Browsing by Subject "huulioluku"

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  • Hyvönen, Ville (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tavoitteet. Kyselytutkimukseni tarkoitus oli selvittää huulioluvun kuntoutuksen, opetuksen ja arvioinnin nykytilaa ja tarvetta uudelle harjoittelumateriaalille usean kohderyhmän näkökulmasta. Tavoitteena oli myös tuottaa tietoa Kuuloliiton huuliolukumateriaalin kehittämishankkeelle. Huulioluvun harjoittelumateriaalia on kehitetty ja huuliolukua tutkittu Suomessa varsinkin 1990-luvulla, mutta kuntoutus- ja arviointikäytännöistä tai materiaalin tarpeesta ei ole ajantasaista tietoa. Menetelmät. Tutkimukseni jakautui kuuteen eri osakyselyyn, jotka oli suunnattu erikoissairaanhoidon puheterapeuteille, perusterveydenhuollon puheterapeuteille, Kuuloliiton jäsenyhdistyksille, kuulovammaisten järjestöille, aikuisille kuulovammaisille ja kuulovammaisten lasten vanhemmille. Kyselyt koostuivat suljetuista ja avoimista kysymyksistä, joilla kerättiin tietoa vastaajien kokemuksista ja näkemyksistä. Jaoin kyselyt erilaisilla internet-alustoilla ja sain niihin vastauksia vaihtelevasti yhdestä 70:een. Analysoin suljettujen kysymysten vastaukset määrällisesti laskemalla frekvenssit ja luottamusvälit ja avointen kysymysten vastaukset laadullisesti tyypittelemällä. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Huulioluvun arviointi ja kuntoutus on Suomessa epäjärjestelmällistä ja niissä käytetään vaihtelevia menetelmiä. Arviointiin ei ole normitettuja ja riittävän monipuolisia menetelmiä, lähes kaikki julkaistu kuntoutusmateriaali on vanhaa ja nykyaikaista itseharjoittelumateriaalia ei ole. Vain kolmannes kuulovammaisista vastaajista oli saanut huulioluvun kuntoutusta ja suurin osa Kuuloliiton jäsenyhdistyksistä ei ollut järjestänyt huulioluvun opetusta. Monilla puheterapeuteilla ei ole huulioluvusta, sitä tarvitsevista kliinisistä ryhmistä ja kuntoutusmateriaalistakaan ajantasaista tietoa. Suomessa tarvitaan huulioluvun tiedotuskampanjaa, uusia huuliolukutestejä ja uutta harjoittelumateriaalia. Kyselytutkimuksen tulosten perusteella verkkopohjaiseen harjoittelumateriaaliin tai mobiilipeliin suhtaudutaan myönteisesti. Monet vastaajat toivoivat kuitenkin myös painettua materiaalia ja perinteistä kasvokkaista kuntoutusta.
  • Paajanen, Auri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Aims. In face-to-face communication, information contained in speech is also transmitted visually via observing articulation movements on the speaker’s lips and face. Silent lipreading is difficult since many of the phonemes of spoken language look visually similar and thus fall within the same viseme categories. Lipreading at single word level requires at least some of the phonemes to be recognized with sufficient accuracy in order for lexical activation to reach the correct target word in the observer’s mental lexicon. Word-level lipreading is also guided by language specific phonotactics, but its’ contribution to lipreading is not well understood. Lipreading ability shows great individual variation in both normal hearing and hearing-impaired populations. There is currently a lack of lipreading assessment tools in logopedic clinical practice in Finland. The aim of this study was to develop a Finnish single word lipreading test that can be delivered via a web application. I examined whether word videos produced in the Huulioluku research project can be used to measure lipreading ability in normal hearing adults and which test procedure appears to be functional. In addition, viseme analysis was used to examine features that contributed to the lipreadability of individual test words. Methods. The lipreading task used in this study consisted of word videos (43 Finnish words containing 2-3 syllables) developed in the Huulioluku research project. The participants (N=60) were normal hearing adults aged from 18 to 50. The data was collected remotely in March 2021 via a web application. Participants viewed silent word videos spoken by a female speaker and indicated which word had been said via a free text response. A point was given to each response that matched the target entirely. Deviation in participants’ scores (max 43 points) and the proportion correct for individual words were analysed. In a qualitative part of the study, the most frequent erroneous responses for each individual word were collected and a viseme comparison between the target and error response was carried out. Results and conclusions. The lipreading test showed great individual variation in the participants’ lipreading ability (score range between 1 and 34). The percentage correct for individual words ranged from 0 to 78 %. A short test of 20 best recognised words also showed great individual variation, with scores ranging from 20 to 1, suggesting that it could be used as such in future test developments. As seen in previous research, words with the least amount of visual competitors in the lexicon were recognized with the most accuracy. Consonants /v/ /p/ and /s/ were highly recognizable, whereas /r/ and /n/ were poorly recognized. The ability to perceive phoneme duration accurately as short/long proved important in recognition of Finnish words. Vowel discrimination was facilitated by a feature in the Finnish language phonotactics – vowel harmony. The words used in the test assessed the ability to lipread Finnish language specific phonological, morphological and prosodic features, which suggests that the 20-word test may be a valid tool.
  • Viljanen, Reetta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Speechreading is a technique of understanding speech by interpreting visual information from the speaker’s face. Speechreading is a skill that can be trained and to determine the need for rehabilitation and monitor the progress a reliable assessment tool is needed. In Finland, there does not exist any online assessment tool that can be used to assess sentence-level speechreading skills in adults. This study aimed to find out how well the 100 CID Everyday Speech sentences used in the assessment of speechreading skills are suitable for the assessment of speechreading skills when translated into Finnish. This thesis examined how Finnish-speaking normal-hearing adults aged 18–65 perform sentence-level speechreading tasks, whether sentence length affects performance, and whether CID sentences differentiate speechreading skills when translated into Finnish. Study participants (n = 38) were normal-hearing adults aged 18–65 with no reported learning disabilities. The data was collected from an online speechreading test responses and analyzed by statistical methods with the R programming language. The translated CID sentences were divided into ten collections of ten sentences and comparisons were then made between those collections. Participants’ performance was examined using the Friedman test and post-hoc testing was done with the Durbin-Conover test. The consistency in the responses between collections was assessed using Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Sentences were also divided into groups by word count and both the Friedman test and the Durbin-Conover test were used to examine these groups. The translated CID Everyday Speech sentences differentiate speechreading skills well. Statistically significant, moderate, or strong positive correlations were found in the responses between the sentence collections. The word count of the sentences was found to be connected to the percentage of words recognized correctly. Based on the results the translated CID sentences are suitable for assessing the speechreading skills in normal-hearing adults. Based on the results it could also be possible to divide the collection of 100 sentences into shorter collections, which could for example be utilized in monitoring speechreading rehabilitation.