Browsing by Subject "ilmansaasteet"

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  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2018)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 20 /2018
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2017/2018 including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM data base, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - A report on long-term changes in the inorganic nitrogen output fluxes in European ICP Integrated Monitoring catchments and an assessment of the role of internal nitrogen parameters - A progress report on dynamic soil-vegetation modelling - A literature review: Post disturbance vegetation succession and resilience in forest ecosystems - National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2019)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 33/2019
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2018/2019 including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - An interim report on aluminium fractions in surface waters draining catchments of ICP Integrated Monitoring network - National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2020)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 31/2020
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarises the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2019/2020 including: A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - A report on temporal trends and input - output budgets of heavy metals in ICP IM catchments - An interim assessment of the impact of internal nitrogen-related parameters and exceedances of critical loads of eutrophication on long-term changes in the inorganic nitrogen output in European ICP Integrated Monitoring catchments - National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Tainio, Marko; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Hu, Liang; de Nazelle, Audrey; An, Ruopeng; Garcia, Leandro M.T.; Goenka, Shifalika; Zapata-Diomedi, Belen; Bull, Fiona; de Sá, Thiago Herick (Pergamon, 2021)
    Environment International 147 (2021), 105954
    Background Exposure to air pollution and physical inactivity are both significant risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). These risk factors are also linked so that the change in exposure in one will impact risks and benefits of the other. These links are well captured in the active transport (walking, cycling) health impact models, in which the increases in active transport leading to increased inhaled dose of air pollution. However, these links are more complex and go beyond the active transport research field. Hence, in this study, we aimed to summarize the empirical evidence on the links between air pollution and physical activity, and their combined effect on individual and population health. Objectives and methods We conducted a non-systematic mapping review of empirical and modelling evidence of the possible links between exposure to air pollution and physical activity published until Autumn 2019. We reviewed empirical evidence for the (i) impact of exposure to air pollution on physical activity behaviour, (ii) exposure to air pollution while engaged in physical activity and (iii) the short-term and (iv) long-term health effects of air pollution exposure on people engaged in physical activity. In addition, we reviewed (v) public health modelling studies that have quantified the combined effect of air pollution and physical activity. These broad research areas were identified through expert discussions, including two public events performed in health-related conferences. Results and discussion The current literature suggests that air pollution may decrease physical activity levels during high air pollution episodes or may prevent people from engaging in physical activity overall in highly polluted environments. Several studies have estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure in active transport environment in Europe and North-America, but the concentration in other regions, places for physical activity and for other air pollutants are poorly understood. Observational epidemiological studies provide some evidence for a possible interaction between air pollution and physical activity for acute health outcomes, while results for long-term effects are mixed with several studies suggesting small diminishing health gains from physical activity due to exposure to air pollution for long-term outcomes. Public health modelling studies have estimated that in most situations benefits of physical activity outweigh the risks of air pollution, at least in the active transport environment. However, overall evidence on all examined links is weak for low- and middle-income countries, for sensitive subpopulations (children, elderly, pregnant women, people with pre-existing conditions), and for indoor air pollution. Conclusions Physical activity and air pollution are linked through multiple mechanisms, and these relations could have important implications for public health, especially in locations with high air pollution concentrations. Overall, this review calls for international collaboration between air pollution and physical activity research fields to strengthen the evidence base on the links between both and on how policy options could potentially reduce risks and maximise health benefits.
