Browsing by Subject "immigration"

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  • Posvarova, Jaroslava (2007)
    The thesis's main focus is discourse analysis (both textual and in the field of policy) of the securitization process in the Netherlands for the period 2004-2006, and the implications of it for multiculturalism. The emphasis on culture that multiculturalism entails is the issue at stake. In the Netherlands, especially immigrants are being addressed in relation with their national culture which creates separate communities centred on different ethnicities and cultures. I explore how cultural essentialism and cultural fundamentalism are perceived in regard to the national identity and culture of Dutch people. The assessment of the nature and extend of political discourse reveals to us whether securitization is among one of the causes of the new guises for cultural essentialism. The methodology of this thesis is embedded in a multidisciplinary theoretical framework pertaining to combination of critical discourse analysis (CD A) of Norman Fairclough (his three dimensional model for analysis of the relationship between discursive practice, linguistic analysis of text and social practices) and refined version of the Copenhagen school's securitization theory. Furthermore, the conceptual notion of multiculturalism and the problem of culture are central to this framework for the findings' analysis. The empirical data analyzed are composed by around 50 politicians' speeches, their opinion pieces and written statements on immigration. The social practice is analyzed on legislative acts, adopted policies, government's proposals and press releases of ministries. I claim that speech acts and policy practices are integral components for studying the securitization discourse. In line with Jef Huysmans, Didier Bigo, and Christina Boswell, I argue that securitization is not wholly dependent on the explicit naming of something in terms of security but also on positioning of an issue within a specific policy domain. Furthermore, I widen the assumptions concerning processes of infiltration of security professionals into previously immigration domains.
  • Rautamaa, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The public discourses that present immigrant men as dangerous towards women has intensified in Finland especially after the “refugee crisis” beginning in 2015. The discourse that posits immigrant men as dangerous to women simultaneously places responsibility on women, which often leads to monitoring of women’s conduct. This thesis aims to analyze how two individuals who position themselves as Finnish partners of immigrant men construct their interethnic relationships and their immigrant partners, and what subject positions they negotiate for themselves and their partners. The theoretical and methodological frameworks for this thesis are social constructionism and critical discursive psychology. Specifically, this thesis studies the interpretative repertoires and subject positions used and negotiated while accounting for interethnic relationships and immigrant partners. The data consist of two online forum discussion threads that have been initiated by individuals who position themselves as Finnish partners of immigrant men. The discussions have been written in Finnish, and the excerpts in the analysis have been translated to English by the author of this thesis. The results of the analysis show that while accounting for the interethnic relationships and the immigrant partners, the discussants drew on three different interpretative repertoires: the culturalist, individualistic and romantic repertoires. With these repertoires, the discussants were able to present their relationships and partners positively, and particularize them apart from other, allegedly patriarchal immigrant men. The discussants positioned their partners as the loving partner, equal partner, assimilated immigrant, Christian, good *Middle Easterner, and good asylum seeker, whereas immigrant men in general were positioned as patriarchal *Middle Easterners, Others, dangerous asylum seekers, and individuals. The sharp differences between these subject positions show that the most important way for the discussants to present their partners positively was to differentiate them from other men with foreign backgrounds. The discussants adopted the subject positions of the cautious realist, anti-victim, and equal partner, which all highlighted personal agency and control, and functioned as warding off the allegations of “wrong” kind of behavior in relation to immigrant men. One of the most important functions of the interpretative repertoires and subject positions was to present the partners as “good immigrant men” and normalize the relationships. The discursive construction of the partners as “good immigrant men” involved exclusion from the category of the “dangerous immigrant man” and the dispelling of the partners’ cultural backgrounds; and inclusion in the category of “us” by highlighting the partners’ Finnish-like features, values, and religion. By emphasizing their partners’ Finnish-like features, the discussants drew a dichotomous and hierarchical order between the allegedly modern and gender equal Finnish culture, and the allegedly conservative and patriarchal “foreign” cultures, thus complying with the hegemonic discourse about the incompatibility between the cultures. However, the discussants also resisted the culturalist discourse by drawing on the unique differences between individuals, and by legitimizing their relationships with highly idealized imagery of love and romance.
