Browsing by Subject "horse"

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  • Reilas, Tiina; Katila, Terttu; Kosola, Mikko; Virtala, Anna-Maija (2020)
    In Finland, the seasonal foaling rates of trotters began declining at the beginning of the 2000s. This retrospective study aimed to elaborate factors behind the declining foaling rates in Finnhorses using multivariable logit models. The mating records from years 1998 to 2000 (period 1, n = 5967) and 2002 to 2004 (period 2, n = 5373) originated from the Finnish trotting and breeding association. The over-all foaling rate was 66.6% during period 1 and 62.4% during period 2 (p < 0.0001). Foaling rate for on-site artificial insemination decreased from 70.2% to 64.8% (p = 0.003). The proportion of the most fertile mare groups, 2–9-year-olds and foaled mares, decreased by 8.2 and 7.1 percentage points, respectively. Differences in foaling rates between young and middle-aged mares, and maiden and foaled mares changed from non-significant to significant (p<0.0001) due to the foaling rate decline in middle-aged (p = 0.001) and maiden mares (p = 0.01). The decline in foaling rate was also significant for barren and rested mares (p < 0.05), natural mating (p = 0.01), and book size >68 (p < 0.0001). It was concluded that multiple factors were responsible for the foaling rate decline.
  • Tuomola, Kati; Mäki-Kihniä, Nina; Valros, Anna; Mykkänen, Anna; Kujala-Wirth, Minna (2021)
    Bit-related oral lesions are common and may impair horse welfare. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of oral lesions and their risk factors in a sample of Finnish event horses. The rostral part of the oral cavity (the bit area) of 208 event horses (127 warmbloods, 52 coldbloods, and 29 ponies) was examined in a voluntary inspection after the last competition phase, i.e., the cross-country test. Acute lesions were observed in 52% (109/208) of the horses. The lesion status was graded as no acute lesions for 48% (99/208), mild for 22% (45/208), moderate for 26% (55/208) and severe for 4% (9/208) of the horses. The inner lip commissure was the most common lesion location observed in 39% (81/208) of the horses. A multivariable logistic regression model with data of 174 horses was applied to risk factor analysis. Horses wearing thin (10-13 mm) (OR 3.5, CI 1.4-8.7) or thick (18-22 mm) (OR 3.4, CI 1.4-8.0) bits had a higher risk of moderate/severe lesion status than horses wearing middle-sized (14-17 mm) bits (P = 0.003). Breed was associated with moderate/severe lesion status (P = 0.02). The risk was higher for warmbloods (reference group) and coldbloods (OR 2.0, CI 0.88-4.7) compared with ponies (OR 0.2, CI 0.04-0.87). Mares were at higher risk of moderate/severe lesion status (OR 2.2, CI 1.1-4.5) than geldings (reference group) (P = 0.03). Bar lesions were more common in horses with unjointed bits (40%, 8/20) than with basic double-jointed (10%, 5/52), formed double-jointed (8%, 6/78) or single-jointed bits (5%, 2/40) (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.002). The results of this study suggest that thin and thick bits and mare sex should be considered risk factors for mouth lesions. In addition, in this sample ponies had smaller risk for lesions than other horse breeds. We encourage adopting bit area monitoring as a new routine by horse handlers and as a welfare measure by competition organizers for randomly drawn horses.
