Browsing by Subject "hydraulic properties"

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  • Kiani, Sepideh; Lehosmaa, Kaisa; Kløve, Bjørn; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Ecological Engineering
    To remove nitrogen in cold conditions, we studied new nature-based treatment solutions using six pilot-scale reactors. The pilots were woodchip bioreactor (WBR), aquatic floating hook-moss (Warnstorfia fluitans) (MBR), and a combined woodchip and floating hook-moss hybrid unit (HBR) with an improved hydraulic design. The experiment was run in a climate room at temperatures of 10 °C and 5 °C and using mine water from two sites located in northern Finland. Unlike traditional horizontal flow woodchip bioreactors, in this study the hydraulic efficiency was improved from poor (λ = 0.06) in the woodchip bioreactor to satisfactory (λ = 0.51) in the hybrid unit by inserting two inner plates along the water flow and adding floating hook-moss. The hybrid bioreactor revealed the highest capability of nitrogen removal in all inorganic forms at T ≤ 10 °C with a mean HRT of 70.5 h. On average, 30–78 % of dissolved inorganic nitrogen was removed in the hybrid unit, which was 2 and 3 times more than in units consisting only of woodchip or floating hook-moss. The hybrid bioreactor revealed a maximum NO−3-N removal rate of 1.0–5.2 g m−3 d−1 and a 21.8–99.7 % removal efficiency for an average incoming NO−3-N load of 40 g d−1. The maximum NH+4-N removal efficiency of 75.6 and 53 % took place in HBR and MBR, respectively, when the incoming NH+4-N load was 23.6 ± 0.7 g d−1 at 10 °C. Over the 154 days of the experiment, the hybrid unit removed a total of 2.95 kg DIN-N, which was 0.8 kg higher than the sum of the DIN-N mass removed in the individual woodchip (1.7 kg) and moss units (0.55 kg). The nitrogen content of the aquatic moss was higher in the hybrid unit compared to the moss unit, showing a higher contribution of N plant uptake. Overall, our results suggest that combining woodchips and aquatic moss in a hybrid unit with improved hydraulic efficiency using inner walls may enhance nitrogen removal in cold climate conditions.