Browsing by Subject "ideology"

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  • Ruohio, Ilona (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Pro gradu -tutkielmani aiheena on ’toiseuden’ ilmenemismuodot (‘othering’) englantilaisen The Economist -viikkolehden nekrologeissa. Tarkastelen ’normiin’ ja ’toiseuteen’ liittyvää henkilökuvausta kriittisen diskurssianalyysin viitekehyksessä. Valitsin lehden tutkimus-kohteekseni, koska sillä on suuri vaikutusvalta maailmanlaajuiseen lukijakuntaan ja sen arvoihin ja asenteisiin. Vuosina 2010 – 2014 The Economist -lehdessä julkaistiin 255 nekrologia. Näiden joukosta valitsin henkilökuvauksen yleisvaikutelman perusteella 10 nekrologia tarkemman kielellisen analyysin kohteiksi. Viisi tekstiä vaikutti kunnioittavaan sävyyn kirjoitetuilta ja toiset viisi negatiivisesti värittyneiltä. Analyysimenetelmänä käytän Fowlerin luokittelua, joka pohjautuu Hallidayn systeemis-funktionaaliseen kielioppiin ja keskittyy transitiivisuuden tarkasteluun. Analysoin verbi-, adjektiivi- ja substantiivirakenteita, verbien konnotaatioita sekä semanttisia rooleja. Nämä rakennevalinnat liittyvät laajaan sosiokulttuuriseen kontekstiin, kielen interpersonaaliseen ja ideationaaliseen funktioon ja saavat merkityksensä niiden kautta. Tekemäni analyysi osoittaa, että ’normia’ edustavat henkilöt ovat aineistossa enemmistönä ja saavat osakseen positiivisia ja arvostavia verbejä, adjektiiveja ja substantiiveja, kun taas ’toiseksi’ luokiteltavia henkilöitä on merkittävästi vähemmän ja heitä kuvataan negatiivisin verbein, adjektiivein ja substantiivein. Lisäksi ’normin’ edustajat kuvataan ’toisia’ useammin toimijan (Agent) semanttisessa roolissa ja ’toiset’ saavat ’normin’ edustajia enemmän kokijan (Experiencer) ja kohteen (Affected) rooleja. Tutkimukseni tulos vastaa van Dijkin representaatiostrategiaa ‘ideological square’, jonka mukaan ’normi’ esitetään positiivisessa ja ’toiset’ negatiivisessa valossa. Tarkasteltavassa aineistossa ’normia’ (Us) edustavat valkoihoiset heteromiehet, ja ’toiseutta’ (Them) taas naiset ja värilliset.
  • Gel'man, Vladimir; Travin, Dmitrii (2013)
    The article aimed to explain changes of agenda of the Russian modernization in the late twentieth century through the impact of generation changes. While in 1985-1991 the generation of "sixtiers" pursuit their ideational priorities of political liberalization but paid less attention to economic reforms, in 1991-1998 the generation of "seventiers" focused on economic reforms rather than on democratization due to its ideational priorities
  • Kähönen, Aappo (University of Helsinki Department of Social Science History, 2008)
    As research of any historical topic, research on the Soviet society and, even more so, the political system, is unavoidably influenced by the present day in many ways. The ending of Cold War Era with the defeat of the Soviet Union has unavoidably changed the perspective on that period. All the decisions made by, or on behalf of, the Soviet side are easily seen as falling in the category of ‘loser’s history’, to be explained away or condemned. On the other hand, as all historical research is based on hindsight, recognising the result of a historical process does not automatically commit one to the ‘winner’s history’, which justifi es the actual outcome of the process, and only that. On a most general level the theme of this article is based on the relation between policy making and ideology. On a second, more practical level, this article examines the role of ideology and history in legitimating the political system of the Soviet Union, which was characterised by oneparty rule, and the open role of ideology. Here it becomes essential to keep in mind the old dual meaning of ‘history’ both as the events and the processes of the past, and as a discipline offering representations of those past events.
  • Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Vecchione, Michele; Schwartz, Shalom H.; Schoen, Harald; Bain, Paul G.; Silvester, Jo; Cieciuch, Jan; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Bianchi, Gabriel; Kirmanoglu, Hasan; Baslevent, Cem; Mamali, Catalin; Manzi, Jorge; Katayama, Miyuki; Posnova, Tetyana; Tabernero, Carmen; Torres, Claudio; Verkasalo, Markku; Lonnqvist, Jan-Erik; Vondrakova, Eva; Giovanna Caprara, Maria (2017)
    The current study examines the contribution of left-right (or liberal-conservative) ideology to voting, as well as the extent to which basic values account for ideological orientation. Analyses were conducted in 16 countries from five continents (Europe, North America, South America, Asia, and Oceania), most of which have been neglected by previous studies. Results showed that left-right (or liberal-conservative) ideology predicted voting in all countries except Ukraine. Basic values exerted a considerable effect in predicting ideology in most countries, especially in established democracies such as Australia, Finland, Italy, United Kingdom, and Germany. Pattern of relations with the whole set of 10 values revealed that the critical trade-off underlying ideology is between values concerned with tolerance and protection for the welfare of all people (universalism) versus values concerned with preserving the social order and status quo (security). A noteworthy exception was found in European postcommunist countries, where relations of values with ideology were small (Poland) or near to zero (Ukraine, Slovakia).
  • Vaara, Eero; Tienari, Janne; Ainamo, Antti (Human Relations, May 2006, 59(5): 611-636, 2006)
    The Cold War era was characterized by ideological struggles that had a major impact on economic decision-making, and also on management practice. To date, however, these ideological struggles have received little attention from management and organizational scholars. To partially fill this research gap, we focus on the role of the media in these ideological struggles. Our starting point is that the media both reflect more general societal debates but also act as an agency promoting specific kinds of ideas and ideologies. In this sense, the media exercise significant power in society; this influece, however, is often subtle and easily dismissed in historical analyses focusing on political and corporate decision-making. In this article, we focus on the role of business journalism in the ideological struggles of the Cold War era. Our case in point is Finland, which is arguably a particularly interesting example due to its geo-political position between East and West. Our approach is socio-historical: we focus on the emergence and development of business journalism in the context of the specific struggles in the Finnish political and economic fields. Our analysis shows how the business journalists struggled between nationalist, pro-Soviet and pro-West political forces, but gradually developed into an increasingly influential force promoting neo-liberal ideology.
  • Ahonen, Pertti (2015)
    The purpose of this article is to examine conceptual changes of government accounting in Finland in 1980–2009 with comparisons to the UK, Italy and Austria. The analysis applies ‘public administration’, ‘new public management’ (NPM) and ‘public governance’ as ‘umbrella concepts’ for examining government accounting. The results indicate Finland as a vigorous reformer but more reluctant to explain its reforms in NPM terms than the comparison countries. The conclusions of the paper outline examination of government accounting for the better acknowledgement of the political and ideological aspects of its conceptual changes.
  • Heino, Waltteri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This thesis analyzes the digitalization policy of the Finnish government. The main attempt is to, firstly, identify the central ideas and ideologies behind the approach of the Finnish government toward societal digitalization. Secondly, the attempt is to analyze them from the perspective of the traditional ideas and ideologies of the Nordic welfare state. The underlining research question is, whether the possible approach of the Finnish government toward digitalization is compatible with the traditional ideas and ideologies of the Nordic welfare state. The method in this thesis is a combination of qualitative content analysis and historical research methods. Qualitative content analysis with a focus on an analysis of ideologies is used for analyzing primary sources. A historical perspective is used in an attempt to locate contemporary societal digitalization on a trajectory of societal transformations in post-industrial capitalist states, as well as when presenting the Nordic welfare state model. Overall, the approach of the Finnish government appears largely in line with traditional Nordic welfare state values, such as equality and inclusion. However, one of the main findings of this thesis is that the approach of the Finnish government toward digitalization is a largely apolitical and instrumentalized one. Although possible political, economic and social implications of digitalization are identified, the government appears more concerned with providing all citizens equal access to digitalization than facilitating a public discussion on the nature, form or scope of the phenomenon. While such a consensual approach may be analyzed from the perspective of the Nordic culture of conformity, one of the main arguments of this thesis is that a politicized approach to digitalization could allow for a fruitful discussion on its eventual effects on society.
