Browsing by Subject "identification"

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  • Harbach, Ralph E.; Dallimore, Thom; Briscoe, Andrew G.; Culverwell, C. Lorna; Vaux, Alexander G. C.; Medlock, Jolyon M. (2017)
    We report the discovery of Aedes nigrinus (Eckstein, 1918) in the New Forest of southern England, bringing to 36 the number of mosquito species recorded in Britain. Because it seems that this species has been misidentified previously in Britain as the morphologically similar Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838), the two species are contrasted and distinguished based on distinctive differences exhibited in the adult and larval stages. The pupa of Ae. nigrinus is unknown, but the pupa of Ae. sticticus is distinguished from the pupae of other species of Aedes by modification of the most recent key to British mosquitoes. The history of the mosquito fauna recorded in the UK is summarized and bionomical information is provided for the two species.
  • Ärje, Johanna; Melvad, Claus; Jeppesen, Mads Rosenhoj; Madsen, Sigurd Agerskov; Raitoharju, Jenni; Rasmussen, Maria Strandgård; Iosifidis, Alexandros; Tirronen, Ville; Gabbouj, Moncef; Meissner, Kristian; Hoye, Toke Thomas (British Ecological Society, 2020)
    Methods in Ecology and Evolution 11 8 (2020)
    1. Understanding how biological communities respond to environmental changes is a key challenge in ecology and ecosystem management. The apparent decline of insect populations necessitates more biomonitoring but the time-consuming sorting and expert-based identification of taxa pose strong limitations on how many insect samples can be processed. In turn, this affects the scale of efforts to map and monitor invertebrate diversity altogether. Given recent advances in computer vision, we propose to enhance the standard human expert-based identification approach involving manual sorting and identification with an automatic image-based technology. 2. We describe a robot-enabled image-based identification machine, which can automate the process of invertebrate sample sorting, specimen identification and biomass estimation. We use the imaging device to generate a comprehensive image database of terrestrial arthropod species which is then used to test classification accuracy, that is, how well the species identity of a specimen can be predicted from images taken by the machine. We also test sensitivity of the classification accuracy to the camera settings (aperture and exposure time) to move forward with the best possible image quality. We use state-of-the-art Resnet-50 and InceptionV3 convolutional neural networks for the classification task. 3. The results for the initial dataset are very promising as we achieved an average classification accuracy of 0.980. While classification accuracy is high for most species, it is lower for species represented by less than 50 specimens. We found significant positive relationships between mean area of specimens derived from images and their dry weight for three species of Diptera. 4. The system is general and can easily be used for other groups of invertebrates as well. As such, our results pave the way for generating more data on spatial and temporal variation in invertebrate abundance, diversity and biomass.
  • Santos, Eva M.; Jaime, Isabel; Rovira, Jordi; Lyhs, Ulrike; Korkeala, Hannu; Björkroth, Johanna (Elsevier, 2005)
    A total of 176 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from a typical Spanish blood sausage called “morcilla de Burgos” were identified by means of phenotypic characteristics and 16S rDNA RFLP (ribotyping). LAB were isolated from “morcilla” of different producers and in different storage periods, that includes unpackaged, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaged “morcilla” and vacuum packed and pasteurised “morcilla”. The knowledge of specific spoilage bacteria of ”morcilla de Burgos” will be useful to design new preservation methods to extent the shelf-life of this product. Identification made according to phenotypic and biochemical characteristics shows the majority of the isolates were heterofermentative LAB (93.2%) and eight different bacterial groups could be distinguished (A-G). W. viridescens was the main species detected (42%). In addition, Leuconostoc spp. (23.9%), W. confusa (11.4%) and Lactobacillus fructosus (5.7%) species were found. Few strains were phenotypically missidentified as Lb. sanfrancisco, Pediococcus spp., Lb. sakei/curvatus and Carnobacterium spp. and 11 strains remained unknown. Most of the leuconostocs were identified as Lc. mesenteroides and Lc. carnosum species. Ribotyping shows a quite good correlation with phenotypic methods, although it has been possible to identify 15 different clusters. W. viridescens and leuconostocs were also the predominant LAB. Strains identified as W. confusa by phenotypic characteristics were resolved in W. confusa and W. cibaria by ribotyping. Neither Carnobacterium piscicola nor Lb. sanfrancisco were identified by means of genotypic method. All Lb. fructosus strains and some more included in different phenotypic groups (17 strains in total) could not be associated with any reference strain (cluster VII). Although some discrepancies exists the combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods led to a better identification and characterization of the strains isolated from “morcilla de Burgos”.