  • Koskinen, Milja (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Tämä lisensiaatin tutkielma koostuu kolmesta osasta; kirjallisuuskatsauksesta, kokeellisesta osasta ja liitteistä. Iohexol on ionisoitumaton, trijodattu ja vesiliukoinen röntgenvarjoaine. Iohexolia on hyödynnetty lääketieteessä useita vuosia. Iohexolia on käytetty muun muassa angio- ja myelografiassa, lisäksi iohexolia on hyödynnetty arvioitaessa munuaiskerästen suodattumisnopeutta sekä suoliston läpäisevyyden muutoksia. Hevosen tulehduksellisessa suolistosairaudessa (Inflammatory bowel disease, IBD) suoliston rakenne ja sen läpäisevyys muuttuu; tyypillistä on tulehdussolujen kertyminen suoliston seinämään ja myös sidekudosmuodostusta saattaa esiintyä. Suolisto muutoksia saatetaan havaita sekä ohut- että paksusuolessa. IBD aiheuttaa hevoselle laihtumista, johtuen ravintoaineiden puutteellisesta imeytymisestä ja proteiinien menetyksestä suoleen suoliston häiriötilan yhteydessä. Tällä hetkellä IBD:n diagnostiikka perustuu tyypillisiin oireisiin, kliiniseen tutkimukseen, verinäytteisiin, glukoosin imeytymistestiin ja peräsuolesta otettuun koepalaan. IBD:n diagnostiikka on kuitenkin erittäin haastavaa ja tutkimusmenetelmiin liittyy lukuisia ongelmia, jotka vähentävät niiden luotettavuutta IBD:n diagnostiikassa. Tutkimuksemme tarkoituksena on kehittää hevosen IBD:n diagnostiikkaa entistä helpompaan, luotettavampaan ja turvallisempaan suuntaan. Tämän alustavan tutkimuksen tavoitteet olivat: (1) tutkia voidaanko iohexol havaita hevosen seerumissa oraalisen annostelun jälkeen ja (2) muodostaa iohexolin pitoisuuskuvaaja ajan funktiona terveillä hevosilla. Materiaalimme koostui kymmenestä terveestä hevosesta, joilla ei ollut havaittu laihtumista tai ripulia. Ennen iohexolin annostelua hevosille suoritettiin kliininen tutkimus ja verinäytteet otettiin maha-suolikanavan sairauden poissulkemiseksi. Hevosille suoritettiin myös mahalaukun tähystys. 16 tunnin paaston jälkeen 1 ml/kg Iohexolia annosteltiin 10 % -liuoksena nenämahaletkulla suoraan mahaan ja verinäytteet otettiin 0, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 ja 360 minuuttia annostelun jälkeen. Iohexolin pitoisuus määritettiin käyttämällä korkean erotuskyvyn nestekromatografiaa. Iohexolin pitoisuuksista tietyillä ajanhetkillä muodostettiin kuvaaja. Hevosilla ei havaittu maha-suolikanavan sairauksia. Kaikki hevoset olivat hyvässä kuntoluokassa ja mahalaukun tähystyksessä ei havaittu merkittäviä muutoksia. Verinäytteiden tulokset olivat viiterajoissa. Kaikki hevoset sietivät iohexolia hyvin ja haittavaikutuksia ei havaittu. Iohexol oli havaittavissa seerumissa 60 minuutin kuluttua annostelusta. Kuvaajassa voitiin havaita kaksi huippua. Statistiset menetelmät tukivat löydöksiä. Iohexol testi oli yksinkertainen suorittaa ja siihen ei liittynyt haittavaikutuksia. Annos 1ml/kg oli havaittavissa seerumissa. Iohexolin pitoisuuskuvaaja muodosti kaksi huippua, ja tämänkaltainen ilmiö on kuvattu kirjallisuudessa aikaisemmin useiden lääkkeiden tapauksessa. Hevosella ilmiö liittyy todennäköisesti maha-suolikanavan rakenteellisiin ja fysiologisiin eroavaisuuksiin ja lisätutkimuksia ilmiön varmistamiseksi tarvitaan. Iohexol näyttää olevan potentiaalinen merkkiaine suoliston läpäisevyyden arviointiin ja lisätutkimuksia IBD:tä sairastavien hevosten seerumin iohexolin pitoisuuksista verrattuna terveiden hevosten seerumin iohexolin pitoisuuksiin on suunnitteilla.
  • Mönki, Jenni; Saastamoinen, Markku; Karikoski, Ninja; Rajamäki, Minna; Raekallio, Marja; Junnila, Jouni; Särkijärvi, Susanna; Norring, Marianna; Valros, Anna; Oranen Ben Fatma, Silja; Mykkänen, Anna (2021)
    Bedding materials affect stable air hygiene, and thus the development and exacerbation of equine asthma. There is limited knowledge concerning the effects of different types of bedding material on equine lower airway inflammation. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of bedding materials on respiratory signs, tracheal mucus score, and lower airway cytology in healthy adult horses. The study design was a prospective controlled study, and the subjects were healthy adult riding school horses (n = 32) from a single stable. Wood shavings were compared to peat, which was used as a reference bedding material. Lower airway endoscopy and sampling (tracheal wash and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) for cytological examination were performed after each 35-day bedding period. No difference between bedding periods was observed in the respiratory rate or tracheal mucus score. Tracheal wash neutrophil percentage with the wood shavings was higher compared to the previous (P = 0.040) or following (P = 0.0045) peat period. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid neutrophil percentage with the wood shavings was higher compared to the following peat period (P <0.001). We conclude that, between the two bedding materials used in this study, peat caused less neutrophilic lower airway inflammation in horses. The information gained from this study may assist veterinarians and horse owners in selecting bedding materials, especially for horses suffering from equine asthma.
