Browsing by Subject "immigrants"

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  • Bosqui, Tania; Väänänen, Ari; Buscariolli, Andre; Koskinen, Aki; O’Reilly, Dermot; Airila, Auli; Kouvonen, Anne (2019)
    Background A higher risk of common mental health disorders has been found for first-generation migrants in high income countries, but few studies have examined the use of mental health care. This study aimed to identify the level of antidepressant use amongst the largest first generation migrant groups resident in Finland. Methods This cohort study used record-based data linkage methodology to examine the hazard of antidepressant use between migrant groups in Finland using Cox proportional hazard models. Data was derived using socio-demographic and prescription data from Statistics Finland and the Finnish Population Registry. The cohort included a random sample of 33% of the working age population in 2007 (N = 1,059,426, 49.8% women, 2.5% migrants) and dispensed antidepressant prescriptions from 2008 to 2014. Results After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, results show higher antidepressant use for female migrants from North Africa and the Middle East compared to the Finland-born majority, a similar level of use for migrants from Western countries, and lower use for migrants from other non-Western countries. Conclusions The gender and country of origin dependent use of antidepressant medication is discussed in terms of socio-political and cultural between-group differences. Recommendations are made to address inequalities in accessing services, particularly for migrants from non-Western countries.
  • Masoud, Ameera; Holm, Gunilla; Brunila, Kristiina (2021)
    This article scrutinises the normalised realities behind integration policies and training for refugees and immigrants that are claimed to be inclusive. The ‘great narrative’ of Finland has been focused on equal opportunity via education and training, which makes it even more important to examine the hidden realities and how such realities affect the integration process. We focus on labour market-oriented integration training, since employment is considered to be the most important element for successful integration and social inclusion. Our data consists of interviews with 20 refugees, 5 immigrants, 6 integration professionals and 3 policy makers, in addition to ethnographic field notes. Through a discursive approach and utilising studies on governmentality, we unveil how governing through integration practices works. The article explores how integration practices that claim to be inclusionary are maintaining forms of exclusion, which becomes a mechanism of exclusionary inclusion. Our analysis shows what refugees and immigrants have to adopt and adapt to as part of their own subjectification in order to become integrateable, and thus includable.
  • Kieseppä, Valentina; Holm, Minna; Jokela, Markus; Suvisaari, Jaana; Gissler, Mika; Lehti, Venla (2021)
    Background: The aims of this study were to (1) compare differences in psychiatric comorbidity of depression and anxiety disorders between immigrants and native Finns and to (2) compare differences in the intensity of psychiatric care received by different immigrant groups and Finnish-born controls with depression and/or anxiety disorders. Methods: The study uses registered-based data, which includes all immigrants living in Finland at the end of 2010 and matched Finnish-born controls. For this study, we selected individuals who had received a diagnosis of depression and/or an anxiety disorder during the follow-up (2011?2015) (immigrants n = 6542, Finnish-born controls n = 9281). We compared differences in comorbidity between the immigrants and the Finnish-born controls using chi-squared tests. Multinomial logistic regression was used to predict psychiatric treatment intensity by immigrant status, region of origin, and other background factors. Results: In both diagnosis groups, Finnish-born participants exhibited greater comorbidity of other psychiatric disorders. Immigrants more often received lower intensity treatment and less often higher intensity treatment. These differences were most striking among those from Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Limitations: We did not have the information on the perceived need for the services, which limits us from drawing further conclusions about the mechanisms behind the observed patterns. Conclusions: Immigrants in Finland receive less intensive treatment for depression and anxiety disorders compared to the Finnish-born population. Since lower symptom levels can unlikely alone explain these differences, they could reflect a need for improvement in the psychiatric services for immigrants.