  • Zhou, Chenlin; Vastel, Charlotte; Montillaud, Julien; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Demyk, Karine; Harju, Jorma; Juvela, Mika; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Liu, Tie (2022)
    Context. A solar-type system starts from an initial molecular core that acquires organic complexity as it evolves. The so-called prestellar cores that can be studied are rare, which has hampered our understanding of how organic chemistry sets in and grows. Aims. We selected the best prestellar core targets from the cold core catalogue (based on Planck and Herschel observations) that represent a diversity in terms of their environment to explore their chemical complexity: 1390 (in the compressed shell of Lambda Ori), 869 (in the MBM12 cloud), and 4149 (in the California nebula). Methods. We obtained a spectral survey with the IRAM 30 m telescope in order to explore the molecular complexity of the cores. We carried out a radiative transfer analysis of the detected transitions in order to place some constraints on the physical conditions of the cores and on the molecular column densities. We also used the molecular ions in the survey to estimate the cosmic-ray ionisation rate and the S/H initial elemental abundance using a gas-phase chemical model to reproduce their abundances. Results. We found large differences in the molecular complexity (deuteration, complex organic molecules, sulphur, carbon chains, and ions) and compared their chemical properties with a cold core and two prestellar cores. The chemical diversity we found in the three cores seems to be correlated with their chemical evolution: two of them are prestellar (1390 and 4149), and one is in an earlier stage (869). Conclusions. The influence of the environment is likely limited because cold cores are strongly shielded from their surroundings. The high extinction prevents interstellar UV radiation from penetrating deeply into the cores. Higher spatial resolution observations of the cores are therefore needed to constrain the physical structure of the cores, as well as a larger-scale distribution of molecular ions to understand the influence of the environment on their molecular complexity.
  • Bhat, K. M.; Kärkkäinen, Matti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1980)
  • Suomela, Jenni A.; Vajanto, Krista; Räisänen, Riikka (2020)
    Collection SU4522 in the Finno-Ugric Collections of the National Museum of Finland consists of 143 items, mainly textiles from nineteenth-century White Karelia, now part of the current Russia. Forty-one linen textiles were chosen for closer examination, with the aim of evaluating the area's textile culture and identifying the materials using microscopic methods. Flax, hemp and nettle have all been traditional materials for clothing in northern Europe. Additionally, cotton became established in the region during the nineteenth century. Previous research lacked such a deep examination of the textile materials used, leaving room for speculation. Stinging nettle has not been shown before to have been used as a textile material in the Karelian area. Our results show that it appeared commonly in ratsina-shirts and kaspaikka-towels. Against the consensus hemp was rare and appeared only in one of the items. The results are mirrored by concurrent pictorial and written material from I. K. Inha who visited the region in 1894 and collected most of the items in the collection. White Karelian textile traditions from clothing to fabrics, weaving, spinning and fiber production are discussed in the article. Nevertheless, questions concerning the origins of the materials and the effects of the peddling tradition would need further research.
