Browsing by Subject "humanistinen"

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  • Keskisarja, Teemu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Bestiality was in the 18th century a more difficult problem in terms of criminal policy in Sweden and Finland than in any other Christian country in any other period. In the legal history of deviant sexuality, the phenomenon was uniquely widespread by international comparison. The number of court cases per capita in Finland was even higher than in Sweden. The authorities classified bestiality among the most serious crimes and a deadly sin. The Court of Appeal in Turku opted for an independent line and was clearly more lenient than Swedish courts of justice. Death sentences on grounds of bestiality ended in the 1730s, decades earlier than in Sweden. The sources for the present dissertation include judgment books and Court of Appeal decisions in 253 cases, which show that the persecution of those engaging in bestial acts in 18th century Finland was not organised by the centralised power of Stockholm. There is little evidence of local campaigns that would have been led by authorities. The church in its orthodoxy was losing ground and the clergy governed their parishes with more pragmatism than the Old Testament sanctioned. When exposing bestiality, the legal system was compelled to rely on the initiative of the public. In cases of illicit intercourse or adultery the authorities were even more dependent on the activeness of the local community. Bestiality left no tangible evidence, illegitimate children, to betray the crime to the clergy or secular authorities. The moral views of the church and the local community were not on a collision course. It was a common view that bestiality was a heinous act. Yet nowhere near all crimes came to the authorities' knowledge. Because of the heavy burden of proof, the legal position of the informer was difficult. Passiveness in reporting the crime was partly because most Finns felt it was not their place to intervene in their neighbours' private lives, as long as that privacy posed no serious threat to the neighbourhood. Hidden crime was at least as common as crime more easily exposed and proven. A typical Finnish perpetrator of bestiality was a young unmarried man with no criminal background or mental illness. The suspects were not members of ethnic minorities or marginal social groups. In trials, farmhands were more likely to be sentenced than their masters, but a more salient common denominator than social and economical status was the suspects' young age. For most of the defendants bestiality was a deep-rooted habit, which had been adopted in early youth. This form of subculture spread among the youth, and the most susceptible to experiment with the act were shepherds. The difference between man and animal was not clear-cut or self-evident. The difficulty in drawing the line is evident both in legal sources and Finnish folklore. The law that required that the animal partners be slaughtered led to the killing of thousands of cows and mares, and thereby to substantial material losses to their owners. Regarding bestiality as a crime against property motivated people to report it. The belief that the act would produce human-animal mongrels or that it would poison the milk and the meat horrified the public more than the teachings of the church ever could. Among the most significant aspects in the problems regarding the animals is how profoundly different the worldview of 18th century people was from that of today.
  • Sandman, Erika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    My dissertation is a comprehensive grammatical description of the Wutun language (ISO 639-3 WUH), a distinct local form of Northwest Mandarin spoken by approximately 4000 people in Upper Wutun, Lower Wutun and Jiacangma villages in Tongren County, Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province, People s Republic of China. While the basic vocabulary and grammatical morphemes of Wutun are mainly of Chinese origin, it has adapted phonologically and structurally to its current linguistic environment, where varieties of Amdo Tibetan are dominant regional languages and lingua francas. The Tibetan influence manifests itself in all domains of Wutun grammatical structure, including phonology, morphology, syntax and lexicon. This has yielded some phonological and grammatical properties that are unusual for a Sinitic language and cross-linguistically rare, including the size of the phoneme inventory, multiple aspect marking and egophoricity. In addition, there are some grammatical features, such as the paucal-plural distinction and sociative case marking, which represent areal interference from Bonan, a small Mongolic language spoken in the immediate vicinity of Wutun-speaking villages. The dissertation is based on first-hand field data collected during three field trips to the province of Qinghai in June-August 2007, June-August 2010 and June-July 2013. My data consists of approximately 1300 clauses of descriptive and narrative texts as well as conversations that were complemented by elicitation and grammaticality judgements. The theoretical framework used for language description is based on an informal descriptive theory referred to in the literature as Basic Linguistic Theory (BLT) (Dixon 1997, 2010; Dryer 2006). My dissertation aims to detail aspects of Wutun phonology, morphology and syntax, including phoneme inventory, noun phrase, verb complex, minor word classes, clause structure, non-declarative speech acts and clause combining. It also includes an appendix with three oral texts in Wutun. It is my hope that the present study will be accessible to a wide audience, including linguists working on Sino-Tibetan languages, languages of Northwest China, linguistic typology and historical linguistics.