  • Silfver, Olga (2008)
    This study examines the immigration reasons, the process of choosing the country and acculturation strategies of highly educated post-Soviet employees working in Finland. The main research questions of this study are: 1. Why do post-Soviet professionals leave their home countries? 2. Do post-Soviet highly educated professionals perceive they have a choice as far as their migration is concerned? 3. Why do the post-Soviet professionals choose Finland as the country of residence? 4. What is the main acculturation strategy for post-Soviet professionals in Finland, and why`? The thesis is a qualitative study that uses ten half-structured interviews as its material. It combines different theoretical perspectives: acculturation theory, thesis of global professionals, Bourdieu's concepts on transformation of resources and theories of cultural and ethnic identity. This study interprets the decision to immigrate and integration of the respondents as resource optimisation, ,where skills, networks, positions and cultural competences are used to achieve the best attainable position for the family. The main reason for the respondents to leave a home country was economic refuge. Social instability and search for better opportunities were also important factors. The majority of my respondents did not perceive to have a choice of country of immigration. Those who had selected Finland consciously did so due to networks or geographical proximity of the country. Mostly though, Finland was not well-known among highly educated post-Soviets, so the selection of Finland could be attributed ,more to a coincidence than to conscious Finnish state policy. The study emphasizes the sphere of work, since my respondents spend considerable portion of their daily time there and since workplace is an important integrating institution for work-related immigrants. The research concludes that the workplaces of the respondents are currently unable to fully support the needs of immigrant labour force. Commonly used short-term contracts cause a lack of stability, which lowers the motivation to integrate. I have discerned two processes operating in workplaces, selective racist labelling and double-level acceptance process, which both influence the process of integration of immigrants. Post-Soviet immigrants adopt a separatory acculturation strategy due to strong post-Soviet identity and rather slowly developing Finnish skills. They prefer to socialise with the Russian-speaking people, which has a negative effect on the speed of their integration into Finnish society. Global professionals have an additional slowing factor, i.e. poor motivation for language studies as long as the change of country is probable. Discriminatory attitudes of not only locals and post-Soviets, but also of post-Soviets towards other minorities ,strengthen the separatory acculturation strategy. All in all, I perceive my study group as a highly potential resource for the Finnish dwindling labour markets. They are attracted to Finnish orderliness, respect to law, and closeness of nature. However, the limitations of ,their legal status and the resulting instability, lack of knowledge and insufficient communication with local population pose challenges for their integration. In order to produce long-term advantages from immigrating workforce and avoid the problems of segregated society, these shortcomings have to be mitigated.
  • Ahmad, Akhlaq (2020)
    Using a correspondence field experiment, the study reported in this article has investigated if immigrant job applicants with equivalent qualifications are treated differently in the Finnish labour market. The study consists of 5000 job applications that were sent out to 1000 advertised positions by five applicants of Finnish, English, Iraqi, Russian and Somali backgrounds, who differed only in their names. The findings show that applicants of immigrant origin receive significantly fewer invitations for a job interview than the native candidate, even if they possess identical language proficiency, education and vocational diplomas. However, the extent of discrimination is not equally distributed among the immigrant groups. Rather, job applicants from non-European backgrounds seem to suffer a significantly greater labour-market penalty. The findings clearly suggest that, despite anti-discrimination legislation and measures aimed at promoting equal employment opportunities, discrimination continues to remain a serious barrier to immigrants' labour-market integration in a Nordic welfare society.
  • Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga; Renvik (Mähönen), Tuuli Anna; van der Noll, Jolanda; Eskelinen, Viivi; Rohmann, Anette; Verkuyten, Maykel (2020)
    This survey experiment examined national majority group members' reactions to immigrants' citizenship status with a focus on dual citizenship. A sample of 779 participants (n(Finland) = 174; n(Netherlands) = 377; n(Germany) = 228) was used to examine whether immigrants' citizenship status affects trust towards immigrants, willingness to accept immigrants in strategic positions, and support for immigrants' social influence in society. Perceived group loyalties were expected to mediate these relationships. Compared to national citizens, dual citizens were perceived as having lower national loyalty and higher foreign loyalty. Compared to foreign citizens, dual citizens were perceived to have higher national loyalty but equally high foreign loyalty. Higher national loyalty was further associated with higher trust, acceptance, and support, whereas higher foreign loyalty was associated with lower trust, acceptance, and support. These findings are discussed in relation to societal debates on dual citizenship and the limited social psychological research on this topic.