  • Albrecht, Anders Christian (2015)
    Keys and diagnoses of North European aphids (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea) associated with mosses, horsetails and ferns are given, based on fresh and freeze-dried material. Numerous externally visible and thus informative characters, that are absent in cleared, slide-mounted specimens, such as body shape colours, wax coating and pattern etc., are utilized. Most of the species are illustrated by photographs of live specimens and drawings. Root-feeding species living in the moss layer or otherwise often present in moss samples are also included, even if their hosts were spermatophytes. The combination of colour images and diagnoses, utilizing easily observed characters, allows the identification of a large number of species already in the field, and many more at home with the aid of a stereo microscope. Host plant relationships and association with ants are summarised, including new records. Brief accounts on aphid life cycles, freeze-drying preparation techniques, etc. are also given to support the use of the keys.
  • Nurmela, Kirsti; Mattila, Aino; Heikkinen, Virpi; Uitti, Jukka; Ylinen, Aarne; Virtanen, Pekka (2018)
    The study explores whether clinical screening targeted at work disabilities among long-term unemployed people reveals eligible individuals for a disability pension and the importance of depression in granting the disability pensions. A total of 364 participants of the screening project were considered as eligible to apply for disability pension. Among them, 188 were diagnosed as clinically depressed. They were classified into those with earlier depression diagnosis (n = 85), those whose depression had not been diagnosed earlier (n = 103), and those without diagnosed depression (n = 176). The association of this Depression identification pattern' with being granted a disability pension was explored by logistic regression analyses. Compared to those with earlier diagnosis, those whose depression had not been diagnosed earlier were granted disability pension more commonly (72% vs. 54% OR 2.2, p = 0.012). Corresponding figures of the undepressed were 73%, OR 2.3, p = 0.002. The adjustments did not affect the results. Clinical examination of the long-term unemployed people in terms of work disability seems to be worthwhile. In particular, the examination reveals new depression diagnoses, which contribute more to the award of disability pension than depression diagnosed earlier by regular health care. Novel ways to detect depression among the unemployed should be implemented in the health and employment services.
  • Lyhs, Ulrike; Korkeala, Hannu; Björkroth, Johanna (Elsevier, 2002)
    A total of 296 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from spoiled, vacuum-packaged ‘gravad’ rainbow trout stored at 3ºC and 8ºC were characterised and identified using a molecular approach. The isolates were initially grouped according to their HindIII restriction endonuclease profiles and further identified to species level using a rRNA gene restriction pattern (ribotype) identification database. Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus curvatus and Carnobacterium piscicola were the three main species detected. Only one isolate was identified as Carnobacterium divergens. Most of the carnobacteria were found in the samples stored at 3ºC. The relative proportion of L. sakei was higher in the samples stored at 8ºC.
  • Rankinen, Katri; Enrique, José; Bernal, Cano; Holmberg, Maria; Vuorio, Kristiina; Granlund, Kirsti (Elsevier, 2019)
    Science of The Total Environment 658 (2019), 1278-1292
    In Finland, a recent ecological classification of surface waters showed that the rivers and coastal waters need attention to improve their ecological state. We combined eco-hydrological and empirical models to study chlorophyll-a concentration as an indicator of eutrophication in a small agricultural river. We used a modified story-and-simulation method to build three storylines for possible changes in future land use due to climate change and political change. The main objective in the first storyline is to stimulate economic activity but also to promote the sustainable and efficient use of resources. The second storyline is based on the high awareness but poor regulation of environmental protection, and the third is to survive as individual countries instead of being part of a unified Europe. We assumed trade of agricultural products to increase to countries outside Europe. We found that chlorophyll-a concentration in the river depended on total phosphorus concentration. In addition, there was a positive synergistic interaction between total phosphorus and water temperature. In future storylines, chlorophyll-a concentration increased due to land use and climate change. Climate change mainly had an indirect influence via increasing nutrient losses from intensified agriculture. We found that well-designed agri-environmental measures had the potential to decrease nutrient loading from fields, as long as the predicted increase in temperature remained under 2 °C. However, we were not able to achieve the nutrient reduction stated in current water protection targets. In addition, the ecological status of the river deteriorated. The influence of temperature on chlorophyll-a growth indicates that novel measures for shading rivers to decrease water temperature may be needed in the future.
