Browsing by Subject "housing"

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  • Boonjubun, Chaitawat (2019)
    Gated communities, one of those originally Western developments, have suddenly been found in cities in the Global South. “Gated communities”, often defined on the basis of their physical form, have been criticized for disconnecting residents from their neighbors outside the gates and reducing social encounters between them. Focusing on cities in the Global South, a large body of research on social encounters between the residents of gated communities and others outside has used case studies of the middle class living in gated communities versus the poor living outside in slums, squats, or public housing. The assumption that gated communities are regarded as enclosed residential spaces exclusively for the middle class, while the poor are found solely in “informal” settlements, may have an effect of stigmatizing the poor and deepening class divisions. It is rare to find studies that take into account the possibility that there also exist gated communities in which the poor are residents. This article examines who the residents of gated communities are, and at the same time analyzes the extent to which people living in gated communities socialize with others living outside. Based on the results of qualitative research in Bangkok, Thailand, in particular, the article critically studies enclosed high-rise housing estates and shows the following: Walls and security measures have become standard features in new residential developments; not only the upper classes, but also the poor live in gated communities; the amenities which gated communities provide are available to outsiders as well; and residents living in gated communities do not isolate themselves inside the walls but seek contact and socialize with outsiders. This article argues that the Western concept of “gated communities” needs to be tested and contextualized in the study of cities in the Global South.
  • Tamminen, Petro (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    In this study ecoefficiency of residential buildings is estimated with MIPSmethod. MIPSmethod focuses on the natural resource (so. material) use. Apart from the material efficiency also required energy and carbon dioxide emissions during the construction period and maintenance were also counted in this study. Under the maintenanceperiod only the energy flowed through the building cover was taken into account. The maintenance period was 50 years. The study covered 14 different buildings from which nine where single family houses and five blocks of flats. MIPSindicator is based on material flows. It uses them as criteria of ecoefficiency. The aim is to calculate the hidden material flows caused during the manufacturing of products. MIPSvalues can be calculated with MIfactors published by Wuppertalinstitute. MIPS is rough and simplifying method but on the other hand its advantage is a ability to illustrate one of the important areas of ecoefficiency. Most of the natural resources used by the residential building are related to foundations of buildings. For example more than half of natural resources use caused by wooden houses are related to foundations. Also the maintenance consumes natural resources across the energy use. With maintenance it takes decades to reach the level of construction period. When calculating the carbon dioxide emissions the maintenance is more significant. It takes only around ten years to reach the level of emissions caused by construction period. Wood as a construction material is the most ecoefficient choice. Block of flats is more ecoefficient than single family house with any indicator. According to this study, the wooden blocks of flats are the most ecoefficient choice.
  • Qian, Cao (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    The Master’s thesis is qualitative research based on interviews of 15 Chinese immigrants to Finland in order to provide a sociological perspective of the migration experience through the eyes of Chinese immigrants in the Finnish social welfare context. This research is mainly focused upon four crucial aspects of life in the settlement process: housing, employment, access to health care and child care. Inspired by Allardt’s theoretical framework ‘Having, Loving and Being’, social relationships and individual satisfaction are examined in the case of Chinese interviewees dealing with the four life aspects. Finland was not perceived as an attractive migration destination for most Chinese interviewees in the beginning. However, with longer residence in Finland, the Finnish social welfare system gradually became a crucial appealing factor in their permanent settlement in Finland. And meanwhile, social responsibility of attending their old parents in China, strong feelings of being isolated in Finland, and insufficient integration into the Finnish society were influential factors for their decision of returning to China. Social relationships with personal friends, migration brokers, schools, employers and family relatives had great influences in the four life aspects of Chinese immigrants in Finland. The social relationship with the Finnish social welfare sector is supportive to Chinese immigrants, but Chinese immigrants do not heavily rely on Finnish social protection. The housing conditions were greatly improved over time while the upward mobility in the Finnish labour market was not significant among Chinese immigrants. All Chinese immigrants were satisfied with their current housing by the time I interviewed them while most of them had subjective feelings of being alienated in the Finnish labour market, which seriously prevented them from integrating into the Finnish society. In general, Chinese immigrants were satisfied with the low cost of accessing the Finnish public health care services and affordable Finnish child day care services and financial subsidies for children from the Finnish social welfare sector. This research also suggests that employment is the central basis in well-being. Support from the Finnish social welfare sector can improve the satisfaction levels among immigrants, especially when it mitigates the effects of low-paid employment. As well, my empirical study of Chinese immigrants in Finland shows that Having (needs for materials), Loving (needs for social relations) and Being (needs for social integration) are all involved in the four concrete aspects (housing, employment, access to health care and child care).
