvitetty mittauksin ja mallinnuksen avulla 1980-luvulta lähtien, mutta ilmaperäistä fosforikuormaa Itämereen on mitattu vain sateen mukana laskeutuvan märkälaskeuman osalta muutamilla asemilla. Hiukkasiin sitoutuneesta kuivalaskeumasta ei mittaustietoa ole julkaistu lainkaan, eikä Itämeren ympärysvaltioilla ole käytettävissään menetelmää ilmaperäisen fosforikuorman hiukkasosuuden seuraamiseksi. Tässä työssä kehitettiin ja testattiin menetelmät ilmakehästä sadeveden mukana tulevan sekä ilmakehän hiukkasiin sitoutuneen fosfaatin sekä kokonaisfosforin määrittämiseksi. Menetelmäkehitys sisälsi näytteenkeruumenetelmät, näytteen esikäsittelymenetelmät sekä kemialliset analyysimenetelmät. Menetelmiä testattiin Utön saarella Saaristomeren ulkolaidalla vuosien 2013–2015 aikana. Utön saarella toimii Ilmatieteen laitoksen mittausasema, jonka mittaustulokset edustavat ilmanlaadun tausta-arvoja pohjoisella Itämerellä. Testattuina fosforin ja fosfaatin kuiva- ja märkälaskeuman näytteenkeruumenetelminä toimivat olemassa olevat ja laajasti käyttöönotetut EMEP-protokolliin perustuvat menetelmät. Näytteiden kokonaisfosforipitoisuuden määritysmenetelmään sovellettiin olemassa olevaa ISO-standardiin perustuvaa spektrometristä menetelmää. Vesiliukoisen fosfaatin pitoisuuden määrittämiseen hyödynnettiin käytössä olevaa ISO-standardiin perustuvaa ionikromatografista menetelmää, jota laajennettiin sisältämään fosfaatin määritys muiden epäorgaanisten ionien kanssa samassa analyysissä. Havaittiin, että sekä märkä- että kuivalaskeumanäytteiden sisältämät kokonaisfosfori- ja fosfaattipitoisuudet olivat erittäin alhaisia, usein pitoisuudet olivat lähellä analyysimenetelmien määritysrajoja tai niiden alle. Kuitenkin mittausjakson ajalta saatiin riittävä määrä määritystuloksia, joiden avulla voidaan laskea aiempaa luotettavampi arvio vuotuisesta ilmaperäisestä fosforikuormituksesta Itämereen. Työssä tutkittiin Utön saaren mittausasemalla suoritetun intensiivikampanjan aikana mahdollisuutta määrittää hiukkasissa olevan fosfaatin pitoisuutta jatkuvatoimisella ionikromatografilla. Menetelmän herkkyys osoittautui kuitenkin riittämättömäksi ilmakehän hiukkasten fosfaattipitoisuuden määrittämiseen. Käytetyt menetelmät on esitelty tässä raportissa siten, että menetelmät voidaan ottaa käyttöön muillakin mittausasemilla ja laboratorioissa sadeveden ja ilmakehän hiukkasten sisältämien fosfaatin ja kokonaisfosforin pitoisuuksien määrittämiseksi, ja siten ilmaperäisen fosforin kuormitusta voidaan arvioida luotettavammin ja laajemmin Itämeren alueella. Abstract Eutrophication caused by nitrogen and phosphorus load is generally thought as the most severe problem of the Baltic Sea. Nitrogen and phosphorus end up in the Baltic Sea not only by run-off from the coastal countries of the Baltic Sea but to an important extent also from the atmosphere. The amount of atmospheric nitrogen load and its development have been determined using measurements and models since the 1980’s. The atmospheric phosphorus load to the Baltic Sea has been measured earlier only from the wet deposition from the collected rain water samples from a few sites around the Baltic Sea; no published data exists about the particle bound dry deposition of phosphorus. The coastal countries of the Baltic Sea haven’t got any method in use to measure the particle bound phosphorus deposition. In this work, methods for determining the concentrations of phosphate and total phosphorus in atmospheric precipitation and particulate matter were developed and tested. The method development included the sampling, sample pre-treatment, and chemical analysis techniques. The methods were tested onsite on the Utö Island in the outskirts of the Archipelago Sea during the years 2013–2015. The monitoring station on the Utö Island is operated by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The measurements on the station represent the background air quality of the northern Baltic Sea area. The existing and widely used sampling methods based on the EMEP protocols were tested for the sampling of dry and wet deposition of phosphorus and phosphate. A spectrometric method based on an ISO standard was applied for determination of the total phosphorus concentration of the samples. For the determination of dissolved phosphate, an ion chromatographic method based on an ISO standard was extended to include the analysis of phosphate with the main inorganic ions. It was discovered that the concentrations of total phosphorus and dissolved phosphate in the dry and wet deposition samples were very low; the concentrations were often close to the determination limits of the used analytical methods or even below those. Nevertheless, a sufficiency of samples were determined to be able to estimate the yearly atmospheric phosphorus load to the Baltic Sea more reliably than earlier. In addition, feasibility of measuring the concentration of particle-bound phosphate using a semi-continuous ion chromatograph was tested in the Utö Island during an intensive campaign. However, the sensitivity of the analyser was not sufficient to measure the low atmospheric concentrations of phosphate. The used methods are presented in this report so that they can be taken into use in other sampling sites and laboratories to determine the concentrations of phosphate and total phosphorus in the precipitation and in the atmospheric particulate matter. Thus, more reliable estimates of the atmospheric phosphorus load to the Baltic Sea could be calculated more widely.