  • Albrecht, Anders Christian (2017)
    Keys and diagnoses of North European aphids (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea) associated with mosses, horsetails and ferns are given, based on fresh and freeze-dried material. Numerous externally visible and thus informative characters, that are absent in cleared, slide-mounted specimens, such as body shape colours, wax coating and pattern etc., are utilized. Most of the species are illustrated by photographs of live specimens and drawings. Root-feeding species living in the moss layer or otherwise often present in moss samples are also included, even if their hosts were spermatophytes. The combination of colour images and diagnoses, utilizing easily observed characters, allows the identification of a large number of species already in the field, and many more at home with the aid of a stereo microscope. Host plant relationships and association with ants are summarised, including new records. Brief accounts on aphid life cycles, freeze-drying preparation techniques, etc. are also given to support the use of the keys.
  • Heikkilä, Sampsa (2005)
    Etnografiani tutkii kokemuksen "samankaltaisuutta" erilaisissa sosiaali-historiallisissa olosuhteissa. Editoidun audiovisuaalisen materiaalin käyttöön perustuva systemaattinen tutkimus kartoittaa variabiliteettia, eli "jotenkin" samankaltaisuutta geneerisessä ilmaisukulttuurissa. Performanssiteorian, musiikkikokemuksen ja puheen etnografian metodien ja teorioiden pohjalta tehty työ tulkitsee näistä lähtökohdista käsin musiikillista mediaatiota erilaisissa symbolisissa kommunikaatioprosesseissa. Työn kontribuutio on näiden tutkimusalojen piirissä niin, että sen pohjalta tehtyjä antropologisia väittämiä voidaan hyödyntää esteettisiin konfiguraatioihin perustuvien performanssikulttuurien tutkimuksessa. Havaintojen validiteettia ja relevanssia lisää monipuolinen audiovisuaalisen materiaalin käyttö. Työ pohjautuu n. 5 kuukauden pituiseen kenttätyöhön Sevillan provinssissa Espanjassa. Etnografinen materiaali on flamenco-puheyhteisöistä. Etnografinen metodi hyödyntää haastatteluaineistoja, etnografista video-elokuvaa, sosiaalihistoriallisia dokumentteja sekä antropologista kirjallisuutta. Tutkimusongelma on yleisluonteinen: kuinka tulkita kyseistä informaation paljoutta? Ongelman jäsentämiseksi asetettu hypoteesi olettaa draamallisten muotojen kehityksen mahdollisuuden kokemuksen samankaltaisuudessa. Tutkimuskysymykset ovat näistä kaikista lähtökohdista käsin: Mitkä ovat ilmaisukulttuurin symbolisten kommunikaatioprosessien varioidut muodot ja mitkä niiden funktiot? Mitkä ovat sosiaalihistorian dynamiikan ehdollistamat performanssistruktuuritilanneriippuvaiset "ehdot"? Ongelmat ja kysymykset on tutkittu etnografian metodologian alueella analysoimalla ja tulkitsemalla työn visuaali-antropologinen toteutus. Puheen merkityksellisten tyylien, tyylillisten struktuurien sekä tyylillisten muotojen funktio ja merkitys sosiaalisesti jaettuina prosesseina nousee päällimäiseksi tulkinnaksi kahdella osa alueella. Kulttuurinen subversio ja metaforinen identifikaatio. Kumpaankin osa-alueeseen liittyy symbolisesti tulkitseva yksilö sosiaali-historiallisena agenttina ja aktorina. Osa-alueiden laajempaa tutkimusta ja oman työni rajallisia mahdollisuuksia hahmottaen on työn päätteksi ehdotettu metodologista reduktiota, jolla työn narratiivisesta kokonaisuudesta erottuvia piirteitä voidaan ymmärtää kahdella tavalla 1) ehdollisina "partikulaareina muotoina"; 2) performanssin yleisinä ehtoina. Yleisesti työn merkitys on paikallisessa kulttuurin jatkuvuuden tutkimuksessa ja symbolisten arvojen "taidevälityksessä". Yksilöä painottavan sosiaalitieteen kentässä sen merkitys on genren ja muiden symbolisten muotojen tulkitsevan käytön hahmottamisessa ja ymmärtämisessa.
