Browsing by Subject "ilman saastuminen"

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  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2006)
    The Finnish Environment 30/2006
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2005/2006 including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - Reports on the following topics: trend assessment of deposition and runoff/soil water chemistry at ICP IM sites, heavy metal budgets and critical loads at ICP IM catchments, use of dynamic modelling forecasts to derive future target loads for N and S in deposition - Reports on national ICP IM activities.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2007)
    The Finnish Environment 26/2007
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2006/2007 including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - A summary prepared for the Gothenburg revision process: effects based approaches for S and N - Reports on the following topics: assessment of heavy metal loads and critical limits at ICP IM catchments, effects of climate change on dynamic model predictions and target loads functions, pine forest vegetation dynamics at ICP IM sites in Latvia - Reports on national ICP IM activities.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2008)
    The Finnish Environment 28/2008
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long‑range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2007/2008  including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - A progress report on biodiversity issues - Two reports on assessing links between climate change and air pollution effects using site-specific data: a progress review, a report on development of a model framework  - A report on daily streamwater runoff characteristics of ICP IM catchments in the Bohemian Massif - Reports on national ICP IM activities.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2009)
    The Finnish Environment 23/2009
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2008/2009 including: • A short summary of previous data assessments • A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network • Reports on the following topics: - critical loads for acidification and eutrophication for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems - trend assessment of deposition and runoff/soil water chemistry at ICP IM sites - heavy metal budgets and critical loads at ICP IM sites.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2010)
    The Finnish Environment 15/2010
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2009/2010 including: • A short summary of previous data assessments • A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database,and geographical coverage of the monitoring network • A progress report on ICP IM biodiversity assessment • Two reports on critical loads at ICP IM sites: - report on calculation of site specific critical loads for acidification and eutrophication for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems - relationships between critical load exceedances and empirical impact indicators
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2011)
    The Finnish Environment 18/2011
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2010/2011 including: • A short summary of previous data assessments • A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network • A review of published vegetation results from ICP IM and preliminary analyses of collected vegetation data • A report on updated heavy metal budgets and critical loads at ICP IM sites • A report on benefits of LTER collaboration (Long Term Ecological Research network, www.lter-europe.net) • National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2012)
    The Finnish Environment 28/2012
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2011/2012 including: • A short summary of previous data assessments • A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network • An interim report on sulphur and nitrogen input-output budgets at ICP IM sites • A summary of results from biological sub-programmes of ICP IM and data analysis of relationship between changes in abundance of understory species and Nitrogen Critical Load exceedance • A progress report on field monitoring and dynamic soil-vegetation modelling using VSD+ model • National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2013)
    Reports of The Finnish Environment Institute 25/2013
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2012/2013 including: • A short summary of previous data assessments • A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network • A final report on relations between vegetation changes and nitrogen Critical Load exceedance • A progress report on base line heavy metal approach, estimation of the extent of metal turnover in European forest catchments over the last decades • A final report on sulphur and nitrogen input-output budgets at ICP IM sites in Europe • National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2014)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 23/2014
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2013/2014 including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - A progress report on dynamic vegetation modelling at ICP IM sites - A report on mass balances for sulphur and nitrogen at ICP IM sites in 1990-2012 - National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2015)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 31/2015
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2014/2015 including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - A progress report on dynamic vegetation modelling at ICP IM sites - A progress report on trend assessment for bulk deposition, throughfall and runoff water chemistry and climatic variables at ICP IM sites in 1990–2013 - A progress report on heavy metal trends at ICP IM sites - National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2016)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 29/2016
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2015/2016 including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - A report on dynamic vegetation modelling at ecosystem monitoring and research sites - An interim report on trend assessment for deposition and runoff water chemistry and climatic variables at ICP IM sites in 1990–2013 - National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2017)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 24/2017
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2016/2017 including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - A report on connections between calculated Critical Load exceedances and observed fluxes and concentrations of nitrogen in runoff - A report on concentrations of heavy metals in important forest ecosystem compartments - National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2021)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 37/2021
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2020/2021 including: a short summary of previous data assessments, a status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network, a report on the recovery of epiphytic lichen communities in Sweden over 20 years of rapid air pollution decline, a report on long-term impacts of air pollution and climate change at Finnish ICP IM sites, National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Grennfelt, Peringe; Engleryd, Anna; Forsius, Martin; Hov, Oystein; Rodhe, Henning; Cowling, Ellis (Springer Nature, 2020)
    Ambio
    Because of its serious large-scale effects on ecosystems and its transboundary nature, acid rain received for a few decades at the end of the last century wide scientific and public interest, leading to coordinated policy actions in Europe and North America. Through these actions, in particular those under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, air emissions were substantially reduced, and ecosystem impacts decreased. Widespread scientific research, long-term monitoring, and integrated assessment modelling formed the basis for the policy agreements. In this paper, which is based on an international symposium organised to commemorate 50 years of successful integration of air pollution research and policy, we briefly describe the scientific findings that provided the foundation for the policy development. We also discuss important characteristics of the science–policy interactions, such as the critical loads concept and the large-scale ecosystem field studies. Finally, acid rain and air pollution are set in the context of future societal developments and needs, e.g. the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. We also highlight the need to maintain and develop supporting scientific infrastructures.
