Browsing by Subject "ilmansaasteet"

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  • Tainio, Marko; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Hu, Liang; de Nazelle, Audrey; An, Ruopeng; Garcia, Leandro M.T.; Goenka, Shifalika; Zapata-Diomedi, Belen; Bull, Fiona; de Sá, Thiago Herick (Pergamon, 2021)
    Environment International 147 (2021), 105954
    Background Exposure to air pollution and physical inactivity are both significant risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). These risk factors are also linked so that the change in exposure in one will impact risks and benefits of the other. These links are well captured in the active transport (walking, cycling) health impact models, in which the increases in active transport leading to increased inhaled dose of air pollution. However, these links are more complex and go beyond the active transport research field. Hence, in this study, we aimed to summarize the empirical evidence on the links between air pollution and physical activity, and their combined effect on individual and population health. Objectives and methods We conducted a non-systematic mapping review of empirical and modelling evidence of the possible links between exposure to air pollution and physical activity published until Autumn 2019. We reviewed empirical evidence for the (i) impact of exposure to air pollution on physical activity behaviour, (ii) exposure to air pollution while engaged in physical activity and (iii) the short-term and (iv) long-term health effects of air pollution exposure on people engaged in physical activity. In addition, we reviewed (v) public health modelling studies that have quantified the combined effect of air pollution and physical activity. These broad research areas were identified through expert discussions, including two public events performed in health-related conferences. Results and discussion The current literature suggests that air pollution may decrease physical activity levels during high air pollution episodes or may prevent people from engaging in physical activity overall in highly polluted environments. Several studies have estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure in active transport environment in Europe and North-America, but the concentration in other regions, places for physical activity and for other air pollutants are poorly understood. Observational epidemiological studies provide some evidence for a possible interaction between air pollution and physical activity for acute health outcomes, while results for long-term effects are mixed with several studies suggesting small diminishing health gains from physical activity due to exposure to air pollution for long-term outcomes. Public health modelling studies have estimated that in most situations benefits of physical activity outweigh the risks of air pollution, at least in the active transport environment. However, overall evidence on all examined links is weak for low- and middle-income countries, for sensitive subpopulations (children, elderly, pregnant women, people with pre-existing conditions), and for indoor air pollution. Conclusions Physical activity and air pollution are linked through multiple mechanisms, and these relations could have important implications for public health, especially in locations with high air pollution concentrations. Overall, this review calls for international collaboration between air pollution and physical activity research fields to strengthen the evidence base on the links between both and on how policy options could potentially reduce risks and maximise health benefits.
  • Salo, Inkeri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Recognizing and evaluating the benefits of trees is important for creating sustainable, safe and recreational urban spaces. i-Tree Eco software is developed by USDA for evaluation and valuation of ecosystem services of urban trees and forests. The objective of this research was to find out how does the quality of collected data affect i-Tree Eco modelling. Two different types of data and modelling results were compared in this research. All trees of the park Kupittaanpuisto in Turku were measured and evaluated according to the i-Tree guidance in late summer 2018 (later inventory). The contrasting data was selected from the tree register maintained by the city of Turku (later tree register). i-Tree Eco models several ecosystem services, of which carbon storage, carbon sequestration, avoided surface water runoff and pollution removal were analyzed in this research. The software estimates the structural value of the trees considering the land use and tree condition as well. The results show that the quality of data affects modelling results. Based on the total inventory data, the amounts of carbon sequestration, avoided surface water runoff and pollution removal were higher than the amounts modelled according to the tree register data. On the other hand, the structural value and carbon storage were bigger based on the register data than on the total inventory measurements. Lack of canopy dimensions and estimates of canopy condition had an impact on the modelling results. According to the total inventory, there were 1315 trees in the Kupittaanpuisto (ca. 34 ha), the structural value was approx. 2 430 000 €, carbon storage was 563 t, annual carbon sequestration 12 t, annual avoided surface water runoff 811 m3 and annual pollution removal 307 kg. On grounds of this research it can be stated that canopy measurements and canopy condition estimates are needed to make more accurate estimates of ecosystem services when using i-Tree Eco. This research showed that trees in the Kupittaanpuisto produce many ecosystem services and the trees are valuable. In the future, the results can be used as a reference for other research projects on ecosystem services of urban trees in the Nordic countries.