  • Salmi, Pauliina; Ryymin, Kalle; Karjalainen, Anna K.; Mikola, Anna; Uurasjärvi, Emilia; Talvitie, Julia (IWA Publishing, 2021)
    Water Science & Technology
    Microplastics (MPs) from households, stormwater, and various industries are transported to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), where a high proportion of them are captured before discharging their residuals to watersheds. Although recent studies have indicated that the removed MPs are mainly retained in wastewater sludge, sludge treatment processes have gained less attention in MP research than water streams at primary, secondary, and tertiary treatments. In this study, we sampled 12 different process steps in a tertiary-level municipal WWTP in central Finland. Our results showed that, compared to the plant influent load, three times more MPs circulated via reject water from the sludge centrifugation back to the beginning of the treatment process. Fibrous MPs were especially abundant in the dewatered sludge, whereas fragment-like MPs were observed in an aqueous stream. We concluded that, compared to the tertiary effluent, sludge treatment is the major exit route for MPs into the environment, but sludge treatment is also a return loop to the beginning of the process. Our sampling campaign also demonstrated that WWTPs with varying hydraulic conditions (such as the one studied here) benefit from disc filter-based tertiary treatments in MP removal.
  • Karlsson, Cecilia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The Nordic countries are united by shared values and similar social systems. Traditionally, the cultures in the Nordic countries have been mostly homogeneous, but due to globalization and increased immigration, the Nordic countries have become increasingly culturally diverse. Does this affect how people perceive and identify with the Nordic countries? The purpose of the thesis is to describe Finnish adolescents' perceptions of the Nordic countries and how they identify with the Nordics. Furthermore, I would like to explore how a different ethnic background from Finnish influences Nordic identification. Background and contextual research consisted of theories on identity and identification and previous studies of Nordic, social and cultural identities. The thesis is a part of the research project NordId, which is part of a research network, whose aim is to explore the challenges facing the Nordic education systems. The thesis was conducted as a qualitative research project with a phenomenographic approach. The data collection was done in April 2019, and the sample consisted of 25 adolescents from an upper secondary school in Finland with broad ethnic diversity. The data, consisting of photographs and interviews, was collected through participatory photography and semi-structured group interviews. It was analysed thematically. From the results three themes emerged regarding what the adolescents considered to be Nordic: nature, welfare state, and culture and traditions. Adolescents identified with the Nordics through belonging, similarities and common traditions, and values within the three themes. Family, nationality, geography, ethnicity and language were relationships and categories that they identified through. The results showed that the adolescents with a different ethnic background from Finnish identified with the Nordic countries the same way as the Finnish do. A slight difference in what the adolescents perceived as Nordic was revealed. The most notable difference was that the adolescents with a different ethnic background emphasized the welfare society, freedom of speech and freedom of religion more explicitly and to a greater extent in the photographs and interviews. The results can promote future Nordic cooperation, by showing what the Nordic region means to young people. In addition, the results can inform the educational system of whether Nordic countries, cultures, and history are adequately taught in the curricula, based on what Finnish adolescents know about the Nordic countries.
  • Björkroth, Johanna; Korkeala, Hannu; Funke, Guido (Society for General Microbiology, 1999)
    The value of rRNA gene RFLP analysis (ribotyping) as a tool for Corynebacterium and Turicella species identification was evaluated. Seventyfour strains representing 26 different species or subspecies were analysed by BstEII, SmaI and SphI ribotyping. Numerical analysis of the resulting rDNA banding patterns was performed by Dice coefficient correlation in order to establish a database for species identification. In general, most of the strains belonging to the same species clustered together. Interestingly, BstEII clustering of many species followed known phylogenetic lineages. This was not evident with the more heterogeneous SmaI and SphI patterns. The SmaI patterns contained a 1800 bp band in the digests of all species studied with the exception of Corynebacterium urealyticum. SphI digestion resulted in the most heterogeneous patterns. The information provided by all three enzymes was considered essential for the reliable linking of strains of unknown identity with defined species in the database. It is concluded that ribotyping provides an useful tool for screening and characterization of potentially new Corynebacterium species.