  • Malmberg, Mikko; Awad, Isabel (2019)
    Similar to the rest of Europe, multicultural programming in Finland has become risky for public broadcasting. Programs aimed at encouraging social inclusion may not attract sufficiently large audiences and may be attacked by ever louder anti-immigration voices. This article focuses on what seems to be an exception in this respect: Ali and Husu. Hosted by immigrants from Iran and Somalia ? a stand-up comedian and a politician ? this popular talk show aired on Finnish public radio between 2013 and 2016. Through interviews with the producers and the analysis of a selection of episodes, we examine Ali and Husu?s daring and unapologetic ethnic/racial humor as well as its combination of funny and serious talk. Our findings underscore specific ways in which multicultural programming can use humor strategically to engage relatively large and diverse audiences in discussions meant to humanize immigrants and challenge social prejudices, while minimizing right-wing criticism and unintended readings.
  • Zhong, Huishan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Abstract Introduction. International migration is one popular and challenging issue in Central Europe for decades, especially after the collapse of the communist bloc. This thesis explores, how international migration correlates with the level of economic development in six Central European countries (Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia) during the years 1995-2019. In this context international migration is divided into two types: immigration and emigration. This thesis aims to help policymakers to determine the international migration policy by understanding the correlation between international migration and economic development better. Methods. This study explores the correlation between international migration and economic development in Central European states and reflects it against the historical, political, and economic context. National-level migration and macroeconomic data related to Central European states were collected from the World Bank, Eurostat, OECD, UNCTADstat, WIID, UIS, UNHCR and ETH Zurich databases in the period 1995-2019. The endogeneity issues in panel data analysis were noted. Macro-econometric models and spatial autoregressive models were conducted through Stata. Results. The empirical analysis confirmed the following hypotheses: (1) an increase in immigration correlates with a higher level of economic development in receiving countries. (2) An increase in emigration correlates with a lower level of economic development in sending countries. As expected, the empirical results further displayed a positive (negative) correlation between female immigrants (emigrants) and the economic development of receiving countries (sending countries). Conclusion. This thesis presents that (1) an increase in immigration strongly correlates with a higher level of economic development in receiving countries; (2) an increase in emigration significantly correlates with a lower level of economic development in sending countries. This study also emphasises the correlation between female migration and economic development in Central Europe.
  • Sundqvist, Katrin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This master’s thesis treats native speakers’ attitudes to non-native speakers’ spoken vernacular and standard varieties. It examines which theoretical factors researchers have to pay special regard to when studying attitudes to non-native variation. Based on these factors, the thesis evaluates which methods of the language attitude paradigm suit the study of attitudes to non-native speakers’ varieties best. As theoretical background serves the Communication Accommodation Theory in its adapted form for intercultural communication. The thesis draws upon previous findings on relevant factors for the study of native varieties, upon previous findings on relevant factors for the study of non-native language and upon previous findings on the nature of non-native varieties. In order to gain further insights, a case study is conducted. The case study examines native Finnish speakers’ preference of non-native Finnish vernacular and standard varieties. As methods, it employs both a matched- and verbal-guise listening test and a direct question approach. Furthermore, it gathers the respondents’ justifications for their speaker choices in the listening test. The justifications allow an insight into the respondents’ attitudes to the varieties. A non-random sample of 101 native Finnish speaking students from the University of Helsinki is tested. The speaker choices in the listening test are analysed by statistical means (chi-square test). The answers to the direct question and the justifications for the speaker choices are classified into groups of similar answers. The results gained by the listening test and the results gained by the direct question are compared. The findings suggest that the students do not prefer either non-native variety per se. Their variety preference depends on the communication situation. The students do not prefer the same varieties in the case of native and of non-native speakers. While both non-native varieties may sound