  • Naarajärvi, Teemu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This dissertation analyses the role development of the People s Republic of China during the time between the 16th and 18th party congresses of the Chinese Communist Party (2002 and 2012). Employing the theoretical framework of constructivist role theory, this study argues that during this time China's international roles - social positions based on national role conceptions as well as domestic and external expectations towards those roles - went through significant changes that were originally resisted by the Chinese state. By tracing the processes of China's role change I create a historical narrative in which I compare three different cases of China's peripheral foreign policy: Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and Japan. All these cases involve China's territorial disputes, highlighting the interactional nature of a nation's international roles, and giving this work additional focus. As my primary material I use speeches of the Chinese top leadership during the time frame of my study. By analysing the speech acts of the national leaders and by comparing them to developments in Chinese foreign policy, I reconstruct the process of China's role change in each of the three cases. To provide additional evidence, I also use Chinese articles in two major international relations journals in China, 现代国际 关系 (Xiandai Guoji Guanxi) and 国际问题 研究 (Guoji Wenti Yanjiu), as well as selected interviews among scholars of international relations in the Sinophone World. The first of my case studies discusses China's role change in Central Asia, where China, according to my study, first learned how to enact the role of a great power. The second case study looks into the development of China's international role towards Southeast Asia, where the ongoing disputes on the South China Sea and China's need to engage more with ASEAN, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, led China to adapt its great power role. The third and final case study analyses the resistance that China's great power role has met with Japan, making both role learning and adapting ineffective. Thus, China has resorted to altercasting, by continuing to emphasise Japan s inadequate handling of its wartime history, thus trying to undermine the position of Japan. With this dissertation I also test the applicability of role theory in the study of Chinese foreign policy. Until recently, role theory has been employed mainly in the study of democratic countries and it needs to be adjusted to the study of authoritarian states.
  • Merke, Saija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Student-initiated question sequences as learning potential in Finnish-as-foreign-language classes This dissertation examines sequences of student-initiated questions in classes of Finnish-as-a-foreign-language at a French university. The data were videotaped during two two-week periods separated by five years. During each session, two different student groups were videotaped, both a beginners group and one of advanced learners of Finnish. The data were videotaped and recorded by two cameras, one capturing the student group and the other filming the teacher and the blackboard. The research method adopted was ethnomethodological conversation analysis. The analysis focuses on sequences in which students express their surprise concerning a grammatical detail. The student s question is connected to a noticing that is based on mutually shared grammatical knowledge. By posing a question the student can take the floor and introduce a topic that is personally relevant. Student questions interrupt the on-going classroom activity so that they simultaneously engage in individual epistemic search sequences and a collective knowledge co-construction. The specific question sequences identified were those initiated by negatively formatted declaratives, adversative declaratives and question-word question that imply a contrast. A detailed sequential analysis demonstrated that these questions also activated issues of right and wrong that were connected to social and moral order. The question formulations related to previous norm violations and in this sense, to moral issues. Concretely, when a student asked a question, the other participants considered issues of