Browsing by Subject "human security"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-5 of 5
  • Kasi, Marianna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Intelligence agencies have become a significant element of security in contemporary societies. While new, more expansive intelligence methods have been utilised to contain potential security threats, national intelligence cultures have been challenged by more democratic understandings of intelligence and security on a societal level. As part of this transformation, intelligence agencies have encountered growing demands in the public sphere to strengthen their transparency and accountability. In this process, news media have a special role as an arena and an intelligence stakeholder to promote the democratisation of intelligence. The aim of this thesis is to study the democratisation of intelligence by analysing the shaping of national intelligence culture in news media discourses that covered the intelligence reform in Finland. Its theoretical framework is anchored to the concept of national intelligence culture and intelligence stakeholder theory which are linked to security and human security intelligence paradigms. The theoretical framework is complemented with Hallin’s theory on news media coverage in the spheres of consensus, legitimate controversy, and deviance to study how the news media discourses regarding Finnish intelligence reform have shaped the national intelligence culture in Finland. The qualitative case study is based on a data set of 216 online news articles published between August 2015 and June 2019 in a national news media outlet Helsingin Sanomat. The news content is analysed using qualitative content analysis and Fairclough’s approach to critical discourse analysis. The results of this study imply that the intelligence stakeholders represented in news media discourses can agree on the foundations of Finnish national intelligence culture. The study findings indicate that in the sphere of consensus, the stakeholders agreed on the necessity of intelligence reform, the existence of new threats in the security environment and the stagnant development of Finland’s intelligence powers compared to its Western counterparts. However, in the sphere of legitimate controversy, several intelligence stakeholders including news media considered constitutional rights more important than national security interests, demanded more transparency and accountability in intelligence operations and challenged the public trust in the legislative process. Finally, the findings in the sphere of deviance revealed that significant stakeholders, such as citizens, civil society organisations and businesses, were excluded from the news media discourses. Thus, the results indicated that the stakeholders who were strongly represented in the news media have been able to significantly influence the discourses on the purpose and future of intelligence in Finland.
  • Sykes, Kirsi-Mari Kristiina (2006)
    Human Security and Sovereignty – Case of Canada’s Foreign Policy for Human Security, is a textual and conceptual analysis on state sovereignty and human security and of Canada’s foreign policy for human security. Human security refers to securing the individual, where state sovereignty refers to the security of a state. In the increasingly interconnected world, the traditional structures of state sovereignty are no longer enough. Therefore, the underlying argument of this research is that traditional state sovereignty can be complemented with human security. Hence, sovereignty and human security form a continuum of a more inclusive security. The purpose of this research is to demonstrate why Canada has integrated human security into its foreign policy and how the adoption of this policy has influenced the wider Canadian foreign policy. This is done by first providing an analysis on the main structures of both state sovereignty and human security. Second, Canada’s role as a peacekeeping nation and wealthy middle power state have influenced the decision for adopting such a policy. In addition, Canada’s multilateral diplomacy has played an important role in advancing human security agenda. Third, Canada’s five human security agenda areas are introduced and analyzed in order to demonstrate how the human security agenda works and how it has influenced the overall foreign policy. These five areas are public safety, protection of civilians, conflict prevention, governance and accountability and peace support operations. This research identifies three main issues that have influenced the overall Canadian foreign policy since the adoption of foreign policy for human security. First, the former Foreign Minister Lloyd Axworthy successfully introduced human security into Canada’s foreign policy. This left Canada with an actual human security foreign policy. Second, an important milestone was the Canadian government sponsored Responsibility to Protect – Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty in 2001. This report set out a shift towards commitment to the protection of civilians, hence providing greater human security. Third, Canada has taken active leadership role in major international projects to improve human security. The main successes have been the banning of landmines and the International Criminal Court. These successes have granted Canada more credibility on an international level. This research concludes that although Canada is to be applauded for its leadership role in advancing human security and following up with legislative action, there is a clear lack of financial dedication to the various human security areas and military investment towards peace support operations. The primary sources used are Canadian government’s documents on human security and the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade websites. Additionally, McRae and Hubert’s Human Security and the New Diplomacy provides a comprehensive overview of Canada’s long-term efforts in integrating human security into actual policy. Secondary sources include articles in academic journals, websites of non-governmental organizations and various UN organizations’ documents.