  • Syri, Sanna (Finnish Environment Institute, 2001)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 19
    This study presents the development and applications of regional and local scale models for use in integrated assessment of air pollution effects in conjunction with large-scale models. A regional deposition model called DAIQUIRI (Deposition, AIr QUality and Integrated Regional Information) for integrated assessment purposes in Finland was constructed, and regional matrices for nitrogen oxides and ammonia were developed from the results of the regional air quality model of the FMI. DAIQUIRI produced similar estimates of deposition from Finnish sources as the original model, and long-term trends and the average level of deposition estimated with DAIQUIRI were found comparable with the monitored deposition levels and trends. For the mid-nineties situation, the regional nitrogen modeling resulted in 9% to 19% (depending on the region compared) larger estimates of areas with acidity critical load exceedances than when using European scale nitrogen deposition modeling.In this work, also a method for estimating the impacts of local NOx emissions on urban and sub-urban ozone levels was developed and tested. The study concentrated on representing the destruction of ozone by fresh NO emissions in urban areas for future use in integrated assessment modeling of ozone control strategies. Correlation coefficients between measured daytime ozone values in the study area were found to improve from 0.64 (correlation between urban and surrounding rural measurements) to 0.85, on the average. The average correlation between daytime large-scale model estimates and urban site measurements was found to improve from 0.37 to 0.58.In the study, also integrated assessment model applications were carried out at European, national and local levels. The synergies between control strategies for CO2 and acidification and ozone formation in the case of the UN/FCCC Kyoto protocol and the air quality targets of the EU were assessed with the help of coupled models. With two alternative energy scenarios reflecting the Kyoto targets for CO2, reductions of sulfur and NOx emissions between 12% and 22% and 8% to 12%, respectively, were estimated by 2010 in the EU-15 with the present emission control legislation. Due to the lower activity levels generating less emissions and the cleaner energy forms used, 35-43% cost savings in further technical emission controls required for achieving the EU air quality targets would be achieved with the scenarios studied. Case studies for Finland indicated that there has been a decrease of 60% in the area at risk of acidification from 1990 to 1995, and that the declining trend is expected to continue due to the recent international emission reduction agreements within the UN/ECE and the EU. Implementation of the Kyoto protocol in Finland and in the whole of EU-15 (with the present emission legislation) could bring up to 8% more reduction of ecosystems at risk of acidification in Finland by 2010 than the recent UN/ECE protocol.An uncertainty analysis of acidification integrated assessment modeling in Finland indicated that critical loads dominate the uncertainty. Estimates are becoming more robust, as the general level of deposition is decreasing. In Finland, further efforts to reduce the overall uncertainty should be mainly directed to more accurate description of critical thresholds. In areas affected by major nearby emission sources, also uncertainties in emissions and deposition are significant. The models and their applications presented in this study contributed to identifying the problem characteristics and have supported environmental policy development at international, national and regional levels.
  • Hari, Pertti.; Kulmala, Markku.; Pohja, Toivo; Lahti, Tapani.; Siivola, Erkki.; Palva, Lauri; Aalto, Pasi; Hämeri, Kaarle; Vesala, Timo; Luoma, Sari.; Pulliainen, Erkki. (The Finnish Society of Forest Science and The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1994)
    The Värriö environmental measurement station has been designed and constructed during 1991 and 1992. The measurement system consists of measurement units for gases (sulphur dioxide, ozone, carbon dioxide), particles, photosynthesis and irradiation. A meteorological station is also included. The preliminary measurement period was started on August, 1991. During the first year (1991–1992) some parts of the system were redeveloped and rebuilt. Full, continuous measurements started in August 1992. The system has been working quite reliably, with good accuracy. The preliminary results show that pollution episodes are observed when the wind direction is from Monchegorsk or Nikel, the main emission sources in Kola Peninsula.