  • Kuosmanen, Sonja (2021)
    The promotion of human rights has faced challenges in recent years in the United States and elsewhere. In this study, human rights discourses are examined in the context of strategic foreign policy rhetoric by the United States. The routine of foreign policy statements is meant to create audiences receptive to U.S. foreign policy aims, but also reveals underlying ideologies and assumptions. The analysis examines U.S. State Department Human Rights Country Reports between 2000 and 2019. The results show that the assumed ideal model of human rights is heavily based on U.S. political tradition. The performance of other countries is evaluated against the 'exceptionalist' U.S. model without consideration of different cultural or societal contexts. Linguistic choices are made to highlight the agency of authorities and events, which can be seen as a strategy of diplomatic face-saving. In some cases, countries are evaluated on an unequal basis based on political expediency.
  • Haapanen, Liisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    In this master's thesis, I examine 21st century criticism of economic growth. The aim of the study is to understand what economic growth represents to growth critics. The research question is: what are the central themes of contemporary growth critique? The research material consists of three books: Tim Jackson's Prosperity without growth – economics for a finite planet (2009), Peter Victor's Managing without growth – slower by design, not disaster (2008) and the Finnish translation of Serge Latouche's Petit traité de la décroissance sereine (2007, Finnish translation Jäähyväiset talouskasvulle published in 2010). A qualitative content analysis was conducted on the material. In this method, manifest and latent meanings of the text are condensed and categorized in order to identify the key themes of the text. The analysis reveals three central themes in the criticism of economic growth. Each offers a different perspective to economic growth, to the proposed alternatives and to the opposition between growth protagonists and antagonists. First theme is growth as a phenomenon, which focuses on concrete ecological and social impacts of economic growth. The main argument of the growth critics is that the social and ecological costs of growth exceed its benefits in the western countries. In addition, they argue that economic growth cannot be viably combined with reducing ecological impact of human activities. The second theme is growth as an institution, which focuses on the institutional dependence on growth as well as institutional structures supporting growth. The critics' opinion is that these institutions now form a vicious circle in which people serve the economic growth and not vice versa. Also the proposed institutional change for disentangling society from growth is relevant to this theme. The third theme is growth as an ideology, which focuses on economic growth as a hegemonic belief and value system as well as a political goal above other goals. Under this theme, the growth critics promote emancipation and outline an alternative ideology. One main conclusion of the study is that the growth critics are not in favour of the opposite of economic growth, i.e. they do not promote a diminishing economy as an end in itself. Instead, their critique opens up a discussion on an alternative society which does not revolve around the economy and its size. However, this alternative is not pictured very clearly in the research material. It seems that the growth antagonists are able to describe what they oppose more elaborately than what they support. Another conclusion is that there is an internal tension within current growth critique. When examining economic growth as a concrete phenomenon the critics suggest indifference towards economic growth. Yet, under the other two themes the approach is everything but nonchalant since dismantling the institutions and ideology of growth will hardly be achieved without intentional resistance. Since the three books analyzed lean on and draw from earlier and contemporary references critical to economic growth, the three themes might be utilized in analyzing and understanding growth critique in general. However, this should be verified in further studies. What is more, when applied to other texts one might discover new themes not covered in this study. Because this study concentrates on the aspects that the three books representing growth critique have in common, in the future one should examine whether there are different schools of thought within the 21st century growth critique. Another interesting subject for further studies would be to apply the three themes to analyzing degrowth visions and possible degrowth experiments.