epistemic primacy and territory, and evaluated the legitimacy of the question. This research offers new information on the construction of intersubjectivity and its relationship to learning opportunities. The analysis demonstrates that intersubjective understanding is at first under-mined when the students notice unexpected and contradictory grammatical details that are investigated in terms of the question. The study illustrates how these questions acquire a challenging quality and morality. Nonetheless, the question sequences constitute a positive potential for the ongoing collective learning activity. The re-examination of expectations regarding linguistic issues creates opportunities to test and re-establish linguistic knowledge. The question sequences also provide tools that aid the students in structuring their personal linguistic understanding and in advancing their collective language learning. A central result is that the emotional and moral dimension of asking a question in a language classroom simultaneously challenges the foreign language, the teacher and intersubjective understanding. The interactional dynamics in epistemicity, affectivity and morality creates shared learning spaces. Keywords: question-answer sequences, Finnish-as-foreign-language, classroom interaction, conversa-tion analysis, moral communication
  • Ammunet, Riitta (Unigrafia, 2016)
    The aim of my doctoral thesis is to analyze and describe the manner in which the definite article is used in different kinds of noun phrases (NPs), ranging between i) autonomous titles that represent original pieces of artwork (i.e. film titles) and ii) headings that are linked and interrelated to each other (i.e. news headlines). The definite article can, in principle, always be omitted. However, there are also particular cases which are often related to certain text types or other conventions when the definite article is or is not omitted. My dissertation sheds more light on these pragmatic laws. Before my corpus analysis I conducted a perception study where informants were asked to comment on the acceptability of some examples representing different kinds of titles and headings. I also examined a sample of news headlines dating from 1 October 2013 until 15 March 2014. This study primarily focuses on headlines from daily newspapers (i.e. both paper and online newspapers). Headlines from news broadcasts and current affairs programmes were, however, also examined. My main research data has been collected from the www.mymovies.it film corpus. As my more specific data I chose to examine one year per decade between 1904 and 2014. The data consists of 2841 NPs from 7585 film titles. My analysis starts with John Hawkins's Location Theory and the analysis of the standard definite article within Italian language. Knud Lambrecht s theoretical description on the Information Structure is then used to examine interrelated headlines. The principle theoretical framework is based on Cognitive Linguistics and particularly Construction Grammar. I describe the characteristics of different linguistic levels, namely the syntactic, the semantic and pragmatic levels, with discourse pattern schemes. This approach has made it possible to describe these characteristics in a way that includes only the contextual aspect, i.e. the situational setting [frame], above all other aspects. The findings show that the use (or the omittance) of the definite article is influenced by multiple variables and conventions, sometimes together and sometimes separately. The dissertation, for instance, demonstrates that, in different types of action films, word choice in film titles contributes to the general omission of the definite article. Similarly, the definite article is omitted when the connection between a noun and its complement could in some way be anticipated. In contrast the definite article is typically written in a title or headline when the noun and the complement are not automatically associated with each other. Finally, my doctoral dissertation also touches on the historical development of the definite article, the so-called 'definite article cycle', and on Latin which, in the background, subtly continues to have its influence on modern Italian. This is the reason why the dissertation's title and also a couple of headings have been written in Latin.
