Browsing by Subject "immersion"

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  • Lundell, Richard Viking; Wuorimaa, Tomi; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Sundholm, Johnny K. M.; Rintamäki, Hannu; Rissanen, Sirkka; Parkkola, Kai (2019)
    Introduction: It is vital to protect divers from the cold, particularly in Arctic conditions. The insulating gas layer within the drysuit is crucial for reducing heat loss. The technical diving community has long claimed the superiority of argon over air as an insulating gas. Although argon is widely used, previous studies have shown no significant differences between the two gases. Owing to its lower heat conductivity, argon should be a better thermal insulating gas than air. Methods: The study aimed to determine whether argon is beneficial for reducing heat loss in divers during development of military drysuit diving equipment in Arctic water temperatures. Four divers completed 14 dives, each lasting 45 minutes: seven dives used air insulation and seven used argon insulation. Rectal and eight skin temperatures were measured from which changes in calculated mean body temperature (MBT) were assessed. Results: There was a significant reduction in area weighted skin temperature over time (0-45 minute) on air dives (Delta T-skin = -4.16 degrees C, SE = 0.445, P <0.001). On argon dives the reduction was significantly smaller compared to air dives (difference between groups = 2.26 degrees C, SE = 0.358, P Conclusion: Compared to air, argon may be superior as a drysuit insulating gas in Arctic water temperatures for some divers. Argon used as insulating gas can make diving safer and may diminish the risks of fatal diving accidents and occupational hazard risks in professional diving.
  • Pajunen, T.; Vuori, E.; Lunetta, P. (2018)
    Background: Post-mortem (PM) ethanol production may hamper the interpretation of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in victims of drowning. Different exclusion criteria (e.g. cases with low BAC or with protracted interval between death and toxicological analysis) have been proposed with no factual figures to reduce the potential bias due to PM ethanol production when examining the prevalence rates for alcohol-related drowning. The aim of this study is to verify the extent to which PM alcohol production may affect the accuracy of studies on drowning and alcohol. Findings: Unintentional fatal drowning cases (n = 967) for which a full medico-legal autopsy and toxicological analysis was performed, in Finland, from 2000 to 2013, and relevant variables (demographic data of the victims, month of incident, PM submersion time, blood alcohol concentration, urine alcohol concentration (UAC), vitreous humour alcohol concentration (VAC) were available. Overall, out of 967 unintentional drownings, 623 (64.4%) were positive for alcohol (BAC > 0 mg/dL), 595 (61.5%) had a BAC ≥ 50 mg/dL, and 567 (58.6%) a BAC ≥ 100 mg/dL. Simultaneous measurements, in each victim, of BAC, UAC, and VAC revealed PM ethanol production in only 4 victims (BAC: 25 mg/dL – 48 mg/dL). These false positive cases represented 0.4% of drownings with BAC > 0 mg/dL and 14.3% of drownings with BAC > 0 mg/dL and <50 mg/dL. Conclusions: The present study suggests that PM ethanol production has a limited impact on research addressing the prevalence rate for alcohol-related drowning and that the use of too rigorous exclusion criteria, such as those previously recommended, may led to a significant underestimation of actual alcohol-positive drowning cases. © 2018, The Author(s).
  • Nyqvist, Eeva-Liisa; Lindström Tiedemann, Therese (2021)
    The Swedish passive has a variety of forms (s-passive, vara- and bli-passive). It also differs from the other Scandinavian languages in the dominance of the s-passive. In this article we analyse L2 Swedish translations of Finnish sentences to see how well a group of immersion learners can form passives and which passive construction they prefer. We compare immersion students in year 6 and 9 to see if there is any improvement and also if there is a difference in what they tend to have problems with or in the constructions they prefer to use. Our results show that the s-passive is the most common in both years (as in L1 Swedish) and that the periphrastic forms increase in year 9 but that their form still causes problems. Year 9 reaches a higher level of formal correctness in s- and vara- passives, however since they use more complex forms more often this sometimes leads to inaccuracies. Our results show problems primarily in relation to the form and not in the choice of the passive construction, although construction choice is difficult to judge out of a bigger context and this would be worth looking at more in the future.
  • Kaakinen, Johanna; Simola, Jaana (2020)
    Thirty-nine participants listened to 28 neutral and horror excerpts of Stephen King short stories while constantly tracking their emotional arousal. Pupil size was measured with an Eyelink 1000+, and participants rated valence and transportation after each story. In addition to computing mean pupil size across 1-sec intervals, we extracted blink count and used detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to obtain the scaling exponents of long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) in pupil size time-series. Pupil size was expected to be sensitive also to emotional arousal, whereas blink count and LRTC’s were expected to reflect cognitive engagement. The results showed that self-reported arousal increased, pupil size was overall greater, and the decreasing slope of pupil size was flatter for horror than for neutral stories. Horror stories induced higher transportation than neutral stories. High transportation was associated with a steeper increase in self-reported arousal across time, stronger LRTCs in pupil size fluctuations, and lower blink count. These results indicate that pupil size reflects emotional arousal induced by the text content, while LRTCs and blink count are sensitive to cognitive engagement associated with transportation, irrespective of the text type. The study demonstrates the utility of pupillometric measures and blink count to study literature reception.