  • von Salzen, Knut; Whaley, Cynthia H.; Anenberg, Susan C.; Van Dingenen, Rita; Klimont, Zbigniew; Flanner, Mark G.; Mahmood, Rashed; Arnold, Stephen R.; Beagley, Stephen; Chien, Rong-You; Christensen, Jesper H.; Eckhardt, Sabine; Ekman, Annica M. L.; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Faluvegi, Greg; Fu, Joshua S.; Gauss, Michael; Gong, Wanmin; Hjorth, Jens L.; Im, Ulas; Krishnan, Srinath; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Kühn, Thomas; Langner, Joakim; Law, Kathy S.; Marelle, Louis; Olivié, Dirk; Onishi, Tatsuo; Oshima, Naga; Paunu, Ville-Veikko; Peng, Yiran; Plummer, David; Pozzoli, Luca; Rao, Shilpa; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Sand, Maria; Schmale, Julia; Sigmond, Michael; Thomas, Manu A.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Tsyro, Svetlana; Turnock, Steven T.; Wang, Minqi; Winter, Barbara (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022)
    Communications Earth & Environment
    A tighter integration of modeling frameworks for climate and air quality is urgently needed to assess the impacts of clean air policies on future Arctic and global climate. We combined a new model emulator and comprehensive emissions scenarios for air pollutants and greenhouse gases to assess climate and human health co-benefits of emissions reductions. Fossil fuel use is projected to rapidly decline in an increasingly sustainable world, resulting in far-reaching air quality benefits. Despite human health benefits, reductions in sulfur emissions in a more sustainable world could enhance Arctic warming by 0.8 degrees C in 2050 relative to the 1995-2014, thereby offsetting climate benefits of greenhouse gas reductions. Targeted and technically feasible emissions reduction opportunities exist for achieving simultaneous climate and human health co-benefits. It would be particularly beneficial to unlock a newly identified mitigation potential for carbon particulate matter, yielding Arctic climate benefits equivalent to those from carbon dioxide reductions by 2050. Reduction in key air pollutants, especially particulate carbon, can help mitigate Arctic warming with associated benefits for global climate and human health, according to Earth system model simulations under future emissions scenarios.
  • Kupiainen, Kaarle Juhana; Aamaas, Borgar; Savolahti, Mikko; Karvosenoja, Niko; Paunu, Ville-Veikko (European Geosciences Union, 2019)
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 19, 7743–7757
    We present a case study where emission metric values from different studies are applied to estimate global and Arctic temperature impacts of emissions from a northern European country. This study assesses the climate impact of Finnish air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions from 2000 to 2010, as well as future emissions until 2030. We consider both emission pulses and emission scenarios. The pollutants included are SO2, NOx, NH3, non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), CO, CO2, CH4 and N2O, and our study is the first one for Finland to include all of them in one coherent dataset. These pollutants have different atmospheric lifetimes and influence the climate differently; hence, we look at different climate metrics and time horizons. The study uses the global warming potential (GWP and GWP*), the global temperature change potential (GTP) and the regional temperature change potential (RTP) with different timescales for estimating the climate impacts by species and sectors globally and in the Arctic. We compare the climate impacts of emissions occurring in winter and summer. This assessment is an example of how the climate impact of emissions from small countries and sources can be estimated, as it is challenging to use climate models to study the climate effect of national policies in a multi-pollutant situation. Our methods are applicable to other countries and regions and present a practical tool to analyze the climate impacts in multiple dimensions, such as assessing different sectors and mitigation measures. While our study focuses on short-lived climate forcers, we found that the CO2 emissions have the most significant climate impact, and the significance increases over longer time horizons. In the short term, emissions of especially CH4 and BC played an important role as well. The warming impact of BC emissions is enhanced during winter. Many metric choices are available, but our findings hold for most choices.
  • Salo, Inkeri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Recognizing and evaluating the benefits of trees is important for creating sustainable, safe and recreational urban spaces. i-Tree Eco software is developed by USDA for evaluation and valuation of ecosystem services of urban trees and forests. The objective of this research was to find out how does the quality of collected data affect i-Tree Eco modelling. Two different types of data and modelling results were compared in this research. All trees of the park Kupittaanpuisto in Turku were measured and evaluated according to the i-Tree guidance in late summer 2018 (later inventory). The contrasting data was selected from the tree register maintained by the city of Turku (later tree register). i-Tree Eco models several ecosystem services, of which carbon storage, carbon sequestration, avoided surface water runoff and pollution removal were analyzed in this research. The software estimates the structural value of the trees considering the land use and tree condition as well. The results show that the quality of data affects modelling results. Based on the total inventory data, the amounts of carbon sequestration, avoided surface water runoff and pollution removal were higher than the amounts modelled according to the tree register data. On the other hand, the structural value and carbon storage were bigger based on the register data than on the total inventory measurements. Lack of canopy dimensions and estimates of canopy condition had an impact on the modelling results. According to the total inventory, there were 1315 trees in the Kupittaanpuisto (ca. 34 ha), the structural value was approx. 2 430 000 €, carbon storage was 563 t, annual carbon sequestration 12 t, annual avoided surface water runoff 811 m3 and annual pollution removal 307 kg. On grounds of this research it can be stated that canopy measurements and canopy condition estimates are needed to make more accurate estimates of ecosystem services when using i-Tree Eco. This research showed that trees in the Kupittaanpuisto produce many ecosystem services and the trees are valuable. In the future, the results can be used as a reference for other research projects on ecosystem services of urban trees in the Nordic countries.
  • Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Vihma, Timo; Räisänen, Jouni; Baklanov, Alexander; Chalov, Sergey; Esau, Igor; Ezhova, Ekaterina; Leppäranta, Matti; Pozdnyakov, Dmitry; Pumpanen, Jukka; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Arshinov, Mikhail; Asmi, Eija; Bai, Jianhui; Bashmachnikov, Igor; Belan, Boris; Bianchi, Federico; Biskaborn, Boris; Boy, Michael; Bäck, Jaana; Cheng, Bin; Chubarova, Natalia; Duplissy, Jonathan; Dyukarev, Egor; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Forsius, Martin; Heimann, Martin; Juhola, Sirkku; Konovalov, Vladimir; Konovalov, Igor; Konstantinov, Pavel; Köster, Kajar; Lapshina, Elena; Lintunen, Anna; Mahura, Alexander; Makkonen, Risto; Malkhazova, Svetlana; Mammarella, Ivan; Mammola, Stefano; Buenrostro Mazon, Stephany; Meinander, Outi; Mikhailov, Eugene; Miles, Victoria; Myslenkov, Stanislav; Orlov, Dmitry; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Pirazzini, Roberta; Popovicheva, Olga; Pulliainen, Jouni; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Sachs, Torsten; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Skorokhod, Andrey; Stohl, Andreas; Suhonen, Elli; Thomson, Erik S.; Tsidilina, Marina; Tynkkynen, Veli-Pekka; Uotila, Petteri; Virkkula, Aki; Voropay, Nadezhda; Wolf, Tobias; Yasunaka, Sayaka; Zhang, Jiahua; Qiu, Yubao; Ding, Aijun; Guo, Huadong; Bondur, Valery; Kasimov, Nikolay; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku (Copernicus GmbH, 2022)
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
    The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) Science Plan, released in 2015, addressed a need for a holistic system understanding and outlined the most urgent research needs for the rapidly changing Arctic-boreal region. Air quality in China, together with the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants, was also indicated as one of the most crucial topics of the research agenda. These two geographical regions, the northern Eurasian Arctic-boreal region and China, especially the megacities in China, were identified as a “PEEX region”. It is also important to recognize that the PEEX geographical region is an area where science-based policy actions would have significant impacts on the global climate. This paper summarizes results obtained during the last 5 years in the northern Eurasian region, together with recent observations of the air quality in the urban environments in China, in the context of the PEEX programme. The main regions of interest are the Russian Arctic, northern Eurasian boreal forests (Siberia) and peatlands, and the megacities in China. We frame our analysis against research themes introduced in the PEEX Science Plan in 2015. We summarize recent progress towards an enhanced holistic understanding of the land–atmosphere–ocean systems feedbacks. We conclude that although the scientific knowledge in these regions has increased, the new results are in many cases insufficient, and there are still gaps in our understanding of large-scale climate–Earth surface interactions and feedbacks. This arises from limitations in research infrastructures, especially the lack of coordinated, continuous and comprehensive in situ observations of the study region as well as integrative data analyses, hindering a comprehensive system analysis. The fast-changing environment and ecosystem changes driven by climate change, socio-economic activities like the China Silk Road Initiative, and the global trends like urbanization further complicate such analyses. We recognize new topics with an increasing importance in the near future, especially “the enhancing biological sequestration capacity of greenhouse gases into forests and soils to mitigate climate change” and the “socio-economic development to tackle air quality issues”.