  • Åhlgren, Johanna; Voikar, Vootele (2019)
    Individually ventilated caging (IVC) systems for rodents are increasingly common in laboratory animal facilities. However, the impact of such substantial change in housing conditions on animal physiology and behavior is still debated. Most importantly, there arise the questions regarding reproducibility and comparison of previous or new phenotypes between the IVC and open cages. The present study was set up for detailed and systematic comparison of behavioral phenotypes in male and female mice of three widely used inbred strains (C57BL/6JRccHsd, DBA/2JRccHsd, 129S2/SvHSd) after being kept in two housing environments (IVC and open cages) for 6?weeks (since 4?weeks of age) before behavioral testing. The tests addressed exploratory, anxiety-like and stress-related behavior (light-dark box, open field, forced swim test, stress-induced hyperthermia), social approach and species-specific behavior (nest building, marble burying). In all tests, large and expected strain differences were found. Somewhat surprisingly, the most striking effect of environment was found for basal body temperature and weight loss after one night of single housing in respective cages. In addition, the performance in light-dark box and open field was affected by environment. Several parameters in different tests showed significant interaction between housing and genetic background. In summary, the IVC housing did not invalidate the well-known differences between the mouse strains which have been established by previous studies. However, within the strains the results can be influenced by sex and housing system depending on the behavioral tasks applied. The bottom-line is that the environmental conditions should be described explicitly in all publications.
  • Määttänen, Niku Ilmari (2021)
    In many countries, owner-occupied housing enjoys a tax-favoured status relative to rental housing and many other forms of wealth. I first use simple examples to illustrate why the tax status of owner-occupied housing relates crucially to the tax treatment of the so-called imputed rent and mortgage interest expenses. I then discuss other issues related to capital income taxation as well as property taxation and housing market transaction taxes against basic principles of good taxation, referring to tax policies in the Nordic countries. I also discuss the connection between certain macroprudential policies and housing taxation.
  • Kemppainen, Teemu Tapio; Elovainio, Marko Juhani; Kortteinen, Matti Mikael; Vaattovaara, Mari Kaarina (2020)
    Involuntary staying, or a desire to move without the possibility to do so, is an under-studied topic. In this study, we examine involuntary staying among the residents of post-Second World War Finnish housing estates; we study its frequency, association with self-rated health and role in the relationship between neighbourhood disadvantage and self-rated health. Involuntary staying and poor health are expected to be associated through long-term stress related to housing and health-based selection in inconvenient housing outcomes. Furthermore, we address the self-perceived reasons for involuntary staying and the interaction between involuntary staying and household income. Two types of involuntary staying are distinguished, depending on whether a resident wants to move within or away from the current neighbourhood. The survey data (n = 7369) from a stratified cluster sample of the residents of 70 Finnish housing estate neighbourhoods are combined with the corresponding geo-referenced register data on these neighbourhoods’ sociodemographic characteristics. Of the residents, 35% are found to be involuntary stayers, and over half of the involuntary stayers want to move away from their current neighbourhoods. Financial concern is the most common self-perceived reason for involuntary staying. Both types of involuntary staying are associated with low self-rated health after adjusting for potential confounders. Being trapped in the current neighbourhood partially mediates the adjusted association between neighbourhood disadvantage and self-rated health. The association between self-rated health and involuntary staying is not modified by household income. In conclusion, involuntary staying is common in the study population and furthers the understanding about neighbourhood inequalities in health.
  • Piippo, Iida (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Housing prices in many countries have experienced large run-ups and downturns which indicates that the housing market is not working efficiently. Understanding the factors affecting the house price movement is important to be able to prevent radical price changes and maintain economic stability. One cause for the inefficiency in the housing market has been proposed to be the money illusion. Money illusionary agents make inflation adjustment errors by discounting the future real payoffs with nominal rather than real interest rate. This irrational behavior of agents has been shown to cause pricing errors especially at the times when inflation is exceptionally high or low. The money illusion hypothesis has widely been studied in the context of the financial and housing market. This thesis contributes to the existing literature by studying if there is evidence of the money illusion in the Finnish housing market. Many of the studies have focused on the major economic markets like the UK and the US, so there are not many studies from the perspective of a national market with different institutional setting and market features. The empirical framework is based on the decomposition of the price-rent ratio. The intention is to differentiate the fundamentals of the housing market to study how different unobservable factors affect housing. Housing is considered as a dividend paying asset as in the financial market approach. The study shows that there is a link between inflation and price-rent ratio. Inflation can affect prices through the rational component, risk premia or pricing errors. Money illusion suggests that inflation affect prices through the pricing error. In the model, the agents are allowed to have subjective expectations in order to be able to obtain the pricing error which is the difference between the rational agents objective expectations and irrational agents subjective expectations. The results from the Finnish housing market differ from other studies documenting strong evidence in favor of the money illusion. There is no strong evidence to the hypothesis that inflation and nominal interest rate would explain the movements in the pricing error. However, the rational component and the risk premia of the housing are highly correlated with inflation and nominal interest rates. The results of this study show more support for the rational channels than to the irrational channels for explaining the detected link between housing prices and inflation. The study also shows that part of the correlation between inflation and price-rent ratio can be explained by business cycle fluctuations. Thus, the study does not find strong evidence of money illusion having an effect on the Finnish housing market.