  • Ahmad, Akhlaq (2020)
    This article presents the findings of a field experiment on ethnic discrimination against second-generation immigrants in the Finnish labour market. Five job applicants of Finnish, English, Iraqi, Russian and Somali origin sent equivalent job applications to each of 1000 publicly advertised vacancies. They all had identical qualifications, but differed in one respect, that is, their name. The findings strongly suggest the existence of ethnic hierarchical orderings in the labour market. They reflect that locally gained human capital not only does not equalise employment opportunities for immigrants as such but also rewards them differentially based on their origin, with non-European applicants being the least preferred choices. The findings also reveal that discrimination did not only manifest itself in low callback rates for immigrants but also the order in which employers contacted the different applicants. In a further set of 200 job openings tested in which applicants of immigrant origin had two years more experience than the Finnish candidate, the systematic differences in patterns of callback rates remained the same. Drawing on empirical observations, the article suggests that ethnic hierarches prevailing in society can also extend to the realm of labour markets resulting in unequal employment chances for otherwise equal job applicants.
  • Akhlaq, Ahmad (2005)
    This work is linked to studies on the role of social networks in gaining access to the labour market. The aim was to explore the various ways in which the immigrants of this study had entered the job market and the extent to which their personal networks had helped them to locate and obtain employment opportunities during their stay in Finland. The data for the study was collected in two ways. First, the participant-observation method was used in order to obtain first-hand experience of the employment situation of non-nationals in the Finnish labour market. The scope of their opportunities was explored through job information located via impersonal sources such as newspapers and the national employment agency. This objective was realised by answering 400 job advertisements and going through all the processes that a job seeker generally encounters in applying for a particular post. Secondly, 40 semi-structured interviews of an ethnographic and exploratory nature were conducted among immigrants originating from the Indian subcontinent residing in the Helsinki metropolitan area. The aim was to chart the entire occupational histories of the immigrants from the time of their arrival in Finland to the present. The findings of this study show that, despite the nationwide well-established system of public employment agencies in Finland, and the relatively easy access this formal channel offers to job seekers regarding information about new vacancies, social networks still constitute a substantial source of job information and employment opportunities for immigrants in the Finnish labour market. The significance of these networks is particularly strong for non-nationals who, because of having originated from outside the social system, may find access to employment opportunities rather restricted in the host society. The findings reveal that for the majority of the immigrants included in this study the transmission of job information had occurred through informal channels and reliance on such personal means had persisted throughout most of their occupational careers. In particular, their ethnic friends and kin had often acted as transmitters of job information. Moreover, the role of the immigrants' networks had also been quite significant in securing jobs themselves, as half of the informants' entire employment spells had been obtained with the direct assistance of their social ties. This practical assistance in the provision of job information and in the acquisition of employment had been crucial for the immigrants especially at the beginning of their careers as it had helped get their feet on the ground in the new sociocultural reality. The findings also point to the dual role that social networks can potentially play in the occupational-attainment process. On the one hand, they acted as a crucial resource-opportunity structure in providing employment opportunities for the immigrants, and on the other hand they operated as constraining factors by channelling them into low-prestige sectors of the labour market. However, notwithstanding the important role of personal networks in landing the immigrants in occupations of low human-capital requirements, the findings also suggest the need to consider the interplay of other factors such as human-capital attributes and structural constraints – including discrimination and internal labour-market regulations in various sectors – that may also introduce mobility restrictions and thereby affect the life chances of non-nationals in the host society. Explanation of the prevalence of informal job-search methods among the informants was sought in the fact that jobs are social phenomena arising in a labour market that is socioculturally constructed. By virtue of their sociocultural embeddedness, these phenomena tend to evade the notions according to which the acquisition of jobs is solely a function of human-capital attributes. Based on the empirical evidence, it was argued that such notions are inadequate in understanding the complex nature of the job-finding process. It was therefore contended that the idea of a labour market in which the actors sell and hire labour according to the objective, rational rules of supply and demand is rather open to doubt. Instead, it was suggested that the concept of the labour market could be more fruitfully studied as a socially and culturally constructed rather than an undifferentiated and competitive space in which the rules of supply and demand are shaped by a particular sociocultural reality. In this context, it was also argued that the hiring process driven by abstract or impersonal criteria is much less prevalent than claimed by certain conceptual paradigms geared to the understanding of the economic structure and differential outcomes in the labour market.
