Browsing by Subject "image analysis"

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  • Jokinen, Hanna; Goncalves, Nicolau; Vigario, Ricardo; Lipsanen, Jari; Fazekas, Franz; Schmidt, Reinhold; Barkhof, Frederik; Madureira, Sofia; Verdelho, Ana; Inzitari, Domenico; Pantoni, Leonardo; Erkinjuntti, Timo; LADIS Study Grp (2015)
    White matter lesions (WML) are the main brain imaging surrogate of cerebral small-vessel disease. A new MRI tissue segmentation method, based on a discriminative clustering approach without explicit model based added prior, detects partial WML volumes, likely representing very early-stage changes in normal-appearing brain tissue. This study investigated how the different stages of WML, from a "pre-visible" stage to fully developed lesions, predict future cognitive decline. MRI scans of 78 subjects, aged 65-84 years, from the Leukoaraiosis and Disability (LADIS) study were analyzed using a self supervised multispectral segmentation algorithm to identify tissue types and partial VVML volumes. Each lesion voxel was classified as having a small (33%), intermediate (66%), or high (100%) proportion of lesion tissue. The subjects were evaluated with detailed clinical and neuropsychological assessments at baseline and at three annual follow-up visits. We found that voxels with small partial WML predicted lower executive function compound scores at baseline, and steeper decline of executive scores in follow-up, independently of the demographics and the conventionally estimated hyperintensity volume on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. The intermediate and fully developed lesions were related to impairments in multiple cognitive domains including executive functions, processing speed, memory, and global cognitive function. In conclusion, early-stage partial WML, still too faint to be clearly detectable on conventional MRI, already predict executive dysfunction and progressive cognitive decline regardless of the conventionally evaluated WML load. These findings advance early recognition of small vessel disease and incipient vascular cognitive impairment.
  • Ghimire, Sadikshya (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Fusarium proliferatum has recently become a major threat to onion, which is an important food crop for food security and has a significant role in the agricultural sector. This fungus is found causing rots and producing mycotoxin fumonisin that, if ingested, can cause carcinogenic effects in humans and fatal diseases in animals. F. proliferatum has been identified as a pathogen causing rots and wilts in many plants in several countries, and recently some isolates of this pathogen were also found in Finland causing basal rot in onion. Though F. proliferatum has wide adaptability and pathogenicity, there are research gaps on this newly emerging pathogen, which is mostly limited to some specific hosts such as maize. There is a lack of knowledge of its infection mechanisms and mycotoxin production dynamics in onion. This experimental work was conducted at the University of Helsinki, Finland, to study the nature of pathogenicity and toxin gene expression of F. proliferatum in laboratory conditions as a function of time. Spore suspensions of three isolates of F. proliferatum, Fpr047, Fpr049, and Fpr919, were prepared and used as inoculums that were injected into healthy organically grown onions, which were then stored in dark for five weeks. Control bulbs were inoculated with sterile water. Pathogen virulence, based on symptom development, and fungal colonization in the onion tissues were determined at five different time points and the toxin gene expression was determined at three time points. Colonization levels were determined by real-time PCR using primers binding to the intergenic spacer (IGS) region of F. proliferatum. A part of the IGS region of the three isolates was sequenced to study the diversity between the isolates. All the tested isolates were found to be virulent, and they colonized the onions after one week from inoculation. However, the isolate Fpr919 appeared different from the other two in terms of symptom severity. It was more aggressive than the other two, causing disease symptoms earlier and causing more severe rot symptoms in the infected bulbs. It also had nucleotide sequence variations in the IGS region in comparison with the other two isolates, suggesting genetic diversity. No significant differences were observed between the isolates in the fungal colonization levels. Expression of FUM1 gene and a putative virulence gene SIX2-1 was detected by RT-RT-PCR in most of the infected tissue samples. The results obtained signify that F. proliferatum is a pathogen with the potential of producing fumonisin toxin in onion, suggesting the need for further molecular study on this fungus to control the disease and prevent mycotoxin contamination in plant products.
  • Kankaanpää, Outi (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Loss of biodiversity in the Finnish agricultural environment has increased during the last decades due to the agricultural intensification. Accurate, efficient and repeatable sampling methods are important to follow the impacts of the measures to enhance biodiversity. This study focuses on the assessment of vegetation structure and species diversity. Vegetation cover is one of the most common measures to assess vegetation biodiversity. Cover data is usually collected by a point intercept method, a line intercept method or by visual estimation in quadrats. Traditional methods have been found to be laborious, time-consuming and subjective, and having poor repeatability. The main objective of this study was to find out if it is possible to improve vegetation surveys with digital photographs and an object-based image analysis. To answer this question, a visual method (VM) was compared with a photographic method (PM). The VM was based on ocular estimation of the total vegetation cover. In the PM, pictures of the top cover were taken vertically downward from 1.5 meters above the ground. Using a software program called Definiens, the photographs were divided into segments, which were then classified into bare ground, litter, monocots and dicots to estimate the covers for each category. The data was collected during the summer 2010 from environmental fallows and set-asides. There was a clear correlation between the cover measures in the VM and the PM, so it can be assumed that the PM is suitable for the assessment of the vegetation cover. However, using only the PM, it is not possible to get a reliable estimate of the vegetation structure or species diversity. It was faster to collect the data in the field with the PM than with the VM. The computer used in this survey was inefficient, thus the image analysis took more time than expected and as a result the PM was in its entirety slower than the VM. The study gave important theoretical and practical information about the photographic method, its strengths and weaknesses. Photographic methods are still under development and further research is needed but they hold promise for the future.
