Browsing by Subject "hyperspectral"

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  • Hakala, Teemu; Markelin, Lauri; Honkavaara, Eija; Scott, Barry; Theocharous, Theo; Nevalainen, Olli; Näsi, Roope; Suomalainen, Juha; Viljanen, Niko; Greenwell, Claire; Fox, Nigel (MDPI, 2018)
    Sensors
    Drone-based remote sensing has evolved rapidly in recent years. Miniaturized hyperspectral imaging sensors are becoming more common as they provide more abundant information of the object compared to traditional cameras. Reflectance is a physically defined object property and therefore often preferred output of the remote sensing data capture to be used in the further processes. Absolute calibration of the sensor provides a possibility for physical modelling of the imaging process and enables efficient procedures for reflectance correction. Our objective is to develop a method for direct reflectance measurements for drone-based remote sensing. It is based on an imaging spectrometer and irradiance spectrometer. This approach is highly attractive for many practical applications as it does not require in situ reflectance panels for converting the sensor radiance to ground reflectance factors. We performed SI-traceable spectral and radiance calibration of a tuneable Fabry-Pérot Interferometer -based (FPI) hyperspectral camera at the National Physical Laboratory NPL (Teddington, UK). The camera represents novel technology by collecting 2D format hyperspectral image cubes using time sequential spectral scanning principle. The radiance accuracy of different channels varied between ±4% when evaluated using independent test data, and linearity of the camera response was on average 0.9994. The spectral response calibration showed side peaks on several channels that were due to the multiple orders of interference of the FPI. The drone-based direct reflectance measurement system showed promising results with imagery collected over Wytham Forest (Oxford, UK).
  • Markelin, Lauri; Suomalainen, Juha; Hakala, Teemu; Alves de Oliveira, Raquel; Viljanen, Niko; Näsi, Roope; Scott, Barry; Theocharous, Theo; Greenwell, Claire; Fox, Nigel; Honkavaara, Eija (ISPRS Council, 2018)
    The International Archives fo the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
    We study and analyse performance of a system for direct reflectance measurements from a drone. Key instruments of the system are upwards looking irradiance sensor and downwards looking imaging spectrometer. Requirement for both instruments is that they are radiometrically calibrated, the irradiance sensor has to be horizontally stabilized, and the sensors needs to be accurately synchronized. In our system, irradiance measurements are done with FGI Aerial Image Reference System (FGI AIRS), which uses novel optical levelling methodology and can compensate sensor tilting up to 15°. We performed SI-traceable spectral and radiance calibration of FPI hyperspectral camera at the National Physical Laboratory NPL (Teddington, UK). After the calibration, the radiance accuracy of different channels was between ±4% when evaluated with independent test data. Sensors response to radiance proved to be highly linear and was on average 0.9994 for all channels. The spectral response calibration showed side peaks on several channels that were due to the multiple orders of interference of the FPI and highlighted the importance of accurate calibration. The drone-based direct reflectance measurement system showed promising results with imagery collected over Jokioinen agricultural grass test site, Finland. AIRS-based image- and band wise image adjustment provided homogenous and seamless image mosaics even under varying illumination conditions and under clouds.
  • Kaasalainen, Sanna (CRC Press, 2020)
    The development of multispectral terrestrial laser scan-ning (TLS) is still at the very beginning, with only four instruments worldwide providing simultaneous three-dimensional (3D) point cloud and spectral measurement. Research on multiwavelength laser returns has been carried out by more groups, but there are still only about ten research instruments published and no commercial availability. This chapter summarizes the experiences from all these studies to provide an overview of the state of the art and future developments needed to bring the multispectral TLS technology into the next level. Alt-hough the current number of applications is sparse, they already show that multispectral lidar technology has po-tential to disrupt many fields of science and industry due to its robustness and the level of detail available.
  • Näsi, Roope; Honkavaara, Eija; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi Marja Emilia; Blomqvist, Minna; Litkey, Paula; Hakala, Teemu; Viljanen, Niko; Kantola, Tuula Anneli; Tanhuanpää, Topi-Mikko Tapio; Holopainen, Markus Edvard (2015)
    Low-cost, miniaturized hyperspectral imaging technology is becoming available for small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms. This technology can be efficient in carrying out small-area inspections of anomalous reflectance characteristics of trees at a very high level of detail. Increased frequency and intensity of insect induced forest disturbance has established a new demand for effective methods suitable in mapping and monitoring tasks. In this investigation, a novel miniaturized hyperspectral frame imaging sensor operating in the wavelength range of 500–900 nm was used to identify mature Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) trees suffering from infestation, representing a different outbreak phase, by the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.). We developed a new processing method for analyzing spectral characteristic for high spatial resolution photogrammetric and hyperspectral images in forested environments, as well as for identifying individual anomalous trees. The dense point clouds, measured using image matching, enabled detection of single trees with an accuracy of 74.7%. We classified the trees into classes of healthy, infested and dead, and the results were promising. The best results for the overall accuracy were 76% (Cohen’s kappa 0.60), when using three color classes (healthy, infested, dead). For two color classes (healthy, dead), the best overall accuracy was 90% (kappa 0.80). The survey methodology based on high-resolution hyperspectral imaging will be of a high practical value for forest health management, indicating a status of bark beetle outbreak in time.