  • Jauhiainen, Signe; Kaarakainen, Minna Susanna; Koistinen, Katri Ursula (2017)
    Suomen väestö ikääntyy, mutta yhä useampi ikääntynyt viettää eläkevuosiaan aiempaa terveempänä. Asumisvaihtoehtojen, palveluiden ja rahoitusmuotojen on tulevaisuudessa vastattava entistä paremmin entistä heterogeenisemman ikääntyneiden joukon tarpeisiin. Julkinen sektori on perinteisesti tukenut asumispalveluita ja tarjonnut kansalaisille hoivapalveluita. Viime vuosikymmenten aikana mukaan on tullut yksityisiä palveluntuottajia ja kolmannen sektorin toimijoita. Suurin osa ikääntyvistä asuu kotona ja haluaa asua siellä jatkossakin. Monet ikääntyneet asuvat kuitenkin asunnoissa, jotka eivät vastaa heidän tarpeitaan, esimerkiksi koon, sijainnin tai esteettömyyden osalta. Itsenäisen omistus- ja vuokra-asumisen lisäksi tarjolla on muun muassa seniori- ja yhteisöasumista. Rahoitusvaihtoehdot asumis- ja hoivapalveluiden hankintaan ovat sen sijaan rajalliset, vaikka kotitalouksille on kertynyt säästöjä, joita he voisivat käyttää. Ikäihmisten määrän ja laatuvaatimusten kasvu sekä yksilölliset asumistoiveet luovat tarpeen yhdistää yksityinen ja julkinen rahoitus joustavasti ja kestävästi.
  • Aalbers, Manuel; Haila, Anne-Kaarina Elise (2018)
    Manuel B Aalbers and Anne Haila discuss their respective recent books, The Financialization of Housing: A Political Economy Approach (Aalbers, 2016) and Urban Land Rent: Singapore as a Property State (Haila, 2016). Their debate focuses on issues such as comparative research, a political econ- omy approach to urban studies, and topics of interest such as land rent, financialisation, housing, property states, path dependency, regulation and the role of the state.
  • Kahraman, Sefer Faruk (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This thesis studies the case of waqf land in the Islamic tradition, investigating waqf land use in Bangkok. This thesis takes the form of a case study involving the Islamic charitable practice known as waqf and its influence on the social issues around land and access to affordable housing in Bangkok, Thailand. The point is to find out how the waqf land use on housing address the urban housing question. Waqf is a permanent dedication of ones property for any charitable purposes. It is a form of charity that generally applies to non-perishable properties such as land and buildings. These properties held in trust are meant to serve the public good as well as the social welfare and the empowerment of the local community. Rent theory is the theoretical framework of this thesis. Fundamentally, rent theory is understood as the social relation between the landlord and the tenant. The main feature of rent theory is that private landownership becomes much more detrimental compared to land ownership in rural land. Simply a title of that land on an urban setting gives the landowner the power and ability to extract extreme rents from the residents who make their lives on the land. This means that rent plays a coordinating role in the development of the built environment. Private land ownership privileges power for landowners in validating and determining land use that would benefit them solely, often at the expense of users. Empirical data is collected by semi-structured interviews with mosque committee members who administer and manage donated waqf lands in four separate cases. The main findings are as follows: waqf lands are being used in four ways: mosque, school, cemetery and housing. Among these, waqf lands are most reserved for the use of housing allocated for the poor community. When a land is endowed, it is to be used for the public benefit of the community under the management of the mosque committee as the trustee. The mosque committee considers and evaluates the best possible use of the land to serve the community. The residents are evaluated and selected based on the urgency of their housing need, prioritizing the homeless, disabled and the orphaned. The mosque committee collects little to no rents from the residents. The rents are well below market rates and the money is used to cover utilities or pooled back in to the community functions. The waqf land cases that are investigated in this thesis prove the importance of social relations and communal values.