  • Juvonen, Annimari (2008)
    Human rights discourse is one of the transnational languages, which may be used to approach migration. This study aims at sketching the ways how abstract human rights articulations, such as the convention drafted in the United Nations for the protection of the human rights of migrants and their families, are made meaningful in a particular context. The context of this study is the Portuguese society, and the distinct but overlapping relationship between the Church and the state. The convention protecting the human rights of migrants has not been ratified in any of the European countries so far, which the Catholic Church considers as a departure from the universality inherent to human rights. This study considers the way the Church aims at addressing its transnational audience and at criticizing the national and regional spheres through a common concept to both human rights and Catholicism, the universal human family. Human rights become meaningful to the Catholic actors through the concept of family, and the convention on the human rights of migrants is interpreted as a countermovement to the emphasis on individualism, characteristic to the human rights system - thus supporting the Catholic conceptualization about the foundation of the well-being of both the individual and the society. This study has relied on media sources to sketch the main features of the Portuguese discourse on migration and the particular situations in which human rights discourse is used. The homilies of Portuguese Bishops have provided the central concepts through which the relationship between human rights, religion, and the state are discussed. A concrete example of the way how the Catholic actors unite human rights claims with religious rhetoric is a concern over the human rights of migrants brought forward by Bishop Januário Torgal Ferreira during the pilgrimage of Fátima. The transformative power of a pilgrimage thus supports the human rights claims. The cult of Fátima, which holds a strong nationalist tradition due to the legacy of the dictatorship, is now a stage for transnational and modern ideas. The central observation of this study is that human rights discourse functions as a definer of the relationship between the Church and the state, because it is associated with Catholic humanism which aims at balancing the secular politics of the state. In the modern society this relationship is often perceived as distinct, because the interference of the supernatural in the politics of the secular state is not wanted. However, in the Portuguese society the Church has been constitutive to the history of the nation-state, and the so-called secularization process has not pushed it aside from the hegemonic position that it enjoys in the Portuguese society. This study traces the reasons which enable the religious to enter the public sphere of the modern society, and contribute to the construction of the intermediary role of the Catholic actors.
  • Jonsson, Katrin Thora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This thesis examines the language attitudes of immigrants in Iceland when their primary language is English. Immigrants in Iceland are approximately 12% of the population. Language attitudes of Icelanders towards the English language have been studied extensively. However, the language attitudes of immigrants in Iceland have not been studied. Previous studies on the English language in Iceland have mentioned the idea that Icelanders are becoming bilingual, Icelandic/English, and that the English knowledge that Icelandic children have is greater than expected. In this qualitative study, ten immigrants in Iceland were interviewed and asked about their language attitudes and how they felt about having to rely on English in Iceland in their everyday life. The interviews were semi structured, and the data was analysed using qualitative content analysis. The aim of the thesis was to see what the language attitudes of immigrants in Iceland when their language of communication is English and if those attitudes were different depending on how long the person had lived in Iceland. The results from the interviews were that all of the informants felt that they wanted to learn Icelandic to be a part of the Icelandic society. The biggest hindrance, according to the informants, was being accepted into the society by Icelanders and being able to practice Icelandic with locals, since Icelanders would rather switch to English than speak Icelandic. The informants felt that Iceland was a bilingual country and that knowing English was almost as important as knowing Icelandic. Nonetheless, even though there were some complaints from the informants, they wanted all to stay in Iceland for the unforeseeable future.
