Browsing by Subject "ilmastonsuojelu"

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  • Hildén, Mikael; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Forsius, Martin; Salonen, Raimo O. (Finnish Environment Institute, 2017)
    SYKE Policy Brief
  • Kuhn, Thomas; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Miinalainen, Tuuli; Kokkola, Harri; Paunu, Ville-Veikko; Laakso, Anton; Tonttila, Juha; Van Dingenen, Rita; Kulovesi, Kati; Karvosenoja, Niko; Lehtonen, Kari E.J. (EGU, 2020)
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 20 9 (2020)
    We use the ECHAM-HAMMOZ aerosol-climate model to assess the effects of black carbon (BC) mitigation measures on Arctic climate. To this end we constructed several mitigation scenarios that implement all currently existing legislation and then implement further reductions of BC in a successively increasing global area, starting from the eight member states of the Arctic Council, expanding to its active observer states, then to all observer states, and finally to the entire globe. These scenarios also account for the reduction of the co-emitted organic carbon (OC) and sulfate (SU). We find that, even though the additional BC emission reductions in the member states of the Arctic Council are small, the resulting reductions in Arctic BC mass burdens can be substantial, especially in the lower troposphere close to the surface. This in turn means that reducing BC emissions only in the Arctic Council member states can reduce BC deposition in the Arctic by about 30 % compared to the current legislation, which is about 60 % of what could be achieved if emissions were reduced globally. Emission reductions further south affect Arctic BC concentrations at higher altitudes and thus only have small additional effects on BC deposition in the Arctic. The direct radiative forcing scales fairly well with the total amount of BC emission reduction, independent of the location of the emission source, with a maximum direct radiative forcing in the Arctic of about −0.4 W m−2 for a global BC emission reduction. On the other hand, the Arctic effective radiative forcing due to the BC emission reductions, which accounts for aerosol–cloud interactions, is small compared to the direct aerosol radiative forcing. This happens because BC- and OC-containing particles can act as cloud condensation nuclei, which affects cloud reflectivity and lifetime and counteracts the direct radiative forcing of BC. Additionally, the effective radiative forcing is accompanied by very large uncertainties that originate from the strong natural variability of meteorology, cloud cover, and surface albedo in the Arctic. We further used the TM5-FASST model to assess the benefits of the aerosol emission reductions for human health. We found that a full implementation in all Arctic Council member and observer states could reduce the annual global number of premature deaths by 329 000 by the year 2030, which amounts to 9 % of the total global premature deaths due to particulate matter.
  • Berg, Annukka; Hildén, Mikael; Lahti, Kirsti; Similä, Jukka (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2014)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 22/2014
    Arviointi on selvittänyt, missä määrin ehdotus ilmastolaiksi muuttaisi ilmastopolitiikan valmistelun ja toimeenpanon nykytilaa. Arvioinnissa on hyödynnetty asiantuntijahaastatteluita ja siinä on verrattu haastatteluissa esitettyjä argumentteja muissa tutkimuksissa esitettyihin havaintoihin. Samalla on tarkasteltu mahdollisuuksia saavuttaa ilmastolaille asetettuja tavoitteita lakia säätämättä. Varsinainen arviointityö tehtiin lakiehdotuksen valmistelun aikana ennen lakiehdotuksen lausuntokierrosta. Tulosten tarkastelussa on otettu huomioon ne muutokset, jotka tehtiin lakiehdotukseen lausuntokierroksen jälkeen. Ehdotetussa ilmastolaissa olisi suurelta osin kyse nykyisen käytännön muuttamisesta lakisääteiseksi. Keskeisimmät muutokset nykyiseen järjestelmään olisivat ilmastopolitiikan pitkän aikavälin tavoitteen kirjaaminen lakiin sekä suunnittelu- ja raportointiprosessien aikatauluttaminen ja sääntely. Pitkän aikavälin tavoitetta lukuun ottamatta lakiehdotuksessa ei ole aineellisoikeudellisia säännöksiä. Ehdotuksessa annettaisiin osa työ- ja elinkeinoministeriön aiemmin hoitamista yhteensovittamistehtävistä ympäristöministeriölle. Ehdotetussa ratkaisussa