  • Vestenius, Mika (Ilmatieteen laitos - Finnish Meteorological Institute, 2021)
    Finnish Meteorological Institute Contributions 178
    Air pollution is an important environmental risk to human health and ecosystems around the world. Particulate matter (PM), especially fine particulate matter, is an important part of this air pollution problem. Particle composition varies greatly and depends on the emission source. In addition to inorganic components, organic particulate fraction can contain several hundred organic compounds from anthropogenic and natural sources. The health risk of particulate is related to the particle size and the compounds inside or on the surface of the aerosol particles. The overall aim of this thesis was to study the selected chemical substances of atmospheric aerosol from both anthropogenic and natural sources. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and biogenic organic acids in aerosol were measured, and their effect on the local air quality was estimated. The sources of PAHs, trace elements, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), and persistent organic compounds (POPs) in air were studied using positive matrix factorization (PMF), which was used as the main source apportionment tool in three of five papers and for the unpublished data in this thesis. Particles from burning emissions, e.g., diesel particles and particles from biomass burning, are the most toxic in our daily environment. Because of intensive wood use for heating and in sauna stoves, residential biomass burning is the major PAH air pollution source in Finland. Sources of atmospheric PAH pollution and its influence on local air quality were estimated at Virolahti background air quality station and in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA). The main source of PAHs at Virolahti were found to be combustion- and traffic-related source from the direction of St. Petersburg. Instead, local traffic appeared to have a very small influence on PAH levels in HMA, as local residential wood burning was found to be the main b(a)p source in Helsinki Metropolitan Area. Biogenic VOCs like monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are highly reactive and oxidize rapidly in the atmosphere, producing secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We showed that positive matrix factorization (PMF) is a useful tool in estimating separate sources in a quasistationary dynamic system like ambient VOC concentrations in the boreal forest. Selected biogenic organic acids were measured from fine particles in the boreal forest in order to estimate their influence on aerosol production. Results indicated that sesquiterpene emissions from boreal forest are probably underestimated and their oxidation products probably have more important role in the SOA production that previously estimated. The Kola Peninsula area was found to be the major source of heavy metal pollution at Pallas. However, as Norilsk Nickel has now partly shut down its metallurgical operations, the trace element and SO2 emissions from the Kola Peninsula should be declining in the future. The ambient concentrations of POP compounds are globally declining but, in the Arctic, for some compounds this is not the case. In the source apportionment study for Pallas 1996–2018 POPs data, relatively big portion of measured POPs at Pallas came within the marine source from clean areas from the north. These long-lived compounds, which have migrated into the Arctic from the southern areas along the air and sea currents for many decades, are now released back into the atmosphere from the melting Arctic ice cover due to global warming. For these compounds, the Arctic has turned from the sink to the source.
  • Ikävalko, Ville (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Air pollution kills an estimated seven million people per year according to the World Health Organization – people living in the cities of low- and middle-income countries being the one’s most exposed to toxic air. As rapid urbanisation continues to dominate the demographic trends in the developing world into the fore-seeable future, so will the negative consequences of air pollution. This, coupled with the intense pressure for developing economies to prioritise rapid and unadulterated growth as a mean to raise the living standards of their citizens over the environmental consequences of that growth, will almost invariably make air pollution one of the leading causes of death in the world, if it is not already. This thesis analyses environmental policy around air pollution to not only under-stand the policies and their effectiveness, or ineffectiveness, but also their rationality regarding the wider economic activities in the background. The study examines (state´s) air pollution abatement efforts in Delhi and the National Capital Region concerning the four primary sources of particulate matter in Delhi´s air: vehicular emissions, industries, dust, and crop burning. The research approach is based on policy analysis while the theoretical framework leans on political ecology. More specifically, the theoretical starting point is in urban political ecology, and