Browsing by Subject "hydraulics"

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  • Marttila, H.; Tammela, S.; Mustonen, K.-R.; Louhi, P.; Muotka, Timo; Mykrä, Heikki; Klove, B. (IWA Publishing, 2019)
    Hydrology Research 1 June 2019; 50 (3): 878–885
    We conducted a series of tracer test experiments in 12 outdoor semi-natural flumes to assess the effects of variable flow conditions and sand addition on hyporheic zone conditions in gravel beds, mimicking conditions in headwater streams under sediment pressure. Two tracer methods were applied in each experiment: 2–5 tracer-pulse tests were conducted in all flumes and pulses were monitored at three distances downstream of the flume inlet (0 m, 5 m and 10 m, at bed surface), and in pipes installed into the gravel bed at 5 m and 10 m distances. The tracer breakthrough curves (total of 120 tracer injections) were then analysed with a one-dimensional solute transport model (OTIS) and compared with data from the gravel pipes in point-dilution pulse tests. Sand addition had a strong negative effect on horizontal fluxes (qh), whereas the fraction of the median travel time due to transient storage (F200) was determined more by flow conditions. These results suggest that even small additions of sand can modify the hyporheic zone exchange in gravel beds, thus making headwater streams with low sediment transport capacity particularly vulnerable to sediments transported into the stream from catchment land use activities.
  • Menberu, Meseret Walle; Marttila, Hannu; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Haghighi, Ali Torabi; Kløve, Bjørn (American Geophysical Union, 2021)
    Water Resources Research 57, e2020WR028624
    Undisturbed peatlands are effective carbon sinks and provide a variety of ecosystem services. However, anthropogenic disturbances, especially land drainage, strongly alter peat soil properties and jeopardize the benefits of peatlands. The effects of disturbances should therefore be assessed and predicted. To support accurate modeling, this study determined the physical and hydraulic properties of intact and disturbed peat samples collected from 59 sites (in total 3,073 samples) in Finland and Norway. The bulk density (BD), porosity, and specific yield (Sy) values obtained indicated that the top layer (0–30 cm depth) at agricultural and peat extraction sites was most affected by land use change. The BD in the top layer at agricultural, peat extraction, and forestry sites was 441%, 140%, and 92% higher, respectively, than that of intact peatlands. Porosity decreased with increased BD, but not linearly. Agricultural and peat extraction sites had the lowest saturated hydraulic conductivity, Sy, and porosity, and the highest BD of the land use options studied. The van Genuchten-Mualem (vGM) soil water retention curve (SWRC) and hydraulic conductivity (K) models proved to be applicable for the peat soils tested, providing values of SWRC, K, and vGM-parameters (α and n) for peat layers (top, middle and bottom) under different land uses. A decrease in peat soil water content of ≥10% reduced the unsaturated K values by two orders of magnitude. This unique data set can be used to improve hydrological modeling in peat-dominated catchments and for fuller integration of peat soils into large-scale hydrological models.
  • Kiczko, Adam; Västilä, Kaisa; Kozioł, Adam; Kubrak, Janusz; Kubrak, Elzbieta; Krukowski, Marcin (EGU, 2020)
    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 24 8 (2020)
    Despite the development of advanced process-based methods for estimating the discharge capacity of vegetated river channels, most of the practical one-dimensional modeling is based on a relatively simple divided channel method (DCM) with the Manning flow resistance formula. This study is motivated by the need to improve the reliability of modeling in practical applications while acknowledging the limitations on the availability of data on vegetation properties and related parameters required by the process-based methods. We investigate whether the advanced methods can be applied to modeling of vegetated compound channels by identifying the missing characteristics as parameters through the formulation of an inverse problem. Six models of channel discharge capacity are compared in respect of their uncertainty using a probabilistic approach. The model with the lowest estimated uncertainty in explaining differences between computed and observed values is considered the most favorable. Calculations were performed for flume and field settings varying in floodplain vegetation submergence, density, and flexibility, and in hydraulic conditions. The output uncertainty, estimated on the basis of a Bayes approach, was analyzed for a varying number of observation points, demonstrating the significance of the parameter equifinality. The results showed that very reliable predictions with low uncertainties can be obtained for process-based methods with a large number of parameters. The equifinality affects the parameter identification but not the uncertainty of a model. The best performance for sparse, emergent, rigid vegetation was obtained with the Mertens method and for dense, flexible vegetation with a simplified two-layer method, while a generalized two-layer model with a description of the plant flexibility was the most universally applicable to different vegetative conditions. In many cases, the Manning-based DCM performed satisfactorily but could not be reliably extrapolated to higher flows.