  • Eerolainen, Leena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Science and technology have been paramount features of any modernized nation. In Japan they played an important role in the modernization and militarization of the nation, as well as its democratization and subsequent economic growth. Science and technology highlight the promises of a better tomorrow and future utopia, but their application can also present ethical issues. In fiction, they have historically played a significant role. Fictions of science continue to exert power via important multimedia platforms for considerations of the role of science and technology in our world. And, because of their importance for the development, ideologies and policies of any nation, these considerations can be correlated with the deliberation of the role of a nation in the world, including its internal and external images and imaginings. In Japan, narratives of the weird, fantastic and horrific have been present for centuries, culminating in the popularity of Japanese horror cinema with the worldwide success of Ringu (1998). In Japanese cinema studies, however, the study of these narratives is still limited, especially with regard to scientific narratives. This thesis is an attempt to remedy this situation. I will look into the way images of Japanese nationhood are mediated through male characters that are associated with science and technology. I argue that by analyzing these characters within their respective contexts and the general framework of both the history of science and technology as well as Japan’s postwar policies, it is possible to understand how the films deal with various, sometimes contradicting self-projected images of the Japanese nation. My study is located at an intersection of four particular fields: the study of Japanese cinema, the study of horror and the fantastic, the study of Japanese masculinities and the study of the history of Japanese science. The following films will be analyzed: Gojira (1954), Chikyū bōeigun (The Mysterians, 1957), Bijo to ekitainingen (The H-man, 1958), Densō ningen (The Secret of the Telegian, 1960), Gasu ningen daiichi-gō (The Human Vapor, 1960), Matango (1963), Tanin no kao (The Face of Another, 1964), Kairo (Pulse, 2001), Sakebi (Retribution, 2006), Doppelgänger (2006), the Tetsuo series (1988, 1992, 2009) and the three HAYABUSA films (2012). I will start by redefining “horror” and “science fiction” as “speculative cinema” (kaiki eiga), a cross-generic mode that as an umbrella term enables the analysis of both supernatural tales and more scientifically inclined works. In order to theorize the concept, I will draw from previous literature on the weird and the fantastic. Torben Grodal’s (2009) biocultural framework will be also utilized in order to provide one possible explanation for the prevalence of certain motifs worldwide. Next, I will highlight the role of men as functional tools for the mediation of national images. This is done by theorizing the notion of “scientific masculinity,” a type of masculinity that contributes to the creation of knowledge, as defined by Erica Lorraine Milam and Robert A. Nye (2015). Scientific masculinity is a trope with a function—to mediate images of nationhood by calling for advancements of science and technology. The Frankenstein myth is present in almost all of the fictions, as manifested in Sharalyn Orbaugh’s (2007) so-called Frankenstein Syndrome. Shimura Miyoko’s (2008) concept of otoko no kaijin, the male phantom, is also useful. In order to understand scientific masculinity, I will draw both from the history of science and from studies on masculinity. Understanding the role of hegemonic masculinity (Connell, 1995) is particularly important, as it works as an ideological reference point for the fictional, non-hegemonic characters. This creates an interdisciplinary theoretical model that contributes to the understanding of the function of scientific masculinity as a representation of a certain national image. The results of this thesis suggest that Japanese speculative cinema engages in the process of dissecting national images—and ideals—on screen. This is accomplished by the use of scientifically minded masculine agents which subvert, challenge and negotiate ideologies that have contributed to Japan’s postwar history. Because of the importance of science and technology for social policies at various points in history, they provide a fine context for the dissecting of these ideas. It is clear that kaiki eiga actively participates in negotiating a multitude of salient national images—imperialist, pacifist, racial, technological, economic and, last but not least, patriarchal. These images reflect the changes that Japanese society has undergone since the Pacific War, as well as those that the society should undergo, according to the filmmakers.
  • Kallio, Pasi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This thesis examines the nature–origin, character, and temporal change–of the difference that educated and mostly male white southerners had about history at the level of historiography and other texts among themselves and in relation to “modern history” mostly in the states of Virginia and South Carolina in the early–1800s. The study compares and contrasts the postulate with two other areas of cultural discussion: New England, with some support from the Mid–Atlantic States New York and Pennsylvania, and Europe with its dominant change about culture roughly after the 1750s the thesis refers to as “modern history.” History was transformed into a major area of interest and cultural component. The method is mainly a scanning of digitalized online contemporary printed sources–leading books about history, leading contemporary journals, letter collections, and historical novels mostly produced in the U.S.–for word “history” and a variant “histor” that yields for example “historical” and “histories.” The findings have then been subjected to the study’s theoretical and methodological framework. Instead of a scientific undertaking, linguistically neutral, or grounded in material reality as usually treated in the U.S., written history overlaps with other text production and communication such as literary writing, poetics, and cultural discourse. The philosophy of modernity and scientific truth history became associated with in its modern guise can be read as a metaphysical problem and crisis of especial severity in the southern areas: modern history entailed an experiential and communicative renovation that extended to individuals and their relationship to society. Through partly deductive, partly poetic readings, the study charts the course of this change that spans from syntax to discourse, philosophy, semiotics and poetics. The concerns help reveal the tensions in modern association of reality with history that has obscured competing claims and experiences. The New England–led “bloc” departed from European skepticism. Virginia and South Carolina seldom rejected it. Modern history increased only in the 1840s, comparatively more in South Carolina. Previously, it was rare to see history as romantic, evangelical or scientific like in New England. Especially until the late–1830s, history was met with skeptical and ironic views about the history–reality relationship. Unlike often portrayed, these learned white southerners were rarely sentimentalists. Equally rare was to conflate reality and science with history for nationalist and utilitarian ends. Forgotten perspectives and agencies can be re–examined by taking into account more recent theories about history and language.