  • Oubret, Pavla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This thesis examines how readers interact with stories across transmedia adaptations. By comparing three different works, an original comic Legends in Exile, a video game inspired by the comic called The Wolf Among Us, and the game’s adaptation back into a comic of the same name, I provide an insight into how medium affects the way a story is told. In contrasting the two comics and the video game, I demonstrate the impact of the inclusion of direct interaction with the narrative. The two comics are both detective fiction; Legends in Exile is a clue-puzzle and The Wolf Among Us a hard-boiled detective story. I use the concept of schemas in showing how the different generic properties come across in the different works, and how the medium affordances aid or impede the realization of the genre. Kai Mikkonen’s approach to narration in comics, which favors focusing on the relationship between what is shown and how it is shown, and who perceives and where the center of focalization is, reveals that the narration in The Wolf Among Us comic discourages engagement with readers, direct opposite of Legends in Exile. Using Marco Caracciolo’s character-centered illusion I show the different ways the comics succeed or fail in modelling Bigby as a character that readers can engage with. By adapting Caracciolo’s interpretative reading strategies, I propose a way of analyzing the connection between players and characters in video games.
  • Sahi, Annika (Helsingfors universitet, 1999)
    Avhandlingen behandlar tidigt fullständigt svenskt språkbad i Esbo. Arbetet utreder vad tidigt fullständigt språkbad innebär samt vad språkbadsföräldrars och språkbadslärares åsikter om språkbadet i Esbo är. Undersökningen omfattar 60 familjer samt samtliga lärare (14 st) som arbetar med språkbad i Esbo. Undersökningen består av två enkäter; en till språkbadsföräldrar och en tillspråkbadslärare. Av de 60 enkäter som sändes ut till språkbadsföräldrarna besvarades 45, dvs. 75%. 12 lärare av 14, dvs. 86%, besvarade den andra enkäten. Det är viktigt att känna till centrala begrepp i anslutning till tvåspråkighet, då man talar om andraspråkstillägnandet i språkbad. I detta arbete presenteras en modell (Sahi, 1999) som åskådliggör centrala begrepp i anslutning till tvåspråkighet. Tidigtfullständigt språkbad är ett program som är planerat att omfatta hela grundskolan. Språkbad är ämnat för enspråkiga majoritetsbarn i ett tvåspråkigt land. Dessa barn tillägnar sig minoritetsspråket i skolan. Språkbadet är inte enbart ett program, utan även en metod. Skillnaden mellan språkbad och traditionell undervisning i språk är att man i språkbadet betonar kommunikation framom grammatik. Målet medspråkbadet är funktionell tvåspråkighet. Många faktorer inverkar på andraspråkstillägnandet i språkbadet. I detta arbete betonas attitydernas och motivationens betydelse. Språkbad kräver en medveten och aktiv insats av föräldrarna. Vidare betonar litteraturen som behandlar språkbad undervisningsmetodernas betydelse samt språkbadslärarens viktiga roll. Föräldrarna är nöjda med språkbadsprogrammet, eftersom det givit goda resultat och motsvarat förväntningarna. Enligt föräldrarna är språkbad ett mjukt, modernt och effektivt program. Föräldrarna anser att barnen lär sig badspråket på ett naturligt sätt och även får en öppnare inställning till språk och kulturer. Föräldrarna betonar lärarnas viktiga insatser samt kontinuitetens betydelse. Vidare tycker föräldrarna att språkbadet borde inledas i ett tidigare skede och att eleverna borde ha mera kontakt med badspråket utanför skolan. Målet med att barnen går i språkbad är, enligt föräldrarna, att barnen ska förstå och tala språket flytande samtkänna kulturen som hör ihop med språket. Både föräldrarna och lärarna tycker att språkbadsklasserna är för stora och att det är brist på material. Lärarna anser att man mer än tidigare borde informera allmänheten, beslutsfattare samt föräldrar om verksamheten. Därtill tycker lärarna att samarbetet mellan daghem och skola samt specialundervisningen borde utvecklas. Lärarna betonar att språkbad inte lämpar sig för alla barn. Lärarna anser sig främst behöva praktiska råd av andra som arbetar med språkbad samt teoretisk kunskap. Både föräldrarna och lärarna tycker att språkbadsverksamheten i Esbo borde koordineras och att språkbadselevernas prestationer noggrant borde följas upp.