  • Diatlova, Anastasia; Näre, Lena Margareta (2018)
    As the external borders between Finland and its neighbouring countries have become more permeable for some migrants after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the EU enlargement, the internal borders have become more ubiquitous and enforced by various kinds of bordering practices. Drawing on a qualitative research on Russian-speaking women engaged in commercial sex in Finland, we have examined the everyday material consequences of policies and bordering practices. We have distinguished different sites in which everyday bordering takes place: rental markets, banking and law enforcement. Our analysis demonstrates the importance of analysing commercial sex from an everyday perspective. This perspective reveals that even women with formal citizenship can be subjected to various bordering practices due to the criminalisation of commercial sex and the stereotypes attached to Russian-speaking women. We have argued for the need to expand on the notion of "depodability" as it not only concerns non-citizens but also naturalised foreigners.
  • Räisänen, Sanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The purpose of this master's thesis was to study the ways in which the development of multilingualism of children from different linguistic backgrounds is acknowledged and promoted in Finnish comprehensive schools. Do the schools have common practices or models through which the development of the students' language skills is actively promoted, or is it dependent merely upon the teachers' interest and devotion? And through which means the teachers themselves aim to promote the language development and learning of students from immigrant backgrounds? The theoretical framework of this thesis consists of the theories on language development and multilingualism, of the national core curriculum on teaching multilingual students, and of previous studies on promoting the language development of students from immigrant backgrounds. In this thesis, the subject was approached by studying the views and experiences of teachers. This study aims to describe the means through which the language development of the students from immigrant backgrounds is being promoted, by school cultures as well as by individual teachers, in the Finnish school context. The data was collected by using a web-based questionnaire, to which 16 teachers working in schools in the Capital Region answered. Since the study was qualitative by nature, open questions were used in the questionnaire. For the analysis of the data, content analysis was used. The results of this study indicate that the schools can be categorised according to their school culture, which is either reactive or proactive in regard to promoting the language development of students. Reactive school culture responds only to the inevitable needs regarding the language development of students. Proactive school culture aims see the language skills of the students as a resource. Most of the respondents worked at schools whose school culture seemed reactive. The means of individual teachers of promoting the language development can be categorised into three groups, which are: acknowledging and appreciating the student's language skills, utilising the student's language skills when studying, and co-operation with guardians. Almost all of the respondents mentioned at least one means of promoting the language development of students from immigrant backgrounds. The results of this study can be utilised, when teachers and schools are planning the means in which to integrate the language skills and backgrounds of students into teaching and school culture.
  • Isotalo, Veikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    At this point, there is still very little European research regarding immigrants’ political participation. Traditionally, immigrants have been perceived as a politically passive group, whereas in this paper, immigrants are seen as politically active agents. In this research, the supply and demand of immigrant-background candidates in the 2017 Helsinki municipal elections is examined. To be classified as an immigrant-background candidate, a candidate’s mother tongue was required to be other than Finnish, Swedish or Sami. In terms of this paper, supply is referred to as political candidates’ demographical, socio-economical characteristics, values and previous political engagements; on the other hand, demand for the candidates is interpreted through the electoral success of these candidates in 2017 Helsinki municipal elections. Data for inspecting the supply-side of candidates was comprised from Ministry of Justice’s election results data set and Yle’s and Helsingin Sanomat’s voting advice applications. Immigrant-background candidates were analyzed through comparison to native Finnish candidates and all the elected candidates with multitude of factors. As data for demand-side analysis, I used geospatial and statistical data, which were created by merging electoral results of Helsinki’s voting districts to the city districts’ population information. In the geographical core support district analysis, immigrant-background candidates’ vote shares were analyzed party-wise, which allowed the comparison of immigrant-background candidates’ success from one party to another. Additionally, linear regression was employed and its results contrasted to geographically weighted regression’s results. Geographically weighted regression was utilized to find geographical patterns with explanatory factors of immigrant-background candidates’ and their parties’ electoral support. Supply-side analysis’ main research findings were following: leftist parties (Left Alliance, SDP, the Greens) mobilized more immigrant-background candidates. Socio-economic status of immigrant-background candidates was found to be similar to the native Finnish candidates’ position which suggests that many immigrant-background candidates were in high socio-economical position relative to their referential groups. More so, immigrant-background candidates participated less in creating their profiles in the voting advice applications, to which one possible explanation could be that parties nominated some immigrant-background candidates merely to diversify their candidate lists. Demand-side analysis revealed that the support for immigrant-background candidates is either strongly connected to their parties’ district-wise support, which is the case for the Greens’ and SDP, where immigrant-background candidates’ vote share was high along their parties’, or conversely, immigrant-background candidates’ vote shares were maximized in districts that were not party’s core support districts, as it was in the case of the National Coalition Party. In the regression models, one detects that the immigrant-background candidates’ district vote shares increased in districts with a large proportional African-background population. In the local regression model, the variable in question became more influential in East Helsinki, which can be interpreted as a possible higher rate of mobilization, i.e. turnout, of some ethnic groups of immigrant-background voters. This is the first study to research immigrant-background candidates’ electoral success in Finland. The future research should focus on this paper’s observations on immigrant-background candidates and their electoral support, because the political influence of these candidates is ought to increase due to increasing immigrant population and the second generation of immigrants reaching the voting age.
  • Poikonen, Leena (2004)
    This thesis examines memories and emotions about the home left behind by the Gambian immigrants in Finland. It elucidates what kinds of emotions are brought out by the memories of home, and how people describe and interpret those emotions. It also discusses the different kinds of ideas and conceptualisations about home as well as the significance of the home left behind when living in the migrant condition. It is argued that home left behind affects the life of immigrants: people are not without history when they arrive to their new homeland. Moreover, it is assumed that there are emotional connections to home, the place where we care for people, and those connections do not disappear when we move. The study challenges the Western notion of emotions as individual inner events untouched by culture and thus readily understandable across cultures. The study is situated in the fields of psychological anthropology and migration studies. The theoretical framework consists of theories of home, migration, transnationalism and diaspora, anthropological theories of emotion, and theories of collective memory. The qualitative data is derived from fieldwork among the Gambian immigrants in the metropolitan area of Finland (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa) and it consists of participant observation and semi-structured in-depth interviews with 10 informants, as well as informal interviews. The study shows that emotionally loaded memories centre around social relationships. Closeness and the collective way of life of the Gambia is remembered and longed for. Emotions are often expressed implicitly and also through the medium of body: sometimes memories, loneliness and longing are experienced as mental and somatic symptoms. Gambian conception of emotion differs from the Western one and conveys the cultural norms of controlling and balancing emotions. Home left behind is apparent in the lives of immigrants as practices learned, values, morality, beliefs, and social order. The home left behind also means concrete contacts and responsibilities of maintaining social relations as well as economically contributing to those left behind. The home left behind signifies responsibilities as well as dreams about return to the place where “people know who you are”.
  • Kieseppä, Valentina J; Jokela, Markus; Holm, Minna; Suvisaari, Jaana; Gissler, Mika; Lehti, Venla (2021)
    The aim of this study was to compare differences in comorbidity between immigrants and Finnish-born controls, and to examine the treatment received by immigrants with PTSD. Our original data included all the immigrants living in Finland by the end of 2010 and matched controls. For this study, we selected individuals who had received a diagnosis of PTSD during 2010-2015 (immigrants: n = 754, Finnish-born controls: n = 311). We compared the frequency of different comorbid conditions between immigrants and natives. Multinomial logistic regression was used to predict categorized treatment intensity with the region of origin and length of residence among the immigrants. Psychiatric comorbidity was much more extensive among the Finnish-born controls than among immigrants. Immigrants from Africa and the Middle East more often received treatment of low intensity compared with immigrants from Western countries. The length of residence was associated with more frequent treatment. The important differences in comorbidity and background characteristics between immigrants and natives should be taken into account in planning treatment guidelines for PTSD. The disparities in treatment intensity across different immigrant groups indicate a need to improve the services for immigrants with PTSD.