  • Lähteenmäki, Marja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The rapid change in the built environment accelerated the preservation discussion from the 1960s onwards. The traditional preservation criteria, which were the bases of city planning, excluded industrial buildings. Authenticity, historical and aesthetic values were given priority and interest was focused primarily on individual buildings, whereas industrial areas usually consisted of several buildings and were defined by continuous change and practicality. The architectural or historical value of industrial buildings was given only secondary importance. Moreover, the size and the volume of the individual plants and of the entire areas presented both practical and economic problems. A detailed account of the preservation processes of the Verkatehdas and Finlayson industrial areas shows the changes that took place in the attitudes towards industrial heritage during the research period. To understand the complex ways in which the preservation discussion interrelates with the processes of society, the cases were approached from different points of view. The context is the entire city of Tampere and its citizens. The study thus combines the research traditions of art history, urban studies, literature, geography and social and political history. With the chosen concepts, national landscape and industrial heritage, the study seeks answers for the questions how and why the industrial areas by the Tammerkoski rapids became a valuable industrial heritage and how the representations of the city have influenced the preservation discussion. The meanings of the national landscape were formed through a discussion in which historical images were combined with the present. The political and economic actors have had an important role in the definition of industrial heritage. The theoretical standpoint is in urban studies, which sees the city as consisting not only of its built form, but also of its cultural practices. That is, meanings attached to places are constructed in connection with the city s built form and its citizens. Moreover, meanings and values are produced and reproduced in social practices of different discourses. In other words, meanings are collective, shared by a group of people, and can therefore be inconsistent. The hegemonic discourse is city planning in which valuation discussion takes place. City planning advocates modernist ideas, and the need for the continuous progress and welfare of society, amongst other things. In the preservation conflicts the arguments for demolition and the grounds for city planning and political decision-making processes are questioned. In the long term these arguments influence the preservation criteria, the city planning course and the general attitude towards industrial heritage. The role of preservation officials and experts has been of great importance in the valuation of industrial heritage. Yet only the acceptance of citizens has changed the industrial buildings into a valuable heritage. The remembered and imagined representations of the national landscape strengthen the citizens connection to their own and to a collective past and present. The value of industrial heritage cannot be measured on economic grounds since it is composed of values that are important to citizens. Old pictures and stories of the past now serve new uses in representing the industrial heritage of the city. The national landscape pictured from afar represents the collective heritage of the citizens. Even though there is agreement on the importance and value of industrial heritage, the less important or the less authentic factory buildings tend not to be preserved. When we acknowledge that the character of industry is undergoing continuous change, and that the value of industrial building is bound up with their many different functions over the years, then we are closer to comprehending the meaning and value of industrial heritage. Much is still to be done to place individual factories within industrial heritage criteria.