  • Harju, Anu Annika; Lillqvist, Ella (2018)
    Marxist Internet scholars have recently shed light on the commodification and exploitation of social media users. While some of these studies have also acknowledged the ideological nature of how online sociality is understood and discussed, they have not yet addressed in great detail the ways in which ideology figures in the process of commodification of social media users. We address this question by combining Marxist ideology theory with insights from cognitive pragmatics. Focusing on the idea of illusion, we draw on Relevance Theory and employ the notions of "relevance" and "cognitive illusion" to discuss the ideological process we call context manipulation, a concept that helps bring to focus the discursive obscuring of the capitalist operational logic of social media corporations. We illustrate our cognitive-pragmatic model of ideology with examples of Facebook's discursive practices. The paper contributes to the discussion on ideology in cultural studies and the discussion on commodification of online sociality in critical Internet and media studies by offering a revised interpretation of Marx's ideology theory that highlights the discursive and cognitive nature of ideological processes, and by elaborating on the workings of ideology in the specific context of corporate social media.
  • Munoz Gonzalez, Rodrigo Antonio (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    This investigation analyzes the ideological representations of superhero films produced during recent years based on a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) approach. The figure of the ‘caped crusader’ has a long history of media production; the narratives of these characters have expanded from comic books to a variety of media outlets (Coogan, 2006; Reynolds, 1994), including recently streaming services such as Netflix. Thus, it becomes essential to understand the meanings contained in these stories, and how they are depicted. The purpose of this study is to understand the operation of political ideologies at a textual level in media products that are often targeted to global audiences. With this, it is intended to discuss the discursive concordance, negotiations, or critiques that these products might realize upon a certain political hegemony. Moreover, it reflects on the mode in which certain contemporary events are translated in popular narratives and how they affect them. Hence, this research is founded upon a qualitative basis. Regarding the empiric materials, a sample of films is selected to undertake the general aim of this research. The sample consists in two trilogies of recent films that tell the story of Batman and Captain America respectively. The first superhero forms part of a rich media production tradition; from live-action and animated TV series, to proper films, Batman unfolds a vast narrative universe that have gained audience attention and loyalty. The second ‘masked hero’ implies a path to perceive how an American hegemony is depicted in a group of films. The hero was created as a propagandistic effort of the United States during the Second World War (Dittmer, 2005, 2013). In this sense, it is important to identify whether or not the ideological charge of the character has prevailed in recent treatments. Superhero films comprise many social meanings. This research considers the character of the superhero as part of a contemporary mythology that thrives in mainstream popular culture. It analyzes the relationship between ideology, considered as a semiotic matrix that enables the production, reproduction, and consumption of certain meanings in a given society, with cinema. This effort broadens the comprehension of political ideologies in films by developing a systematic approach to the study of ideology in media based on a CDA perspective. It unravels a deep and detailed account of the discursive operations that moor an ideology in a text.
  • Klabbers, Jan (2019)
    This article discusses the law and practice of the International Organization for Migration (IOM), a little-known but important international organization. The article aims to illuminate what it is the IOM does; how it influences its member state practices while simultaneously working on member state assignments; and how this affects the dominant theory underpinning the law of international organizations, i.e., the theory of functionalism. The article concludes that the IOM takes functionalist thought to extremes, and in doing so makes visible the latter’s ideological nature.
  • Vaara, Eero; Sorsa, Virpi; Palli, Pekka (2010)
    Despite increasing interest in the discursive aspects of strategy, few studies have examined strategy texts and their power effects. We draw from Critical Discourse Analysis to better understand the power of strategic plans as a directive genre. In our empirical analysis, we examined the creation of the official strategic plan of the City of Lahti in Finland. As a result of our inductive analysis, we identified five central discursive features of this plan: self-authorization, special terminology, discursive innovation, forced consensus and deonticity. We argue that these features can, with due caution, be generalized and conceived as distinctive features of the strategy genre. We maintain that these discursive features are not trivial characteristics; they have important implications for the textual agency of strategic plans, their performative effects, impact on power relations and ideological implications.