kaksi eri ministeriötä olisi koordinointivastuussa asioista, jotka liittyvät sekä ilmasto- että energiapolitiikkaan. Koordinointitehtävien yhteensovittaminen on siten ratkaisevan tärkeää hallinnollisen sekavuuden välttämiseksi. Pitkän aikavälin päästövähennystavoitteen kirjaamisella lakiin olisi ensisijaisesti symbolinen merkitys. Se olisi selvä viesti kotimaan toimijoille ja kansainvälisille neuvotteluosapuolille Suomen tahdosta tehdä aktiivista ilmastopolitiikkaa. Ilmastolaki voisi vähentää avoimuudessa ja osallistamisessa esiintyvää vaihtelua eri suunnitteluprosesseissa. Nykytilaan verrattuna laki parantaisi laaja-alaisen ilmastopoliittisen osallistumisen edellytyksiä. Lakisääteinen selontekomenettely ja ilmastovuosikertomus varmistaisivat myös, että eduskunnalla olisi keinoja seurata ilmastopolitiikkaa ja vaikuttaa sen muotoutumiseen. Ilmastolailla olisi mahdollista vahvistaa ilmastopolitiikan tietoperustaa. Ilmastopaneelin aseman kirjaaminen lakiin toisi paneelille jatkuvuutta ja vahvistaisi sen asemaa. Ilmastopaneelin painoarvo ja vaikutusvalta ovat kuitenkin pitkälti riippuvaisia käytännön toteutuksesta: paneelin jäsenistön valinnasta, viestinnän onnistumisesta ja paneelin käyttöön asetettavista voimavaroista. Ehdotettu ilmastolaki ei mainittavasti lisäisi raportointitaakkaa nykytilaan verrattuna, mikäli raportointi toteutetaan joustavasti ja koordinoidusti EU:n ja kansainvälisten raportointien mukaisesti. Laki tarjoaisi sysäyksen ilmastopolitiikan raportoinnin kokonaisvaltaiselle kehittämiselle. Arvioinnin yleinen johtopäätös on, että ilmastolaki voisi edistää nykyisten ja tulevien ilmastotavoitteiden saavuttamista sillä edellytyksellä, että eri suunnittelujärjestelmien ja -käytäntöjen yhteensovittamisessa onnistutaan. Asetettujen tavoitteiden saavuttamista voitaisiin edistää myös ilman lakia. Vastaavien edistysaskelien saavuttamien edellyttäisi kuitenkin todennäköisesti suurempia erillisiä ponnistuksia, kuin mitä lain säätäminen ja toimeenpano vaatisi.
  • Kangas, Hanna-Liisa; Ollikka, Kimmo; Weaver, Sally (Finnish Environment Institute, 2016)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 17/2016
    The Paris Agreement starts a new era in global climate policy. The agreement includes a landmark target of limiting global warming to well below 2°C degrees. Since the initial contributions of the Parties do not fulfill that target, additional ways and mechanisms to increase climate change mitigation ambition are required. Increased cooperation and decreased costs of mitigation that result from enhanced policy can help to achieve the current contributions and also increase the ambition of future targets. The objective of this report is to bridge the realities of the UNFCCC negotiations and theoretical academic understanding of increasing the climate change mitigation ambition. Especially we focus on the fields of environmental economics and international environmental agreements. We have analyzed the possibilities which the Paris Agreement opens up for increasing the ambition of climate change mitigation in the form of (1) cyclical improvements, (2) market mechanisms, (3) technology transfer and information sharing, and (4) low-carbon investments and finance to increase the ambition of climate mitigation. We find that the implementation of the Paris Agreement requires increased multilevel cooperation between Parties. Also, the Parties’ climate change mitigation targets and actions should be clearly formulated and comparable. In order for the global ambition enhancements to be measurable, a trustworthy review process is necessary. In addition, new international market and non-market mechanisms are needed. We also find that for their role to be optimal, UNFCCC’s key means of implementation require strengthening. The Green Climate Fund could play an active role in enhancing the maturity and market growth of low-carbon investment instruments. The Climate Technology Centre and Network could help to advance the Parties’ technology cooperation as well as technology transfer to developing countries. The Paris Agreement itself is a significant step towards more ambitious global climate policy. However, the implementation of the agreement will define how well its objectives are met. Upcoming negotiations can help to shape future climate policy design towards a positive cycle of increasing climate change mitigation ambition.