  • Gao, Jianguo (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Obesity and insulin resistance (IR) are key factors lead to equine metabolic syndrome and laminitis. Diet may play an important role in eliciting obesity by affecting insulin dynamics. Insulin-pathway signaling and mTORC1 genes may contribute to incred IR. The first objective of this study was to find and validate internal control genes for quantitative PCR method for adipose tissues in Finnhorse mares. The second aim was to quantitate the expression of mTORC1 and insulin-pathway associated genes after pasture season in two different treatment groups of Finnhorse mares and compare gene expression differences between treatment groups. In addition, gene expression differences were compared between two different adipose tissues. Twenty-two mares were equally divided into eleven equal pairs, the two mares of each group were randomly grazed either on cultivated high-yielding pasture (CG) or on semi-natural grassland (NG) from the end of May to the beginning of September. Eight pairs of Finnhorse mares were selected for gene expression profiling. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) samples were collected from two groups of Finnhorse mares after pasture season. Gene expression of neck and tailhead SAT were determined with quantitative Real-Time PCR method (qPCR). The selected internal control genes were actin beta (ACTB), glucuronidase beta (GUSB) and mitochondrial ribosomal protein L39 (MRPL39). Candidate genes were mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR), sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1), sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 2 (SREBF2), TBC1 domain family member 7 (TBC1D7), leptin (LEP), glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), tuberous sclerosis 1 (TSC1), tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2). There were no distinct gene expression differences between NG and CG groups in both neck and tailhead SAT. However, RBP4 had significantly (P=0.035) higher and GLUT4 had a trend (P=0.064) to higher mRNA expression in CG group in neck SAT. TSC1 had a trend (P=0.071) of higher expression in CG group in tailhead SAT. Gene expression differences were observed between tailhead and neck SAT. SREBF1 and GLUT4 had significantly (P=0.007 and P=0.026, respectively) higher expression levels in tailhead SAT compared to neck SAT. RBP4 had a trend (P=0.066) to higher expression in neck SAT compared to tailhead SAT. Minor differences in gene expression between NG and CG groups indicate that pasture-associated fat depositionmaynotconsiderably affect expressionof insulin-pathway and mTORC1 genes associated to obesity and IR in studied subcutaneous adipose tissues. These results also provide additional evidence to our hypothesis that fattening resulting on unrestricted grazing on cultivated high-yielding pasture does not increase the risk of metabolic diseases in Finnhorse mares when they have normal body condition at the beginning of the grazing season.
  • Tapio, H.; Raekallio, M. R.; Mykkänen, A.; Männikkö, S.; Scheinin, M.; Bennett, R. C.; Vainio, O. (2019)
    Background Medetomidine suppresses cardiovascular function and reduces gastrointestinal motility in horses mainly through peripheral alpha(2)-adrenoceptors. Vatinoxan, a peripheral alpha(2)-antagonist, has been shown experimentally to alleviate the adverse effects of some alpha(2)-agonists in horses. However, vatinoxan has not been investigated during constant-rate infusion (CRI) of medetomidine in standing horses. Objectives To evaluate effects of vatinoxan on cardiovascular function, gastrointestinal motility and on sedation level during CRI of medetomidine. Study design Experimental, randomised, blinded, cross-over study. Methods Six healthy horses were given medetomidine hydrochloride, 7 mu g/kg i.v., without (MED) and with (MED+V) vatinoxan hydrochloride, 140 mu g/kg i.v., followed by CRI of medetomidine at 3.5 mu g/kg/h for 60 min. Cardiorespiratory variables were recorded and borborygmi and sedation levels were scored for 120 min. Plasma drug concentrations were measured. The data were analysed using repeated measures ANCOVA and paired t-tests as appropriate. Results Initially heart rate (HR) was significantly lower and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) significantly higher with MED compared with MED+V. For example at 10 min HR (mean +/- s.d.) was 26 +/- 2 and 31 +/- 5 beats/minute (P = 0.04) and MAP 129 +/- 15 and 103 +/- 13 mmHg (P