  • Vaara, Eero; Tienari, Janne (2010)
    Although extant research has highlighted the role of discourse in the cultural construction of organizations, there is a need to elucidate the use of narratives as central discursive resources in unfolding organizational change. Hence, the objective of this article is to develop a new kind of antenarrative approach for the cultural analysis of organizational change. We use merging multinational corporations (MNCs) as a case in point. Our empirical analysis focuses on a revelatory case: the financial services group Nordea, which was built by combining Swedish, Finnish, Danish, and Norwegian corporations. We distinguish three types of antenarrative that provided alternatives for making sense of the merger: globalist, nationalist, and regionalist (Nordic) antenarratives. We focus on how these antenarratives were mobilized in intentional organizational storytelling to legitimate or resist change: globalist storytelling as a means to legitimate the merger and to create MNC identity, nationalist storytelling to relegitimate national identities and interests, Nordic storytelling to create regional identity, and the critical use of the globalist storytelling to challenge the Nordic identity. We conclude that organizational storytelling is characterized by polyphonic, stylistic, chronotopic, and architectonic dialogisms and by a dynamic between centering and decentering forces. This paper contributes to discourse-cultural studies of organizations by explaining how narrative constructions of identities and interests are used to legitimate or resist change. Furthermore, this analysis elucidates the dialogical dynamics of organizational storytelling and thereby opens up new avenues for the cultural analysis of organizations.
  • Vaara, Eero; Fay, Eric (Hanken School of Economics, 2012)
    Accepted Article/Accepted Manuscript on the 3 Feb 2012
    Despite a proliferation of critical studies on management education, there is a paucity of knowledge of the ways in which problematic beliefs, values and practices are reproduced in and through management education. By drawing on and extending Bourdieu’s seminal work, this paper offers a new perspective on reproduction on the global scale. Our framework spans three inter-related levels of analysis: the dominant beliefs, values and practices (nomos and doxa) of management in global society, the structuration of the field of management education on a global scale, and the prevailing pedagogical practices in management education programs. Our analysis adds to critical studies of management education by elucidating the overwhelming institutional forces of reproduction and thus explaining how difficult it is to effect change in the prevailing ideas, values and practices. Unlike most critical analyses, we also explain how change might take place and what it would require. Thus, our analysis advances studies of reproduction in this era of globalization more generally. It also provides an example of how Bourdieusian ideas can be applied and expanded upon in novel ways in research on education in general and management education in particular.
  • Ahonen, Pertti Pellervo (Routledge, 2016)
    rhetoric, deliberation, persuasion, new public management, higher education
  • Turunen, Risto (Työväen historian ja perinteen tutkimuksen seura, 2021)
    Socialist movements sprang up throughout Europe during the long nineteenth century, but the largest socialist party emerged in the Grand Duchy of Finland. Shades of Red reconstructs the most powerful political language of its era by reading manually and computationally handwritten and printed newspapers. The main research questions focus on the evolutionary characteristics of socialism: how did it change over time, what were the ideological similarities and differences between the top and the bottom of the labour movement, and how did socialism relate to other political languages of Finnish modernity? The book extends the scope of the history of ideas qualitatively from the elite thinkers to the common people, who did not think of politics for a living, and quantitatively to datasets so vast that they elude mere human cognition. Risto Turunen is a Postdoctoral Researcher specialising in data-intensive approaches to modern political languages. He was awarded his doctorate in History at Tampere University in 2021.