  • Radi, Heini (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In integration policy perspective employment in the Finnish labor market is considered as a measure of integration. Integration training aims to find a suitable career and work path for each immigrant. Instead of an individual's wishes and skills, the labor market strongly guides career choices. The marketisation of education has also brought a new kind of efficiency requirement to the field of integration education, which combines declining financial resources and intensified efficiency expectations. Preparatory education for upper secondary vocational education and training (VALMA) is one actor in the integration field, whose purpose is to orientate immigrants to Finnish working life, society and different professions. The purpose of this thesis is to bring out the views of teachers who work in VALMA and reveal the tensions in the field of integration training. Through the interviews of teachers, I explore how the subject positions of teachers are constructed and what kind of reflections they have regarding to power and ethics. The research material consisted of interviews of five teachers working in VALMA education. My approach to the analysis has elements of discursive reading. In response to the research questions, four key factors were outlined in the background of teacher’s subject position. At the heart of everything are reflections on power and ethics, which are intertwined with reflection on language skills requirements, issues related to career choice and working life. The subject position of VALMA-teacher was constructed through controversial goals and objectives toward the desire to do the right thing and act ethically.
  • Wilhelmsson, Niklas Fredrik Johannes (2007)
    In this study the theory on social capital has been linked to electoral participation. The theory has been tested among Russian, Estonian, Somali and Vietnamese immigrants in Finland. In the study social capital was measured through organisational involvement and active social contacts. The study is quantitative and regression analysis forms the central method of analysis. Social capital theory has in the literature been viewed as an interesting theory in immigrant and minority studies because it connects political participation with underlying social structures and questions of inclusion and discrimination. In the literature social capital has generally been viewed as a prerequisite for political participation. In the social capital theory it has however become a debated question whether all forms of social connections form resources. This debate is often addressed through the concepts bridging and bonding social capital. In the context of immigrants the question relates to the desirability of immigrant organisations and ethnic social networks and how they facilitate the integration process. The issue in a broader context relates to the question of whether the state should support multicultural policies. It has nevertheless been questioned whether the type of social membership actually matters, or if it is the amount of social connections that an individual holds which in fact is important. The results of the study support the hypothesis that social capital forms a resource for electoral participation. Among the immigrants who participate in civil society organisations and hold active social connections electoral participation is higher than amongst those that do not. The results also support the multicultural hypothesis that immigrant organisations in general are beneficial for political participation. One notable finding is that the amount of social participation seems to be a more important explanatory factor for electoral participation than the type of social connection. Based on earlier research it seems likely that the research findings can be generalized beyond voting to other more demanding forms of political participation. Literature: Coleman, J. (1990), Fennema, M. & J. Tillie (1999), R. Putnam (1993); R. Putnam (2000); Teorell, J. (2003).
  • Tervola, Jussi (Kela, 2018)
    Studies in social security and health 149
    Contemporary welfare states actively promote their key values and goals, such as gender equality and high employment. In family policy, these goals are pursued with allocated parental leave for both parents and subsidized day care services, for instance. However, it is known from previous research that parental leave is divided less equally between parents in immigrant families than in other families, and children with immigrant background participate less in centre-based day care despite the evidence that they would benefit from it the most. This study sets out to scrutinize immigrant families’ care choices and their determinants in Finland and Sweden. The study is based on comprehensive administrative register data, and the choices are observed from the take-up of different benefits. Economic and demographic factors are considered through regression analysis. Immigrant fathers in both Finland and Sweden show clearly lower take-up rates of paternity and parental leave than native-born fathers. Generally, though, the take-up rates of immigrant fathers are much higher in Sweden than in Finland, and the gap between the countries is largely traced back to differences in policy systems. However, the study also provides evidence that social norms play a role in fathers’ parental leave use, even between Finnish-born and Swedish-born fathers. Moreover, immigrant families’ choices between child home care and day care follow the pattern previously found in some European and US studies. In Finland, with strong policy support for both home and day care, immigrant families take care of their children at home longer than native-borns. However, after the child turns three, immigrants demonstrate an increasing preference for day care, even more so than native families. This may reflect immigrant-specific preferences for children’s integration and language acquisition. All in all, it seems that care choices in immigrant families have many distinct features compared to the majority families. Nevertheless, this study provides evidence that care choices can be steered and family policy goals approached through efficient and consistent policies also among immigrant populations.
