Browsing by Subject "hydrogeokemia"

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  • Lahtinen, Tatu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    In 2011, Anglo American Sakatti Mining Oy published an ore discovery in Sodankylä, Finnish Lapland. The rich Ni-Cu-PGE orebody, named Sakatti ore, is partially underlying Viiankiaapa-mire’s Natura 2000 protection area. This sets additional challenges for the utilization of the resource without compromising the fragile nature of the area. To estimate the impacts of possible future mining operations, the complex hydrochemical and hydrogeochemical conditions at Viiankiaapa must be well understood. Most water samples from the research area show a chemical composition close to the natural Finnish groundwater composition Ca–HCO3. However, in four groundwater observation wells, located south from Kiimakuusikko, Na–HCO3 type waters were detected. These sites were GA300 (8.26 ppm of Na), GA202 (17.34 ppm of Na), GA202 deep (15.23 ppm of Na) and GA201 (7.92 ppm of Na). Source for the anomaly is likely lithological due to lack of chloride in the samples. One possible source could be weathering of albite to kaolinite. Albite is hosted in the breccia unit, located close to the site. Albite-kaolinite weathering could release Na+ ions into the surrounding soil solution, which would provide a source for the high sodium concentrations. Kitinen river shows slightly higher Al, Li and Cu contents compared to other waters from the research area. This could possibly be used to distinguish river water from groundwater at sites where river water infiltrates the groundwater system. On the other side, Na, K and DSi have higher concentrations in groundwaters compared to surface waters. This could make them useful groundwater indicators. Sakattioja and the other smaller streams draining the mire, are characterized by very high isotope values, low amounts of DSi and low EC. These characteristics likely reflect the hydrogeochemistry of the water on the surface of the mire. The hydrogeochemical similarity of these streams is also highlighted by the hierarchical cluster analysis, where the samples from these sites form a clear cluster of their own. Stable isotope results are mixed and difficult to interpret. The most striking features are the low values observed at the mire near Kiimakuusikko and the high values observed in Sakattioja. Many groundwater samples show signs of evaporated source water component or re-infiltration of surface waters. This could be due to water from the mire infiltrating the groundwater system and then re-emerging in the observation wells and springs close to Kitinen. Overall, based on the results, the hydrogeochemistry at the research area can be considered to be very complex. The samples represent multiple different water compositions residing in poorly connected groundwater and surface water systems. This makes interpreting the results particularly difficult and is also reflected in the statistical analyzes which produce somewhat mixed results.
  • Nurmilaukas, Olli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The condition of Tahmelanlähde spring in city of Tampere has been under discussion for over two decades. Between 1906–1966, the spring was being used for municipal water supply and the water quality was good. The quality of discharging groundwater has since heavily deteriorated, bearing now high concentrations of iron, manganese, nitrogen, phosphorus and very low oxygen. The cause of this deterioration has remained unclear. The aims of this study were to increase the hydrogeological knowledge of Tahmela-Pispala area in order to get a better understanding of the regional groundwater flow patterns and sources of the groundwater discharging at the artesian spring area, to assess the cause for the spring deterioration and to give suggestions to a possible rehabilitation plan. Tahmelanlähde spring is located on a clay or silt soil under artesian circumstances, down the southern slope of Pispalanharju interlobate esker formation. The esker forms a longitudinal neck between Lake Näsijärvi and Lake Pyhäjärvi, rising up to 160 meters above sea level. The water level of Lake Näsijärvi is approx. 95 m a.s.l. and the water level of Lake Pyhäjärvi approx. 77 m a.s.l. Considering the distance of only a few hundred meters between these two lakes, the difference of 18 meters in the lake water levels is quite unusual in Finland’s geological context, especially because the lakes are separated by a major esker formation. For the assessment of the hydrogeological features in the study area we had two field campaigns including ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey, thermal infrared survey using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-TIR), measuring of water tables as well as water sampling from springs, surface water bodies, groundwater observation wells and groundwater discharging into the Lake Pyhäjärvi. 23 water samples were analyzed for main ion composition, stable isotopic (δ18O / δD) composition, pH, EC and trace elements such as iron and manganese. 14 samples were additionally analyzed for CODMn, N, P, O and microbial indicators. Some previous studies have suggested infiltration of Lake Näsijärvi water into the esker. Our results reveal that most of the groundwater in the Pispalanharju area contain a variable amount of surface water component. The samples east from the spring present good-quality groundwater and show nonexistent surface water impact. This and the complex sedimentology revealed by the GPR survey indicate that the regional groundwater flow patterns are not simple and there are at least two water components with different origins discharging at Tahmelanlähde spring. The results imply that the primary cause for the spring deterioration could be a major shift in the groundwater – surface water interaction in the northern esker area, probably driven by urbanization and the heavy construction during the last few decades. The study was a collaboration between the City of Tampere, Pirkanmaa Center for Economic Development, Transport and Environment (ELY Center) and University of Helsinki, Department of Geosciences and Geography.