  • Nocera, Irene; Bonelli, Francesca; Vitale, Valentina; Meucci, Valentina; Conte, Giuseppe; Jose-Cunilleras, Eduard; Gracia-Calvo, Luis Alfonso; Sgorbini, Micaela (2021)
    Simple Summary Procalcitonin (PCT) increased in the case of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), especially due to bacterial infection. The correlation between SIRS score and plasma PCT levels in horses have not been evaluated, and no studies investigated plasma PCT concentration over time. In the present study, PCT and SIRS score were evaluated in colic horses at admission to the hospital and at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Statistically differences were detected between healthy vs. all colic horses and between healthy vs. SIRS positive or SIRS negative horses. No correlation was observed between SIRS score and PCT. This suggests a role of plasmatic PCT as good biomarker for colic. Colic horses show systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) clinical signs. Procalcitonin (PCT) showed increased circulating levels in sick horses. This study compares plasma PCT concentrations in healthy vs. SIRS negative/positive colic horses over time, and evaluates PCT and SIRS score potential correlation, to verify the usefulness of PCT for the evaluation of SIRS severity. Ninety-one horses were included; 43/91 were healthy, on basis of physical examination, blood work and SIRS score (score = 0), while 48/91 were sick colic horses, classified as SIRS-negative (score < 2) and positive (score >= 2). Moreover, a 0-6 point-scale SIRS score was calculated (assessing mucous membrane color and blood lactate concentration). PCT was evaluated at admission, and at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, using a commercial kit for equine species. We verified by the ANOVA test PCT differences between healthy vs. colic horses, healthy vs. SIRS-negative or SIRS-positive colic horses, at all sampling times, and the correlation between the SIRS score at admission with the SIRS score. Statistically significant differences were detected between healthy vs. all colic horses and between healthy vs. SIRS-positive or negative horses at all sampling times. No correlation was observed between the SIRS score at admission and PCT values. PCT was statistically higher in colic horses compared to the healthy ones, suggesting a role as a biomarker for colic.
  • Tuomola, Kati; Maki-Kihniä, Nina; Kujala-Wirth, Minna; Mykkänen, Anna; Valros, Anna (2019)
    Oral lesions in the bit area are common in horses, but not comprehensively studied in harness racing horses. This study describes the type and occurrence of oral soft tissue lesions in the area affected by the bit, hereafter called the bit area, in trotters after a race. Based on our results, we suggest a system for scoring lesions according to size, type (bruise or wound), age, and depth (superficial or deep). The data was collected during a welfare program for trotters, conducted by The Finnish Trotting and Breeding Association (Suomen Hippos ry). The rostral part of the mouth of 261 horses (151 Standardbreds, 78 Finnhorses, and 32 ponies) was examined after a race in a systematic manner, using a bright light source without sedation or a mouth gag. The lip commissures (outside and inside), bars of the mandible, buccal area near the second upper premolar teeth, tongue, and hard palate were visually examined; bars of the mandible were also palpated. Points were assigned to every lesion and then added together, such that each horse got an acute lesion score. Based on the score, the horses were divided into four groups (A- D) as follows: Group A, no lesions; B, mild lesions; C, moderate lesions; D, severe lesions. Of all the horses examined, 84% (219/261) had acute lesions in the bit area. In total, 21% (55/261) had mild lesions, 43% (113/261) had moderate lesions, and 20% (51/261) had severe lesions. Visible bleeding outside the mouth was observed in 2% (6/261) of the horses. Further, 5% of the horses (13/261) had blood on the bit when it was removed from the mouth, even though no blood was visible outside the mouth. In conclusion, soft tissue lesions in the bit area were common in the Finnish trotters examined. Moreover, the absence of blood outside the mouth does not rule out serious injuries inside the mouth. The scoring system presented can be used for evaluating the severity of oral lesions in different equestrian disciplines and populations to allow for comparable data across studies.