  • Snellman, Otto (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Why those that are most responsible and capable in the climate crisis are not doing nearly enough? Stephen Gardiner argues that in addition to diagnosing the failures of ethical agency amid the crisis, climate ethicists should face them head-on. He outlines “ethics of the climate transitions” or, shortly, transition ethics. It aims to help in building ethical motivation for the institutional overhaul needed to limit the heating to 1,5°C. The work addresses transition ethics and the ambitious ideas on ethical action-guidance put forward in it. It is argued that transition ethics should be understood as concessive theory in David Estlund’s sense. It weighs moral correctness of principles and motivations with their practicability. In concessive transition ethics, the empirically informed diagnosis of the climate crisis and the advocated ethical prescriptions should be in constant interaction. Transition ethics should remain flexible about degrees and areas of concession. It should also stay properly modest: its prescriptions are not the ultimate expression of climate justice, but something to work on in the uncertain and complex circumstances of the climate crisis. Transition ethics is put to test by noting that climate ethicists are not insulated from the various problems of ethical agency that the climate crisis breeds. Appropriating Gardiner’s ideas and political realism, it is argued that transition ethicists are threatened by theoretical vices. These are rooted in the indeterminate approach of weighing practicability and moral constraints. By reviewing recent contributions in climate change communication and social and moral psychology, it is showed that Gardiner’s “moral corruption” diagnosis and “defensive ethics” may be subject to the theoretical vice of wishful thinking. Yet if transition ethicists guard against wishful thinking too eagerly, another theoretical vice called strategic inconsiderateness awaits them. The more specific root of the twin vices is located in the role of prescriptions in transition ethics. They may either overtly condition the diagnosis or be reduced to mere strategic communication. To get some clarity on the proper role of ethical prescriptions, the issue is further discussed in a context crucial for transition ethics, i.e., political legitimacy. It is argued that Gardiner’s argument called the global test is a condition of political legitimacy amid the climate crisis. The test shows why the prevailing but failing institutions should be rejected. Yet it is argued that the normative grounds of the global test and its status as a concessive and action-guiding prescription are ambiguous. Therefore, two alternative interpretations of the test are outlined, one based on political realism and other on Allen Buchanan’s theory of political legitimacy. It is concluded that the Buchanian approach is more apt as a benchmark of transitional prescriptions. It informs flexibility of concession and shows some limits to modesty and political realist suspicion. The conclusion is that relatively non-concessive ethical prescriptions may be an antidote against the theoretical vices amid the fog of confusion of the climate crisis. Ethical integrity may also help transition ethicists to be relevant for the global climate movement ushering the ethical climate transitions.
  • Karhinen, Santtu; Peltomaa, Juha; Riekkinen, Venla; Saikku, Laura (Elsevier, 2021)
    Global Environmental Change 67 (2021), 102225
    Local governments have set highly ambitious greenhouse gas emission reduction targets on a strategic level, in some cases influenced by intermediary networks. Yet, the quantitative impacts of climate strategies or the sharing of best practices on emissions still remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of an intermediary network on municipal greenhouse gas emissions. This was done through an econometric analysis of the emissions of municipalities that are members of the Finnish Hinku (Towards Carbon Neutral Municipalities) network, and through comprehensive qualitative interviews conducted in 40 of those municipalities. Our quantitative results show that Hinku network membership has successfully led to the lowering of greenhouse gas emission levels in participating municipalities. The qualitative interviews suggest that this is due to systematic local level climate work, enhanced by network membership. The network functions as an intermediary in two ways: by providing expertise and enabling peer-support. In addition, it has also succeeded in legitimising local level climate action. Ambitious local level climate action can also affect the ambition of national climate policy, which in turn may reflect on the amount resources allocated to local climate action.
  • Orsi, Francesco; Ciolli, Marvo; Primmer, Eeva; Varumo, Liisa; Geneletti, Davide (Butterworth Scientific, 2020)
    Land Use Policy 99 : 104840
    Forests cover about 40 % of the European Union (EU), providing a wide spectrum of invaluable ecosystem services to more than half a billion people. In order to protect and harness this crucial asset, EU policies are advancing multifunctional management. This study lays a basis for such an effort by mapping the supply of key forest ecosystem services (FES) across the entire EU: wood, water supply, erosion control, pollination, habitat protection, soil formation, climate regulation and recreation. To further support the operationalization of multifunctionality and targeting of policies, our analysis delineates hotspots, assesses synergies and tradeoffs, and identifies spatial bundles. We generated maps at 1-km resolution starting from existing datasets through simple modelling (Tier 1). Out of these maps, we denoted the highest supplying pixels (i.e. top 20 %) as hotspots, and performed correlation analysis to detect synergies and tradeoffs. Finally, we used cluster analysis to identify FES bundles. Our analysis shows that hotspots of single FES are spread across the entire EU and that forests of mountain regions and Central Europe (particularly France, Germany, Slovakia) supply significant amounts of multiple FES. The cluster analysis resulted in four bundles: “balanced” in the northeast, “wood & water” in the center, “soil carbon” in the north and “rural-recreational” in the south. While a purely quantitative analysis of the produced maps may be misleading because of the strong links between FES supply and climatic and socio-economic conditions, overlaying hotspots and bundles with administrative layers can be a first step to inform about the role of different countries and regions in securing the sustainable supply of European FES.
  • Hildén, Mikael; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Forsius, Martin; Salonen, Raimo O. (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2017)
    SYKE Policy Brief
  • Reudelhuber, Matt (Finnish Environment Institute, 2009)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 25/2009