  • Riad, Sally; Vaara, Eero; Zhang, Nathan (Hanken School of Economics, 2012)
    While studies on international management have focused on cultural differences and examined institutional specificities in various national business systems, conceptions of international relations have been left relatively underexplored. We argue that representations of international relations are relevant to international M&As and contend that intertextuality offers a novel approach to examine these relational features of international management. Our analysis focuses on Sino-US relations in the context of the acquisition of American IBM’s Personal Computer Division (PCD) by the Chinese company, Lenovo. We demonstrate the ways in which facets of international relations are produced in media accounts of this acquisition, and analyze the intertextual dynamics entwined with their production. The analysis consists of three sections: constitutive intertextuality, manifest intertextuality and intertextual ideological undercurrents. These illustrate the variation in producing international relations through discursive themes (threat to security/peaceful rise), emotion rhetoric (fear/cheer) and ideology (cold war/globalism). Altogether, the paper elucidates the ways in which international M&As are immersed in a seascape of intertextual international relations.
  • Timonen, R. (Helsingin yliopisto, taloustieteen laitos, 2000)
    The aim of the study was to search for relationships between entrepreneurship, management and success in farm businesses. Entrepreneurship (’yrittävyys’ in Finnish) is considered as a qualitative characteristic of a person. It is defined as the combination of certain values and attitudes, which are concept of human being; attitudes towards property, labour and uncertainty as well as innovativeness. Management is considered as a labour process on three levels: the institutional level, the economical level and the operative level. Entrepreneurship was measured with a one-dimensional construction called ideology of entrepreneurship. The effectiveness of management on different levels was measured with sum variables. The empirical data of the study was collected from bookkeeping farms in the region of Southern Finland. The main conclusions of the study are as follows. Well-educated farmers and farmers of large farms were more entrepreneurial and more effective as managers than those with lower education and smaller farms. The more entrepreneurial the orientation of the farmer, the higher the effectiveness of management on all the three levels. Innovative farmers and farmers who are willing to take risks were more effective as managers than the less innovative and the risk minimizers. The score on the measure of ideology of entrepreneurship and the coefficient of profitability were positively correlated. The correlation was higher on small farms than on large farms. Three out of five components of ideology of entrepreneurship correlated with the coefficient of profitability on a significant level. The components were attitudes toward property, labour and uncertainty. The scores on the measures of effectiveness on all the managerial levels had a stronger relationship with the technical success (average yield) than with the economical success (coefficient of profitability). Regression analysis demonstrated that besides arable area entrepreneurship is a significant predictor of economical success. Other variables in the model were forest area, insitutional effectiveness and the production line. The model explained 39 percent of the variance in the coefficient of profitability.
  • Laustela, Eetu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This thesis explores what characteristics and expectations are associated with work and workers in contemporary North Korea and how those representations differ from other socialist countries and North Korea’s own past. The theoretical background demonstrates how different thinkers have conceptualized modern work as an ideological tool, specifically under socialism. Using workers as the nominal subjects in their legitimization narratives, state socialist regimes have utilized various practices to mix the reality and the ideal, praising workers as heroes while maintaining exploitation. The literary review covers previous research on the policy and propaganda about work across the Soviet Union, China, and North Korea, showing how the image of the ideal worker has developed according to material conditions and political goals of each place and period. As contemporary North Korean work has received less attention in studies, this thesis explores the depictions of work and workers in North Korea in 2012–2020. The analysis is conducted by using qualitative content analysis on North Korean English-language media. The data consists of magazines, newspaper articles and two films. Through analysing this sample of journalistic writings, photos and fictional films and texts, repeating patterns of representations about workers emerge as four major categories of characteristics: technological skill and innovativeness, unity and collectivism, correct morals and ideology, and self-reliance. Together these qualities make up the image of the contemporary ideal worker in North Korea. These findings suggest some shifts in North Korean ideology in the last decade compared to the past. The categories mostly follow familiar themes but from new perspectives and with different emphasis. The collectivist tendency and family metaphors are stronger, and the roles between different workers are minimized. The workers are increasingly shown as highly educated innovators and scientists. Despite the rising narratives on science, the revolutionary spirit is equally maintained as an important feature.