  • Tainio, Marko; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Hu, Liang; de Nazelle, Audrey; An, Ruopeng; Garcia, Leandro M.T.; Goenka, Shifalika; Zapata-Diomedi, Belen; Bull, Fiona; de Sá, Thiago Herick (Pergamon, 2021)
    Environment International 147 (2021), 105954
    Background Exposure to air pollution and physical inactivity are both significant risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). These risk factors are also linked so that the change in exposure in one will impact risks and benefits of the other. These links are well captured in the active transport (walking, cycling) health impact models, in which the increases in active transport leading to increased inhaled dose of air pollution. However, these links are more complex and go beyond the active transport research field. Hence, in this study, we aimed to summarize the empirical evidence on the links between air pollution and physical activity, and their combined effect on individual and population health. Objectives and methods We conducted a non-systematic mapping review of empirical and modelling evidence of the possible links between exposure to air pollution and physical activity published until Autumn 2019. We reviewed empirical evidence for the (i) impact of exposure to air pollution on physical activity behaviour, (ii) exposure to air pollution while engaged in physical activity and (iii) the short-term and (iv) long-term health effects of air pollution exposure on people engaged in physical activity. In addition, we reviewed (v) public health modelling studies that have quantified the combined effect of air pollution and physical activity. These broad research areas were identified through expert discussions, including two public events performed in health-related conferences. Results and discussion The current literature suggests that air pollution may decrease physical activity levels during high air pollution episodes or may prevent people from engaging in physical activity overall in highly polluted environments. Several studies have estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure in active transport environment in Europe and North-America, but the concentration in other regions, places for physical activity and for other air pollutants are poorly understood. Observational epidemiological studies provide some evidence for a possible interaction between air pollution and physical activity for acute health outcomes, while results for long-term effects are mixed with several studies suggesting small diminishing health gains from physical activity due to exposure to air pollution for long-term outcomes. Public health modelling studies have estimated that in most situations benefits of physical activity outweigh the risks of air pollution, at least in the active transport environment. However, overall evidence on all examined links is weak for low- and middle-income countries, for sensitive subpopulations (children, elderly, pregnant women, people with pre-existing conditions), and for indoor air pollution. Conclusions Physical activity and air pollution are linked through multiple mechanisms, and these relations could have important implications for public health, especially in locations with high air pollution concentrations. Overall, this review calls for international collaboration between air pollution and physical activity research fields to strengthen the evidence base on the links between both and on how policy options could potentially reduce risks and maximise health benefits.
  • Forsius, Martin; Posch, Maximilian; Holmberg, Maria; Vuorenmaa, Jussi; Kleemola, Sirpa; Augustaitis, Algirdas; Beudert, Burkhard; Bochenek, Witold; Clarke, Nicholas; de Wit, Heleen A.; Dirnböck, Thomas; Frey, Jane; Grandin, Ulf; Hakola, Hannele; Kobler, Johannes; Krám, Pavel; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Löfgren, Stefan; Pecka, Tomasz; Rönnback, Pernilla; Skotak, Krzysztof; Szpikowski, Józef; Ukonmaanaho, Liisa; Valinia, Salar; Váňa, Milan (Elsevier, 2021)
    Science of The Total Environment 753 (2021), 141791
    Anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) compounds and their long-range transport have caused widespread negative impacts on different ecosystems. Critical loads (CLs) are deposition thresholds used to describe the sensitivity of ecosystems to atmospheric deposition. The CL methodology has been a key science-based tool for assessing the environmental consequences of air pollution. We computed CLs for eutrophication and acidification using a European long-term dataset of intensively studied forested ecosystem sites (n = 17) in northern and central Europe. The sites belong to the ICP IM and eLTER networks. The link between the site-specific calculations and time-series of CL exceedances and measured site data was evaluated using long-term measurements (1990–2017) for bulk deposition, throughfall and runoff water chemistry. Novel techniques for presenting exceedances of CLs and their temporal development were also developed. Concentrations and fluxes of sulphate, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and acidity in deposition substantially decreased at the sites. Decreases in S deposition resulted in statistically significant decreased concentrations and fluxes of sulphate in runoff and decreasing trends of TIN in runoff were more common than increasing trends. The temporal developments of the exceedance of the CLs indicated the more effective reductions of S deposition compared to N at the sites. There was a relation between calculated exceedance of the CLs and measured runoff water concentrations and fluxes, and most sites with higher CL exceedances showed larger decreases in both TIN and H+ concentrations and fluxes. Sites with higher cumulative exceedance of eutrophication CLs (averaged over 3 and 30 years) generally showed higher TIN concentrations in runoff. The results provided evidence on the link between CL exceedances and empirical impacts, increasing confidence in the methodology used for the European-scale CL calculations. The results also confirm that emission abatement actions are having their intended effects on CL exceedances and ecosystem impacts.
