Browsing by Subject "human pluripotent stem cells"

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  • Harjumaki, Riina; Zhang, Xue; Nugroho, Robertus Wahyu N.; Farooq, Muhammad; Lou, Yan-Ru; Yliperttula, Marjo; Valle-Delgado, Juan Jose; Osterberg, Monika (2020)
    Transmembrane protein integrins play a key role in cell adhesion. Cell-biomaterial interactions are affected by integrin expression and conformation, which are actively controlled by cells. Although integrin structure and function have been studied in detail, quantitative analyses of integrin-mediated cell-biomaterial interactions are still scarce. Here, we have used atomic force spectroscopy to study how integrin distribution and activation (via intracellular mechanisms in living cells or by divalent cations) affect the interaction of human pluripotent stem cells (WA07) and human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2) with promising biomaterials.human recombinant laminin-521 (LN-521) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNF). Cell adhesion to LN-521-coated probes was remarkably influenced by cell viability, divalent cations, and integrin density in WA07 colonies, indicating that specific bonds between LN-521 and activated integrins play a significant role in the interactions between LN-521 and HepG2 and WA07 cells. In contrast, the interactions between CNF and cells were nonspecific and not influenced by cell viability or the presence of divalent cations. These results shed light on the underlying mechanisms of cell adhesion, with direct impact on cell culture and tissue engineering applications.
  • Chang, Mingyang; Bogacheva, Mariia S.; Lou, Yan-Ru (2021)
    The current organoid culture systems allow pluripotent and adult stem cells to self-organize to form three-dimensional (3D) structures that provide a faithful recapitulation of the architecture and function of in vivo organs. In particular, human pluripotent stem cell-derived liver organoids (PSC-LOs) can be used in regenerative medicine and preclinical applications, such as disease modeling and drug discovery. New bioengineering tools, such as microfluidics, biomaterial scaffolds, and 3D bioprinting, are combined with organoid technologies to increase the efficiency of hepatic differentiation and enhance the functional maturity of human PSC-LOs by precise control of cellular microenvironment. Long-term stabilization of hepatocellular functions of in vitro liver organoids requires the combination of hepatic endodermal, endothelial, and mesenchymal cells. To improve the biological function and scalability of human PSC-LOs, bioengineering methods have been used to identify diverse and zonal hepatocyte populations in liver organoids for capturing heterogeneous pathologies. Therefore, constructing engineered liver organoids generated from human PSCs will be an extremely versatile tool in in vitro disease models and regenerative medicine in future. In this review, we aim to discuss the recent advances in bioengineering technologies in liver organoid culture systems that provide a timely and necessary study to model disease pathology and support drug discovery in vitro and to generate cell therapy products for transplantation.
  • Mankila, Anja; Mankila, Anja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of mortality worldwide. More adequate human-based models would be needed for the purposes of disease modeling and drug development. One of the most promising fields of in vitro modeling is the use of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs). A central problem of hPSC-CMs is their immature or fetal-like phenotype compared to adult human cardiomyocytes regarding many structural, functional, and metabolic properties. The development of metabolic properties is considered to be a central driver of cardiomyocyte maturation. One practicable way to promote the metabolic maturation of hPSC-CMs in vitro is the use of various biochemical cues in the cell culturing media. The topic of this study was the metabolic maturation of hPSC-CMs. The research questions were: What biochemical cues have been suggested to be involved in the hPSC-CM maturation in vitro? What signaling pathways connected to the biochemical cues have been explored in the context of the maturation of hPSC-CM? What experimental results have been achieved on the effects of the biochemical cues and the involvement of the signaling pathways? The study was conducted as a systematic review with the database Scopus (Elsevier). The final set of materials consisted of 46 original research articles published in peer-reviewed journals in English in the years 2013–2022. Out of the materials, 11 articles (24%) were characteristically longitudinal studies. They indicated that the pathways leading to metabolic changes such as PPARs (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors) and PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α) are activated already in early stages. In 12 articles (26%), pharmacological agents were used to target the metabolic pathways, and in 8 articles (17%) techniques affecting the gene expression were utilized. The most recent studies involved ever more frequently combinations of different techniques. Considering the use of biochemical cues, the trend has been to favor fatty acids, thyroid hormone and dexamethasone over glucose, insulin and insulin-like growth factor. Some cues such as retinoic acid and neuregulin 1 have been tested only in single experiments. In addition to the nuclear receptor mediated pathways, the energy sensors AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) and mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin), the oxygen sensor HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1α), and the microRNAs turned out to be central.