  • Hukkinen, Vappu (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Sand enteropathy is a common form of equine colic in Finland. Detection of sand in the faeces of a horse is a widely known diagnostic method for intestinal sand accumulations. The plastic glove test is a faecal sand sedimentation test recognized by many equine practitioners. However, the diagnostic accuracy of the test is unknown, which restricts the use of the test. The main objective of this licentiate thesis was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the plastic glove test. The most reliable diagnostic method for intestinal sand accumulations is abdominal radiography, and therefore it was used as a gold standard method against which the plastic glove test was compared. The hypothesis was that there is a positive correlation between the results of the plastic glove test and abdominal radiography. The study was conducted by collecting a faecal sample and an abdominal radiograph from each participating horse. A total of 63 faecal samples were collected from 61 different horses. All the horses were patients at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the Helsinki University. The cranioventral abdomen of each horse was radiographed, and the length and height of the sand accumulations were recorded. The plastic glove test was performed by mixing faecal material (~200 grams) and water (1 litre) inside a rectal sleeve. The suspension was left to hang, and the amount of sand sediment in the fingertips was recorded after 30 minutes and 24 hours. Each fingertip of the glove was assessed separately on a 0-3 numerical scale and then added up to make a total score out of 15 for each horse. The results were compared in a 2 X 2 table and ROC analysis. According to this study, the sensitivity of the plastic glove test is 82,61% (95% confidence interval 68,58% to 92,18%) and the specificity is 71,43% (95% confidence interval 41,90% to 91,61%). The positive predictive value is 90,48%, while the negative predictive value is only 55,56%. In the ROC analysis the area under the curve (AUC) is 0,771 with a 95% confidence interval of 0,644 to 0,870. The plastic glove test is a moderately accurate diagnostic test. A positive test result is usually correct, but it does not inform the severity of the condition. It can be used as an indication for further examinations or treatment. A single negative test result should not be used to exclude the disease. The plastic glove test can be a helpful tool in the diagnosis of sand enteropathy in the horse, but should not be relied on as the sole method of diagnosis due to the poor specificity of the test. Since the reference population in this study was the patient material of the Equine Hospital, more reliable results could be obtained by using a more comprehensive and randomized representation of the entire Finnish horse population. It should also be noted that 29% of the horses had been treated with psyllium and/or magnesium sulphate prior to the testing.
  • Rosenqvist-Salo, Miia (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Tämä lisensiaatin tutkimus koostuu kolmesta osasta: kirjallisuuskatsauksesta, kokeellisesta osasta ja liitteistä. Hevosten mahahaavat ovat yleinen sairaus. Maha-suolikanavan mukoosa on vahingoittunut ja haavauma voi yltää lamina propriaan asti. Sairauden diagnosointi tapahtuu tyypillisesti kliinisten oireiden ja hoitovasteen perusteella. Ainoa varma diagnosointimenetelmä on mahan tähystys. Tähystys on kallista ja vaatii erityistaitoa, jonka vuoksi olisi tarve löytää vaihtoehtoinen diagnosointimenetelmä. Terve suoliston mukoosa ei läpäise sakkaroosia ja se hydrolysoidaan ohutsuolessa monosakkarideiksi, joka imeytyy ohutsuolen mukoosan läpi. Jos hevosella on mahahaava, mukoosa on vahingoittunut ja sakkaroosi pääsee imeytymään sen läpi. Imeytynyt sakkaroosi voidaan todeta veressä. Tämän perusteella seerumin sakkaroosi pitoisuuden mittaaminen voisi olla hyvä vaihtoehto mahahaavan diagnosointiin. Sakkaroosin pitoisuus mahdollisesti myös korreloi mahahaavan vakavuuden kanssa. Tämän hypoteesin selvittämiseksi on