  • Dolar, Andraž; Selonen, Salla; van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.; Perc, Valentina; Drobne, Damjana; Jemec Kokalj, Anita (Elsevier, 2021)
    Science of The Total Environment 772 (2021), 144900
    Microplastics and agrochemicals are common pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems. Their interaction during coexistence in soils may influence their fate and adverse effects on terrestrial organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate how the exposure to two types of microplastics; polyester fibres, and crumb rubber; induce changes in immune parameters of Porcellio scaber and if the co-exposure of microplastics affects the response induced by the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos. A number of immune parameters, such as total haemocyte count, differential haemocyte count, and phenoloxidase-like activity were assessed. In addition, the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the haemolymph was evaluated as a measure of the bioavailability of chlorpyrifos. After three weeks of exposure, the most noticeable changes in the measured immune parameters and also a significantly reduced AChE activity were seen in chlorpyrifos-exposed animals. Both types of microplastic at environmentally relevant concentrations caused only slight changes in immune parameters which were not dependent on the type of microplastic, although the two types differed significantly in terms of the chemical complexity of the additives. Mixtures of chlorpyrifos and microplastics induced changes that differed from individual exposures. For example, alterations in some measured parameters suggested a reduced bioavailability of chlorpyrifos (AChE activity, haemocyte viability) caused by both types of microplastics exposure, but the increase of haemocyte count was promoted by the presence of fibres implying their joint action. In conclusion, this study suggests that immune processes in P. scaber are slightly changed upon exposure to both types of microplastics and microplastics can significantly modulate the effects of other co-exposed chemicals. Further research is needed on the short-term and long-term joint effects of microplastics and agrochemicals on the immunity of soil invertebrates.
  • Kupiainen, Kaarle (Finnish Environment Institute, 2007)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 26
    Vehicles affect the concentrations of ambient airborne particles through exhaust emissions, but particles are also formed in the mechanical processes in the tire-road interface, brakes, and engine. Particles deposited on or in the vicinity of the road may be re-entrained, or resuspended, into air through vehicle-induced turbulence and shearing stress of the tires. A commonly used term for these particles is ?road dust?. The processes affecting road dust emissions are complex and currently not well known.Road dust has been acknowledged as a dominant source of PM10 especially during spring in the sub-arctic urban areas, e.g. in Scandinavia, Finland, North America and Japan. The high proportion of road dust in sub-arctic regions of the world has been linked to the snowy winter conditions that make it necessary to use traction control methods. Traction control methods include dispersion of traction sand, melting of ice with brine solutions, and equipping the tires with either metal studs (studded winter tires), snow chains, or special tire design (friction tires). Several of these methods enhance the formation of mineral particles from pavement wear and/or from traction sand that accumulate in the road environment during winter. When snow and ice melt and surfaces dry out, traffic-induced turbulence makes some of the particles airborne.A general aim of this study was to study processes and factors underlying and affecting the formation and emissions of road dust from paved road surfaces. Special emphasis was placed on studying particle formation and sources during tire road interaction, especially when different applications of traction control, namely traction sanding and/or winter tires were in use. Respirable particles with aerodynamic diameter below 10 micrometers (PM10) have been the main concern, but other size ranges and particle size distributions were also studied. The following specific research questions were addressed: i) How do traction sanding and physical properties of the traction sand aggregate affect formation of road dust? ii) How do studded tires affect the formation of road dust when compared with friction tires? iii) What are the composition and sources of airborne road dust in a road simulator and during a springtime road dust episode in Finland? iv) What is the size distribution of abrasion particles from tire-road interaction? The studies were conducted both in a road simulator and in field conditions.The test results from the road simulator showed that traction sanding increased road dust emissions, and that the effect became more dominant with increasing sand load. A high percentage of fine-grained anti-skid aggregate of overall grading increased the PM10 concentrations. Anti-skid aggregate with poor resistance to fragmentation resulted in higher PM levels compared with the other aggregates, and the effect became more significant with higher aggregate loads. Glaciofluvial aggregates tended to cause higher particle concentrations than crushed rocks with good fragmentation resistance. Comparison of tire types showed that studded tires result in higher formation of PM emissions compared with friction tires. The same trend between the tires was present in the tests with and without anti-skid aggregate. This finding applies to test conditions of the road simulator with negligible resuspension.Source and composition analysis showed that the particles in the road simulator were mainly minerals and originated from both traction sand and pavement aggregates. A clear contribution of particles from anti-skid aggregate to ambient PM and dust deposition was also observed in urban conditions. The road simulator results showed that the interaction between tires, anti-skid aggregate and road surface is important in dust production and the relative contributions of these sources depend on their properties. Traction sand grains are fragmented into smaller particles under the tires, but they also wear the pavement aggregate. Therefore particles from both aggregates are observed. The mass size distribution of traction sand and pavement wear particles was mainly coarse, but fine and submicron particles were also present.
  • Wahlström, Johanna; Karvosenoja, Niko; Porvari, Petri (Finnish Environment Institute, 2006)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 8/2006