  • Holmström, Oscar; Linder, Nina; Lundin, Mikael; Moilanen, Hannu; Suutala, Antti; Turkki, Riku; Joensuu, Heikki; Isola, Jorma; Diwan, Vinod; Lundin, Johan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Introduction: A significant barrier to medical diagnostics in low-resource environments is the lack of medical care and equipment. Here we present a low-cost, cloud-connected digital microscope for applications at the point-of-care. We evaluate the performance of the device in the digital assessment of estrogen receptor-alpha (ER) expression in breast cancer samples. Studies suggest computer-assisted analysis of tumor samples digitized with whole slide-scanners may be comparable to manual scoring, here we study whether similar results can be obtained with the device presented. Materials and methods: A total of 170 samples of human breast carcinoma, immunostained for ER expression, were digitized with a high-end slide-scanner and the point-of-care microscope. Corresponding regions from the samples were extracted, and ER status was determined visually and digitally. Samples were classified as ER negative (<1% ER positivity) or positive, and further into weakly (1-10% positivity) and strongly positive. Interobserver agreement (Cohen's kappa) was measured and correlation coefficients (Pearson's product-momentum) were calculated for comparison of the methods. Results: Correlation and interobserver agreement (r = 0.98, p < 0.001, kappa = 0.84, CI95% = 0.75-0.94) were strong in the results from both devices. Concordance of the point-of-care microscope and the manual scoring was good (r = 0.94, p < 0.001, kappa = 0.71, CI95% = 0.61-0.80), and comparable to the concordance between the slide scanner and manual scoring (r = 0.93, p < 0.001, kappa = 0.69, CI95% = 0.60-0.78). Fourteen (8%) discrepant cases between manual and device-based scoring were present with the slide scanner, and 16 (9%) with the point-of-care microscope, all representing samples of low ER expression. Conclusions: Tumor ER status can be accurately quantified with a low-cost imaging device and digital image-analysis, with results comparable to conventional computer-assisted or manual scoring. This technology could potentially be expanded for other histopathological applications at the point-of-care.
  • Ghafar, Abdul; Parikka, Kirsti; Haberthür, David; Tenkanen, Maija; Mikkonen, Kirsi S.; Suuronen, Jussi-Petteri (2017)
    This study investigates the impact of ice-templating conditions on the morphological features of composite polysaccharide aerogels in relation to their mechanical behavior and aims to get a better insight into the parameters governing these properties. We have prepared polysaccharide aerogels of guar galactomannan (GM) and tamarind seed xyloglucan (XG) by enzymatic oxidation with galactose oxidase (GaO) to form hydrogels, followed by conventional and unidirectional ice-templating (freezing) methods and lyophilization to form aerogels. Composite polysaccharide aerogels were prepared by incorporating nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) into polysaccharide solutions prior to enzymatic oxidation and gel formation; such a cross linking technique enabled the homogeneous distribution of the NFC reinforcement into the gel matrix. We conducted phase-enhanced synchrotron X-ray microtomography (XMT) scans and visualized the internal microstructure of the aerogels in three-dimensional (3D) space. Volume-weighted pore-size and pore-wall thickness distributions were quantitatively measured and correlated to the aerogels’ mechanical properties regarding ice-templating conditions. Pore-size distribution and orientation depended on the ice-templating methods and the NFC reinforcement that significantly determined the mechanical and shape-recovery behavior of the aerogels. The results obtained will guide the design of the microporous structure of polysaccharide aerogels with optimal morphology and mechanical behavior for life-sciences applications.
  • Burg, Skylar (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    In this study, a greenhouse experiment was used to assess if temperature sensitivity, specifically, thermoregulatory plasticity, has a functional role in floral reflectance and pigmentation in a population of P. lanceolata grown in three different temperature treatments, reflecting past, present, and future summer temperatures. Spectrophotometry, surface temperature readings, and near-infrared (NIR) region image analysis were used to identify how the spectral absorbance properties and biochemical makeup of P. lanceolata flowers differed between treatments. Reflectance and phenolic absorbance were both found to be influenced by ambient temperature. However, surface temperature of flower spikes was not affected by growing temperature, reflectance, or phenolic absorbance. The results suggest that Plantago lanceolata may utilize thermoregulatory plasticity in reflectance and phenolic absorbance to adjust to rising temperatures. These findings have important implications in species reactions to climate change and denotes that increased selection on thermal function traits may occur under a future climate scenario of continued warming in temperate and boreal biomes.