suunnitteilla tutkimus, jossa suuri määrä hevosia tähystetään, jonka jälkeen niille annostellaan sakkaroosia ja otetaan verinäyte. Verikokeista määritellään sakkaroosin määrä ja verrataan tulosta mahahaavan vakavuuteen. Tähystystä varten hevoset on rauhoitettava. Yleisimmin hevosen rauhoituksessa käytetään detomidiniä ja butorphanolia. Useiden tutkimusten mukaan nämä aineet vaikuttavat mahalaukun tyhjentymiseen hidastavasti. Jos mahalaukun tyhjentyminen hidastuu, sakkaroosi pysyy mahdollisesti pidempään mahalaukussa, mikä voi vaikuttaa sakkaroosin pitoisuuteen seerumissa. Sakkaroosin pitoisuuteen seerumissa voisi siis vaikuttaa se, onko hevonen rauhoitettu vai ei. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoite onkin selvittää rauhoituksen vaikutusta sakkaroosin imeytymiseen. Materiaalimme koostui kymmenestä terveestä hevosesta. Kaikille hevosille suoritettiin kliininen tutkimus ja niiltä otettiin verinäytteet maha-suolikanavan sairauden poissulkemiseksi. Ensimmäisessä kokeessa hevosille annosteltiin 16 tunnin paaston jälkeen 500 grammaa sakkaroosia 10 % -liuoksena nenämahaletkulla suoraan mahaan ja verinäytteet otettiin 0,45, 90, 135, 180 ja 225 minuuttia annostelun jälkeen. Seuraavassa kokeessa hevoset rauhoitettiin 16 tunnin paaston jälkeen ja niille suoritettiin mahalaukun tähystys. Tämän jälkeen niille annosteltiin sakkaroosi ja otettiin verikokeet ensimmäisen kokeen mukaisesti. Sakkaroosin pitoisuus veressä määritettiin GC-FID metodilla. Sakkaroosin pitoisuudesta tietyillä ajanhetkillä hevosen ollessa rauhoitettuna ja ei-rauhoitettuna muodostettiin kuvaajat. Sakkaroosi voitiin havaita seerumissa 45 minuutin kuluttua annostelusta ja sitä oli vielä havaittavissa 225 minuutin kohdalla. Ei-rauhoitetuilla hevosilla sakkaroosin seerumipitoisuudet olivat suuremmat kaikkina mittaus ajankohtina. Kuvaajan malli oli sama kummallakin ryhmällä. Ei-rauhoitetuilla hevosilla huippu tuli jo 45 minuutissa, kun se rauhoitetuilla hevosilla tuli 90 minuutissa. Rauhoitetuilla hevosilla sakkaroosin imeytyminen oli hitaampaa. Tähän selityksenä voi olla tähystys ja siihen liittyvä mahalaukun täyttäminen ilmalla, joka suoritettiin ainoastaan rauhoitetuilla hevosilla. Kuvaajien muotojen yhteneväisyyden perusteella sakkaroosin seerumipitoisuutta voidaan verrata rauhoitetuilla ja ei-rauhoitetuilla hevosilla, mutta viiterajojen pitää olla kummallakin ryhmällä erilaiset.
  • Pirinen, Nina; Pastell, Matti; Mykkänen, Anna; McGowan, Catherine; Hyytiäinen, Heli (2020)
    Foals' locomotory and lying-down behavior can be an indicator of their health and development. However, measurement tools have not been well described with previously reported attachment sites used on limbs of adult horses unsafe for longer-term data collection in foals. In this study, a tail-mounted three-dimensional accelerometer was validated for monitoring foals lying, standing, and walking behavior. Eleven foals were recruited: four hospitalized and seven at private breeding stables. Accelerometers were attached to the dorsal aspect of the base of each foal's tail and their behavior was video recorded. Hospitalized foals had continuous video monitoring inside their stalls, and the breeding stable's foals were monitored outside at pasture for 1-5 periods (mean 42 minutes per period), depending how long they were at the facility. Acceleration was measured using 100 Hz frequency and mean, maximum, and minimum acceleration were recorded in 5 second epochs for x-, y-, and z-axes. Lying, standing, and walking behavior was monitored from videos of all foals, and the start and end time of each behavior was compared with the corresponding data from the accelerometer. Naive Bayes classifier was developed by using dynamic body acceleration and craniocaudal movement of the tail (tilt along z-axis), to predict a foal's lying behavior. The model was validated; the classifier achieved high accuracy in precision and in classifying foals' lying behavior (specificity, 0.92; sensitivity, 0.89; precision, 0.98; accuracy, 0.92). The overall accuracy for classifying walking and standing was also good, but the precision was poor (0.46 and 0.24, respectively). When standing and walking behavior was combined to a single "standing or walking" class, the precision improved (specificity, 0.62; sensitivity, 0.92; precision, 0.89; accuracy, 0.92). In conclusion, tail-mounted three-dimensional accelerometer can be used for monitoring foals' lying behavior. In addition, information regarding standing and walking can be gained with this method. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Harjupatana, Sanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2007)