  • Hakoköngäs, Juho Eemeli; Pirttilä-Backman, Anna-Maija; Halme, Merja (2021)
    In this article, the authors present new results and discuss Finnish living historical memory in the 2010s. The data was collected as part of an international online survey in 2018–2019. The authors analyze the responses of 303 Finns who were asked to list three of the most influential events in Finnish history that had occurred in their lifetime or in the lifetime of someone they knew or had known. Cluster analysis is used to gain insight into the heterogeneous set of events that the respondents recalled. Finnish membership of the European Union (1995), recent global upheavals (e.g., 9/11), and historically more distant wars (1939–1944) characterize living historical memory. Five clusters—internationalizing nation, threatened nation, surviving nation, in favor of the European Union, and against the European Union—were discovered. Standpoints with regard to the European Union divide the respondent group. Political party preference and the level of identification with the world as a whole are related to cluster membership. Despite the differences in the level of identification and political orientation, the study shows a relatively homogeneous way of remembering events of the last century.
  • Lange, Alexander; Dalheimer, Bernhard; Herwartz, Helmut; Maxand, Simone (2021)
    Structural vector autoregressive (SVAR) models are frequently applied to trace the contemporaneous linkages among (macroeconomic) variables back to an interplay of orthogonal structural shocks. Under Gaussianity the structural parameters are unidentified without additional (often external and not data-based) information. In contrast, the often reasonable assumption of heteroskedastic and/or non-Gaussian model disturbances offers the possibility to identify unique structural shocks. We describe the R package svars which implements statistical identification techniques that can be both heteroskedasticity-based or independence-based. Moreover, it includes a rich variety of analysis tools that are well known in the SVAR literature. Next to a comprehensive review of the theoretical background, we provide a detailed description of the associated R functions. Furthermore, a macroeconomic application serves as a step-by-step guide on how to apply these functions to the identification and interpretation of structural VAR models.
  • Stenius, Minna (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    This thesis is about work engagement, the experience of work-related motivational fulfillment, in a team context. The present study is based on a larger survey conducted by Finnish Institute of Occupational Health with one of its client organizations. It was administered as an electronic survey in an expert organization, where work is knowledge-based, and typically conducted in teams. In such working environments team performance is highly dependent on effective knowledge sharing behaviors. Based on Job Demands - Resources model, it was suggested that meaningful team processes can be job resources that fuel work engagement. More specifically, this cross-sectional study (N=583) examined whether elements known to fuel team innovativeness, defined as team climate, were associated with individual work engagement. Self-determination theory and social identity approach were used to argue that team climate is likely to contain motivational elements, which would explain the proposed relationship. It was further proposed that typical features of knowledge-based environments, workload and role ambiguity, would be associated with work engagement, and that they would moderate the relationship between team climate and work engagement. The data was analyzed primarily by conducting linear regression analyses and multilevel modeling. The main conclusion of the study is that team climate is positively associated with work engagement, as hypothesized. Team climate elements explained together 27% of the variability in work engagement. Neither gender nor team role influenced the results. Of the four team climate elements, the most important predictor of work engagement was vision, which refers to clarity, realism, and meaningfulness of team goals. Also, concrete investments of time and effort in collaboration were important. Team membership influenced the relationship between team climate and work engagement, but this influence was very weak. The study further established that workload was positively, and role ambiguity negatively associated with work engagement, as hypothesized. Furthermore, workload weakened the relationship between team climate and work engagement, also as hypothesized. The moderation was, however, weak and only with two elements of team climate. Role ambiguity did not moderate the relationship.
  • Bhat, K. M.; Kärkkäinen, Matti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1982)