  • Selenius, Emma (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change devised the Kyoto Protocol in 1997, but this agreement was to be just the starting phase in restricting emissions, and a more comprehensive agreement would come right after the first term of the Protocol. The Copenhagen Summit in December 2009 was to be the meeting where a new agreement would be adopted. However, preliminary negotiations leading up to the Summit revealed that consensus was very hard to reach. Despite these disagreements, the Copenhagen Summit was rallied to be the one where the world shows commitment to the cause and unites to fight climate change. By the time the Summit started, the gap between expectations and reality was enormous. The Summit was not a success. Developing countries were adamant that the main negotiating track had to be a second term for the Kyoto Protocol. The US President Barack Obama was under domestic pressure to make sure that the US only commits to an agreement that includes all the largest polluters. China was holding on to the principle of 'common but differentiated responsibilities' and refused to agree to binding emission restrictions and international monitoring. The deadlock did not unravel until the Chair of the Summit gathered an informal negotiation group as a last minute plea. This high-level group drafted an Accord that was not based on the work of the UNFCCC working groups and presented it to the Plenary meeting on the last night of the Summit. Various developing countries announced immediately that they would not accept the Accord and so the Summit compromised to 'take note' of the Accord instead of adopting it. No binding agreement was reached. The aim of this Thesis is to examine the Copenhagen Summit as a failure and to discuss the most evident problems of the Summit in relation to theories of power, participation and compliance. All the subsidiary and working groups of the Summit are examined individually in order to get a comprehensive idea of the structure and the proceedings of the UNFCCC negotiating process. Major disagreements are discussed in relation to the structural level, and the dramatic events of the last days are examined in detail in order to get an idea of what finally sunk the possibility of a success. The way the Summit ended directs the Thesis towards a discussion about inequality and differentiated responsibilities in relation to participation and compliance in a policy field that could well be seen as a multi-level Prisoner’s Dilemma. As many of the developing countries pleaded to the principle of 'common but differentiated responsibilities', discussion on structural constraints of international environmental policy forms a large part of the analysis. Lukes’ three dimensions of power give a framework for the study of power at the institutional level. The inequality of the UNFCCC participants is explained through the historical development of the world order, using the narrative of the world-systems theory. The Thesis concludes with a discussion addressing the most evident problems of the UNFCCC institution and ends with a suggestion. Climate change is an issue of human security and therefore a full securitisation of climate change might enable the Security Council to get involved in the policy-making process. Although acknowledging the problem of democratic deficit in the Security Council, the Thesis proposes that by using an economy of esteem, the permanent members of the Security Council might feel obliged to use their authority to ensure that human security will not become threatened because of the effects of climate change. This would not be more democratic or transparent but might bring more results than the UNFCCC at its present form.
  • Hossain, Kamrul; Cambou, Dorothée (Routledge, 2018)
    The Arctic-Barents Region is facing numerous pressures from a variety of sources, including the effect of environmental changes and extractive industrial developments. The threats arising out of these pressures result in human security challenges. This book analyses the formation, and promotion, of societal security within the context of the Arctic-Barents Region. It applies the human security framework, which has increasingly gained currency at the UN level since 1994 (UNDP), as a tool to provide answers to many questions that face the Barents population today. The study explores human security dimensions such as environmental security, economic security, health, food, water, energy, communities, political security and digital security in order to assess the current challenges that the Barents population experiences today or may encounter in the future. In doing so, the book develops a comprehensive analysis of vulnerabilities, challenges and needs in the Barents Region and provides recommendations for new strategies to tackle insecurity and improve the wellbeing of both indigenous and local communities. This book will be a valuable tool for academics, policy-makers and students interested in environmental and human security, sustainable development, environmental studies and the Arctic and Barents Region in particular.
  • Modovan, Daniela (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    This Master’s thesis is an ethnographic study that focuses on Romanian transnational migrant families. It explores, from an anthropological perspective the transformations that have happened in the lives of the Romanian migrants in Spain, on how the context of migration influences people’s lives and on how the changes are perceived by the migrants. The fieldwork was conducted in 2014 in a Romanian Community situated in a small village near Roquetas del Mar, Almeria, in the Southern part of Spain. The collected material consists of 15 interviews, participant observation diary and a collection of photos and videos. The data was analyzed using micro-interpretive social constructionism. Through thematic analysis, three important changes were identified. The first theme concentrates on the changes that have happened in the perception of family and family life. Hence, the research examines how the concept of family has changed and how the family has been constructed in the migration context. The second theme explores the experiences of the migrants from a human security perspective. The manner in which migrants perceive their human security is reflected in their daily discourse and it has a significant influence on their behaviour. The third theme of this study focuses on the religious transformation. The aim of this section is to investigate how the everyday religion has been changing in the migration context and how people have been making sense of their religious experiences. This study is unable to encompass the entire complexity of the changes that have happened in the lives of the Romanian migrants. However, it sheds a new light on specific changes that are important for the migrants. Since this is a qualitative based research that draws on a limited number of participants, it is impossible to generalize the results. Nevertheless, this research provides new insights into subjects that previous studies have not dealt with in much detail.