    Tämä syventävien opintojen kirjallinen osa koostuu kolmesta osasta: kirjallisuuskatsauksesta, kokeellisesta osasta sekä tapausselostuksista. Xyloosi on pentoosi sokeri, jota käytetään arvioitaessa hiilihydraattien imeytymistä sekä ohutsuolen tilaa useilla eläinlajeilla. Hevosella ohutsuolen tutkimisen tekee erityisen hankalaksi sen vaikea saavutettavuus ja suuri tilavuus sekä pituus. Xyloosin imeytymistesti on vain yksi monista diagnostisista keinoista, joilla pyritään ymmärtämään paremmin hevosen suoliston toimintaa. Testin etu on sen tunkeutumattomuus elimistöön sekä melko edullinen hinta. Hevosella testi on standardoitu jo yli 30 vuotta sitten. Xyloosin imeytymiseen vaikuttavat useat eri tekijät: ruokavalio, paaston pituus, suolen bakteerilajisto, mahan tyhjenemisnopeus, suolen liike, munuaisten toiminta, suolen sisältö, kudosten aineenvaihdunta sekä verenkierto. Xyloosin imeytymistestin normaaliarvot, joita tutkimuksessakin käytimme ovat: 1,37mmol/l +/- 0,33 mmol/l saavutettuna 60-90 min annostelun jälkeen. Tulehduksellinen suolistosairaus, IBD, on yksi sairauksista, jonka diagnostiikassa xyloosi imeytymistestiä käytetään. Tutkimusmateriaalimme koostui kolestakymmenestäkahdesta 2-20 vuotiaasta hevosesta, jotka olivat kärsineet toistuvista ähkyistä ja/tai laihtumisesta säännöllisestä madotuksesta, hampaiden hoidosta ja riittävästä ruokinnasta huolimatta. Hevosten omistajat vastasivat kattavaan kyselyyn hevosten historiasta. Hevosille suoritettiin Yliopistollisen eläinsairaalan hevosklinikalla perusteellinen tutkimusprotokolla, joka sisälsi seuraavat tutkimukset: kliininen yleistutkimus, kuntoluokitus, ontumatutkimus (tutkimukseen ei otettu hevosia, jotka ontuivat enemmän kuin 2/5 ravissa), keuhkojen ja vatsaontelon röntgenkuvaus, suoliston ultraäänitutkimus, vatsaontelonestenäyte, ulostenäyte, virtsanäyte, perusverenkuva ja seerumista maksa, munuasivarvot, elektrolyytit sekä lihasarvot, mahantähystys, peräsuolikoepala sekä xyloosin imeytysmistesti. Kliininen tulehduksellisen suolistosairauden diagnoosi tehtiin sulkemalla muut mahdolliset vastaavien oireiden aiheuttajat sekä normaalista poikkeavien imeytymistesti tulosten, peräsuolikoepalojen ja muiden mahdollisten löydösten perusteella. Muita löydöksiä olivat tyypillisesti paksuuntunut suoli ultraäänitutkimuksessa, poikkevat valkosolu- ja fibrinogeeniarvot. Hypoteesimme oli seuraava: merkittävällä osalla hevosista, joitka kärsivät toistuvista ähkyistä tai laihtumisesta olisi epänormaali xyloosin imeytyminen. Oletimme myös, että xyloosi imeytymistesti yhdistettynä perusteelliseen suoliston tutkimukseen olisi hyvä tapa diagnostisoida tulehduksellinen suolistosairaus ilman lapratomiaa. Materiaalissamme melko monella hevosella, jotka kärsivät toistuvista ähkyistä ja/tai laihtumisesta oli epänormaali xyloosin imeytyminen (15/31). Yhdeksällä hevosella oli alentunut xyloosin imeytyminen, ja yhdeksällä viivästynyt (kolme hevosta kuului molempiin ryhmiin). Tulehduksellinen suolistosairaus varmistettiin ruumiinavauksessa kolmella hevosella, kliininen diagnoosi tehtiin kahdeksalle. Muutkin sairaudet voivat aiheuttaa epänormaalin xyloosin imeytymisen. Tällaisia ovat esimerkiksi kasvaimet, jollaisia diagnosoitiin tässä tutkimuksessa kahdella hevosella, joilla oli epänormaalin alhainen xyloosin imeytyminen. Tulehduksellinen suolistosairaus-diagnoosi perustuu pitkälti muiden syiden poissulkemiseen. Xyloosi absorptio testi ei siis ole yksinään diagnostinen taudille, mutta sitä voidaan käyttää osana laajempaa tutkimusprotokollaa tulehduksellisen suolistosairauden diagnostiikassa hevosella.