political ecology of the state as per Antonio Ioris (2014), the former being built upon Marxist historical materialism, while latter is found upon a Marxist analysis of the (capitalist) state. The research aims to answer two questions: Does the quality and nature of Delhi´s environmental action correspond with Antonio Ioris’ theory of the environmental (capitalist) state; and second, to what extent do state interventions fail to address, further, or even create environmental issues due to the contradictory positions they hold with respect to accumulation and environmental protection. The main findings of the study follow the claims of Antonio Ioris about environmental statehood: the nature of state interventions concerning air pollution in Delhi and the National Capital Region have largely been ineffective, temporary, provisional, and partial. Furthermore, the failure to address the issue effectively obligates the Delhi government to declare air pollution emergency every winter during the worst pollution months in late October and November, introducing increasingly ad hoc - and drastic - measures that cascade up in accordance with the toxicity levels. From increasing parking tickets prices and banning diesel generators, to closing schools, banning all heavy vehicles, and prohibiting construction. Not coincidentally, the main source of air pollution during this worst period of the year is crop burning, a practice that has its roots in state legislation curbing water use in the neighbouring states of Punjab and Haryana, as well as in state procurement policies that promote the unecological farming of rice in the northern plains of India. And so, the state has not only been ineffective in curbing air pollution in Delhi but has also played a part in bringing about the situation in the first place. The case of Delhi´s air pollution gives valuable insight into the contradiction the modern state finds itself when trying to balance between its two opposing responsibilities: the first as the one creating the best conditions for economic growth, and the other as the entity regulating and mitigating the environmental consequences of this growth. It is likewise yet another sobering instance of contemporary green action, where environmental action is rationalised though and out while maintaining irrationality in the assessment and conceptualisation of the issue the mitigation action is supposed to address in the first place, leading to environmental policy that is dislocated from the root cause of the issue. The inherent issues of state environmental policy highlight the need for more focus not only on the state policy itself, but on the rationality and commitment behind those policies. The Indian Democracy similarly offers a resolution by being able to exert pressure on state entities for more meaningful mitigation action. To make this happen, there needs to be an available and open real-time monitoring infor-mation on the pollution levels to empower the local residents and organisations to not only be able to point out the local pollutants in their areas and understand the health hazard these emissions are exposing them to, but also to be able to effectively direct action and demands towards the local, state, and federal rep-resentatives for meaningful environmental action to happen.
  • Kankkunen, Joonas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Työssä tutkitaan ilmanlaatuun liittyvän julkisen huomion kehitystä Kiinan kansantasavallassa vuosina 2000–2018. Teoreettisena viitekehyksenä käytetään Jens Newigin vuonna 2004 esittelemää teoriaa julkisen huomion voimistumisesta ja vaimenemisesta sekä näihin vaikuttavista tekijöistä. Julkista huomiota tutkitaan käyttämällä seitsemän eri kiinankielisen sanomalehden CCND-tietokannasta löytyvää levikkiä vuosilta 2000–2018. Tietokannasta tehdään hakuja käyttämällä ilmanlaatuun liittyviä hakusanoja ja tulokset esitetään tilastollisessa muodossa. Tämän lisäksi kirjallisuuskatsauksen avulla tunnistetaan lainsäädännöllisiä, luonnontieteellisiä ja yhteiskunnallisia tekijöitä, joilla on oletettavasti ollut vaikutus ilmanlaadun saamaan julkiseen huomioon. Lopuksi tulokset kootaan yhteen huomiosykleiksi ja etsitään muuttujien välisiä riippuvuussuhteita huomiosyklien pohjalta. Tutkimuksen tuloksista käy ilmi, että mittauksin havaittu ilmanlaatu ei korreloi suoraan julkisen huomion kanssa. Keskimääräinen ilmanlaatu on parantunut Kiinan kansantasavallassa tutkimuksen ajanjaksolla, mutta ilmanlaadun saama huomio on samaan aikaan lisääntynyt. Ilmanlaadun ongelmien havaittavuudella ja paremman ilmanlaadun odotuksilla todettiin olevan merkittävin korrelaatio julkisen huomion kanssa. Myös voimistuneen julkisen huomion ja ilmanlaatuun vaikuttavien poliittisten toimenpiteiden välinen riippuvuussuhde oli havaittavissa. Tutkimuksen tulokset eivät suurimmaksi osaksi vastaa teoriaan kuuluvia hypoteeseja. Työn lopussa ehdotetaan teoriaan muutamia tarkennuksia, joilla sen käyttökelpoisuutta Kiinan kansantasavallan kontekstissa voisi mahdollisesti parantaa.
  • Setälä, Heikki Martti; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa Johannes; Tanhuanpää, Topi-Mikko Tapio; Viippola, Juho Viljami (2018)