  • Ikävalko, Ville (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Air pollution kills an estimated seven million people per year according to the World Health Organization – people living in the cities of low- and middle-income countries being the one’s most exposed to toxic air. As rapid urbanisation continues to dominate the demographic trends in the developing world into the fore-seeable future, so will the negative consequences of air pollution. This, coupled with the intense pressure for developing economies to prioritise rapid and unadulterated growth as a mean to raise the living standards of their citizens over the environmental consequences of that growth, will almost invariably make air pollution one of the leading causes of death in the world, if it is not already. This thesis analyses environmental policy around air pollution to not only under-stand the policies and their effectiveness, or ineffectiveness, but also their rationality regarding the wider economic activities in the background. The study examines (state´s) air pollution abatement efforts in Delhi and the National Capital Region concerning the four primary sources of particulate matter in Delhi´s air: vehicular emissions, industries, dust, and crop burning. The research approach is based on policy analysis while the theoretical framework leans on political ecology. More specifically, the theoretical starting point is in urban political ecology, and political ecology of the state as per Antonio Ioris (2014), the former being built upon Marxist historical materialism, while latter is found upon a Marxist analysis of the (capitalist) state. The research aims to answer two questions: Does the quality and nature of Delhi´s environmental action correspond with Antonio Ioris’ theory of the environmental (capitalist) state; and second, to what extent do state interventions fail to address, further, or even create environmental issues due to the contradictory positions they hold with respect to accumulation and environmental protection. The main findings of the study follow the claims of Antonio Ioris about environmental statehood: the nature of state interventions concerning air pollution in Delhi and the National Capital Region have largely been ineffective, temporary, provisional, and partial. Furthermore, the failure to address the issue effectively obligates the Delhi government to declare air pollution emergency every winter during the worst pollution months in late October and November, introducing increasingly ad hoc - and drastic - measures that cascade up in accordance with the toxicity levels. From increasing parking tickets prices and banning diesel generators, to closing schools, banning all heavy vehicles, and prohibiting construction. Not coincidentally, the main source of air pollution during this worst period of the year is crop burning, a practice that has its roots in state legislation curbing water use in the neighbouring states of Punjab and Haryana, as well as in state procurement policies that promote the unecological farming of rice in the northern plains of India. And so, the state has not only been ineffective in curbing air pollution in Delhi but has also played a part in bringing about the situation in the first place. The case of Delhi´s air pollution gives valuable insight into the contradiction the modern state finds itself when trying to balance between its two opposing responsibilities: the first as the one creating the best conditions for economic growth, and the other as the entity regulating and mitigating the environmental consequences of this growth. It is likewise yet another sobering instance of contemporary green action, where environmental action is rationalised though and out while maintaining irrationality in the assessment and conceptualisation of the issue the mitigation action is supposed to address in the first place, leading to environmental policy that is dislocated from the root cause of the issue. The inherent issues of state environmental policy highlight the need for more focus not only on the state policy itself, but on the rationality and commitment behind those policies. The Indian Democracy similarly offers a resolution by being able to exert pressure on state entities for more meaningful mitigation action. To make this happen, there needs to be an available and open real-time monitoring infor-mation on the pollution levels to empower the local residents and organisations to not only be able to point out the local pollutants in their areas and understand the health hazard these emissions are exposing them to, but also to be able to effectively direct action and demands towards the local, state, and federal rep-resentatives for meaningful environmental action to happen.
  • Kankkunen, Joonas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Työssä tutkitaan ilmanlaatuun liittyvän julkisen huomion kehitystä Kiinan kansantasavallassa vuosina 2000–2018. Teoreettisena viitekehyksenä käytetään Jens Newigin vuonna 2004 esittelemää teoriaa julkisen huomion voimistumisesta ja vaimenemisesta sekä näihin vaikuttavista tekijöistä. Julkista huomiota tutkitaan käyttämällä seitsemän eri kiinankielisen sanomalehden CCND-tietokannasta löytyvää levikkiä vuosilta 2000–2018. Tietokannasta tehdään hakuja käyttämällä ilmanlaatuun liittyviä hakusanoja ja tulokset esitetään tilastollisessa muodossa. Tämän lisäksi kirjallisuuskatsauksen avulla tunnistetaan lainsäädännöllisiä, luonnontieteellisiä ja yhteiskunnallisia tekijöitä, joilla on oletettavasti ollut vaikutus ilmanlaadun saamaan julkiseen huomioon. Lopuksi tulokset kootaan yhteen huomiosykleiksi ja etsitään muuttujien välisiä riippuvuussuhteita huomiosyklien pohjalta. Tutkimuksen tuloksista käy ilmi, että mittauksin havaittu ilmanlaatu ei korreloi suoraan julkisen huomion kanssa. Keskimääräinen ilmanlaatu on parantunut Kiinan kansantasavallassa tutkimuksen ajanjaksolla, mutta ilmanlaadun saama huomio on samaan aikaan lisääntynyt. Ilmanlaadun ongelmien havaittavuudella ja paremman ilmanlaadun odotuksilla todettiin olevan merkittävin korrelaatio julkisen huomion kanssa. Myös voimistuneen julkisen huomion ja ilmanlaatuun vaikuttavien poliittisten toimenpiteiden välinen riippuvuussuhde oli havaittavissa. Tutkimuksen tulokset eivät suurimmaksi osaksi vastaa teoriaan kuuluvia hypoteeseja. Työn lopussa ehdotetaan teoriaan muutamia tarkennuksia, joilla sen käyttökelpoisuutta Kiinan kansantasavallan kontekstissa voisi mahdollisesti parantaa.
  • Setälä, Heikki Martti; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa Johannes; Tanhuanpää, Topi-Mikko Tapio; Viippola, Juho Viljami (2018)