  • Kupiainen, Kaarle Juhana; Aamaas, Borgar; Savolahti, Mikko; Karvosenoja, Niko; Paunu, Ville-Veikko (European Geosciences Union, 2019)
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 19, 7743–7757
    We present a case study where emission metric values from different studies are applied to estimate global and Arctic temperature impacts of emissions from a northern European country. This study assesses the climate impact of Finnish air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions from 2000 to 2010, as well as future emissions until 2030. We consider both emission pulses and emission scenarios. The pollutants included are SO2, NOx, NH3, non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), CO, CO2, CH4 and N2O, and our study is the first one for Finland to include all of them in one coherent dataset. These pollutants have different atmospheric lifetimes and influence the climate differently; hence, we look at different climate metrics and time horizons. The study uses the global warming potential (GWP and GWP*), the global temperature change potential (GTP) and the regional temperature change potential (RTP) with different timescales for estimating the climate impacts by species and sectors globally and in the Arctic. We compare the climate impacts of emissions occurring in winter and summer. This assessment is an example of how the climate impact of emissions from small countries and sources can be estimated, as it is challenging to use climate models to study the climate effect of national policies in a multi-pollutant situation. Our methods are applicable to other countries and regions and present a practical tool to analyze the climate impacts in multiple dimensions, such as assessing different sectors and mitigation measures. While our study focuses on short-lived climate forcers, we found that the CO2 emissions have the most significant climate impact, and the significance increases over longer time horizons. In the short term, emissions of especially CH4 and BC played an important role as well. The warming impact of BC emissions is enhanced during winter. Many metric choices are available, but our findings hold for most choices.
  • Kuhn, Thomas; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Miinalainen, Tuuli; Kokkola, Harri; Paunu, Ville-Veikko; Laakso, Anton; Tonttila, Juha; Van Dingenen, Rita; Kulovesi, Kati; Karvosenoja, Niko; Lehtonen, Kari E.J. (EGU, 2020)
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 20 9 (2020)
    We use the ECHAM-HAMMOZ aerosol-climate model to assess the effects of black carbon (BC) mitigation measures on Arctic climate. To this end we constructed several mitigation scenarios that implement all currently existing legislation and then implement further reductions of BC in a successively increasing global area, starting from the eight member states of the Arctic Council, expanding to its active observer states, then to all observer states, and finally to the entire globe. These scenarios also account for the reduction of the co-emitted organic carbon (OC) and sulfate (SU). We find that, even though the additional BC emission reductions in the member states of the Arctic Council are small, the resulting reductions in Arctic BC mass burdens can be substantial, especially in the lower troposphere close to the surface. This in turn means that reducing BC emissions only in the Arctic Council member states can reduce BC deposition in the Arctic by about 30 % compared to the current legislation, which is about 60 % of what could be achieved if emissions were reduced globally. Emission reductions further south affect Arctic BC concentrations at higher altitudes and thus only have small additional effects on BC deposition in the Arctic. The direct radiative forcing scales fairly well with the total amount of BC emission reduction, independent of the location of the emission source, with a maximum direct radiative forcing in the Arctic of about −0.4 W m−2 for a global BC emission reduction. On the other hand, the Arctic effective radiative forcing due to the BC emission reductions, which accounts for aerosol–cloud interactions, is small compared to the direct aerosol radiative forcing. This happens because BC- and OC-containing particles can act as cloud condensation nuclei, which affects cloud reflectivity and lifetime and counteracts the direct radiative forcing of BC. Additionally, the effective radiative forcing is accompanied by very large uncertainties that originate from the strong natural variability of meteorology, cloud cover, and surface albedo in the Arctic. We further used the TM5-FASST model to assess the benefits of the aerosol emission reductions for human health. We found that a full implementation in all Arctic Council member and observer states could reduce the annual global number of premature deaths by 329 000 by the year 2030, which amounts to 9 % of the total global premature deaths due to particulate matter.