  • Wichmann, Irene (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The present study focuses on the translation of Hungarian literature into Finnish between 1850 and 1899. The aim of the dissertation is to produce an overview on how the Hungarian literature was introduced in the 19th century Finland. The Finnish-Hungarian literature contacts are examined in their early stages from the Finnish viewpoint, during the so-called translation period of the Finnish literature. The Finnish literature was at that time still young and developing. Therefore, translations from other languages into Finnish had a crucial role in this development. The study explores two of the most well-known Hungarian authors of that period, the poet Sándor Petőfi and the prosaist Mór Jókai. The most important research questions are the following: Which literary works were translated into Finnish during the period investigated? Who were the translators, and from which source language did they translate? What were the aims of the translations, and how were the translated works chosen? The reception of the Hungarian works has also been investigated. The main theoretical framework of the present study is that of Descriptive Translation Studies. The research questions are reflected against their historical and social backgrounds. The analysis combines several theories and methods used in the field of Translations Studies the Polysystem theory introduced by Itamar Even-Zohar, the method in translation history of Anthony Pym, with particular attention to the so-called translation archeology, the analysis of paratexts of Gérard Genette, and the reception theory of literary texts introduced originally by Hans Robert Jauss, applied to the 19th century Finnish literature by Leeni Tiirakari. In addition, the agency of two most well-known Finnish translators of Hungarian literature during the period investigated, Antti Jalava and Niilo E. Wainio, is outlined e. g. by means of introducing their use of footnotes in the translations. The aim of the study is, hence, to produce a wide overview of the period examined. The data, collected for this study, consist of literary translations and, on the other hand, of paratexts, connected to the translations. The findings of the study indicate that Hungarian literature had a special position in the investigated period s literary translations in Finland. Hungarian works were translated mainly by linguistic or literature experts and the translations were made directly from Hungarian to Finnish, not usual in the case with other European languages. The translated works were chosen, based on the expertise of Hungarian scholars. The translation of Hungarian works was strongly influenced by non-literary factors, most important of them being the theory of the common origin of the Finno-Ugric languages.
  • Suolahti, Ida (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This study explores the handing-over and exchange of Soviet prisoners of war between Finland and Germany during the Continuation War (1941 – 1944) fought between Finland and the Soviet Union. The Finnish military authorities handed over 2,900 POWs to the German authorities and received around 2,800 prisoners of war. Co-belligerency in a common war against a common enemy resulted in co-operation in prisoner-of-war matters. There were several motives for handing over POWs. First, POWs were handed over to the German troops in Finland as a work force. Second, POWs captured in Finland were exchanged for Finnish prisoners of war captured on the German fronts. They were meant as settlers in occupied Eastern Karelia. Third, ethnic Germans and Baltic POWs were to be resettled in their ethnic areas. Fourth, POWs were handed over for intelligence and counterintelligence reasons. A POW s consent for being handed over was seldom requested, but there were occasions when some of them had the possibility to either apply for being handed over, or for refusing it. It was not automatically assumed that handing over POWs would deteriorate their status or existential conditions. The international treaties did not stipulate the handing over of POWs. According to the Hague Convention, the Finnish authorities were responsible for the prisoners of war captured by the Finns. However, the Finnish surveillance authorities knew that POWs handed over to the German Security Service were being treated like criminals, rather than POWs, according to the German orders. The surveillance unit of the Finnish Headquarters (Päämajan valvontaosasto) handed over several hundred POWs to the special task force (Einsatzkommando Finnland) of the German Security Service (Sicherheitsdienst und SD). Altogether there were 520 POWs handed over for ideological reasons, for which there was no compensation given in return. This fifth category of handing over was a part of the joint ideological war. Jews in this category were handed over as suspected communists. The surveillance unit of the Finnish Headquarters did not receive orders or authorization for the handing over from any higher authorities. This study shows that the main motive for handing over POWs was the expected profit for their exchange. The party on the giving end was keen to receive compensation, where POWs were seen as a resource. The receiving party was interested in contributing to the work force and collecting intelligence information. The Germans had their own criteria for the appraisal of the POWs. Thus, on the basis of motives for handing them over, it was not possible to foresee the fate of the POWs in German hands.