  • Kametani, Yuko (2010)
    The aims of study were to examine the immigrants’ integration process in many aspects of living in Finland amongst Burmese families as a quota refugee. Their expectations for moving to Finland, social services and living conditions, the situation in labour market and education, social relations in personal connections and networks were important issues in examining the process of integration. Furthermore, in a relationship between parents and their children considering the cultural succession could appear the parent's ethnic identity, which might have affected their child's education. This study was based on the face-to-face interviews of Burmese refugees according to qualitative research method. The study followed the previous researches of immigrants and the integration process in Finland from different perspectives. The theories, which relate to the themes, such as immigrant identity, acculturation and family relationships, were used for analysing the material of the interviews. As a result, they were satisfied with the services in accordance with the Act on the Integration of Immigrants and Reception of Asylum Seekers (493/1999) in their living, learning language and career education for three years in the integration programme. Nevertheless, they had difficulties to get a job because of their weak language skills. They wanted to keep their identity with the language and culture in Finnish society and they hoped to teach their own language and culture to their children. The conclusion was that the Burmese refugees recognised their identity and importance of culture, when they tried to adjust themselves to a new culture in the new country. Their own identity and culture was also expressed in their child's education. Employment and language skills played an important role in the integration process. Having good relations with Finns supported their cultural adaptation in the society. Moreover, Burmese refugees were having a positive thinking and attitude in the integration process compared to previous studies of refugees even though they have had similar problems as other refugee groups.
  • Tyrväinen, Taina (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Recent increase in immigration has resulted in new politics and practices, which aim to integrate immigrants and new ethnic minorities into the political decision-making process. One example of these politics is The Advisory Board for Ethnic Relations (ETNO), the object of this study. Since established in 1998 ETNO has brought immigrant and ethnic representatives together with the Finnish authorities to discuss issues related to immigration and integration. The assumption here was that there were many challenges which relate to representation in a consultative body. The focus of this study was to find out what kind of representative claims are made about ETNO’s representation and how they relate to immigrants’ and ethnic diversities’ positioning in the Finnish politics. The empirical data for this study was gathered by interviewing ten members of ETNO, who represented the ethnic communities and immigrant groups. In addition one interview was done with the ETNO secretary in order to receive more information about ETNO’s functions. The interviews were half-structural theme interviews. The results were analysed according to the method of content analysis and organised according to themes. Four different claims were made about claims of ETNO’s representation and different attitudes towards these claims were discussed in the analysis. First claim showed that the representatives give value to ETNO’s aim of including immigrants in to the political process. ETNO’s role as a forum for discussion was perceived more efficient than consultation. The second claim proved that there were many different perceptions of how the composion of ETNO should be arranged: some of the respondents felt that representation was successful when the representative and the constituent resemble each other. Other emphasised the meaning of shared interests in politics. The third claim showed that the respondents had different views on representation of ethnicities and immigrants. Also the views on ETNO’s representation varied. The fourth claim showed that consensus was central aim in ETNO. Some critisised this objection by stating that it does not give space to different opinions. The results of the study confirm that there are many different perceptions about ETNO’s work and representation. ETNO was critisised for focusing on the idea of the diversity at the expence of ethnical diversity.