nice, enthusiastic, self-confident and clear, only vernacular speakers are seen as particularly natural, authentic, relaxed and close to native Finnish speakers. Only standard speakers are associated with professionality in a broad sense, but leave in some cases the impression of sounding foreigner-like or not natural. Differently than in earlier studies on non-native vernaculars, the non-native Finnish vernacular is thus seen as mainly positive. The results of the two different methods do not match. Either or both of them can thus not be fully reliable. This thesis shows that native speakers’ attitudes to non-native varieties are not necessarily the same as to native varieties. Attitudes to non-native varieties have to be studied in their own right, thus. A multitude of factors influences the formation of attitudes to non-native varieties. Non-native and native varieties differ from each other in their form, in the way they are learnt, used and perceived as well as in what they express. Non-native language not as objectively produced by the non-native speakers, but as subjectively perceived by the native interlocutors influences attitudes. Furthermore, attitudes to non-native varieties are likely even more prone to the social desirability bias than attitudes to native varieties. Methods that elicit the respondents’ attitudes directly should thus be avoided. The findings of the Finnish case study indicate that also matched-guise tests may suffer from the social desirability bias because of variety recognition. Furthermore, voice recognition is an increasing problem in the digital age. Most methods of the language attitude paradigm do not study natural language data in real-life communication situations. This thesis reveals the need for more innovative research designs. It suggests therefore several methods that researchers of attitudes to non-native variation may employ in future.
  • Tulokas, Iida (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This Master’s thesis is concerned about the political and normative consequences that rise from viewing migration and refugees as a security threat. The issues of migration and asylum cross thresholds of state sovereignty and human rights. It has been found that liberal democratic states offer moral justifications for controlling entry of aliens, however this is ethically problematic. The unit of analysis is the European Union because the current refugee crisis has challenged the role of the EU as a promoter of human rights and questioned the whole European integration project as well as the meaning of the EU as a community of values. This thesis attempts to answer the following research question: how the European Union has securitized its migration and refugee policy in the Common European Asylum System. Copenhagen School’s securitization theory serves as theoretical framework of this thesis because the deepened and widened understandings of security have allowed other issues than military to be included in security: political, societal, economical, environmental. Construction of security issues has three steps: 1) an issue is described as an existential threat, 2) that require emergency measures and 3) justifying actions outside the normal bounds of political procedure. In order to complement the securitization theory this thesis will utilize Norman Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis in order to deeply study the meanings of discourses that produce the social reality. After the analysis it is concluded that despite ideal assumptions of the EU as a place of refugee and exile, the practices in place show a different picture. It is evident that the focus is on how to protect the EU from refugees, not how to offer protection for refugees. The EU is the referent object that needs protection through exceptional measures and has the legitimacy to justify these actions outside normal policy procedures. This questions the normative role of the EU. Refugees are portrayed as a danger to the society, and they lack active role, which is highlighted in the right to freedom of movement. The EU has securitized migration and refugee policies by hard policy implementation: focus on border control, increase in surveillance and building fences. Thus, it has become evident that state sovereignty triumphs over the respect of human rights.
  • Breton, Julie (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Voting turnout has decreased in most Western democracies since the post-war period. In Finland, low turnout at elections affects significantly more certain groups, such as the youth and immigrants enfranchised to vote in local elections. At the occasion of the 2017 Finnish municipal elections, a series of 21 debates between local candidates and with a thematic focus on issues related to the increasing diversity of the Finnish society was organised by the Network of Multicultural Associations Moniheli under the name Kaikkien Vaalit (Our Election). One of the goals of the debates was to increase the interest in and participation to elections of immigrant-background residents. Considering the gap in participation between native Finnish citizens and immigrants, does attending a thematic debate affect attendees differently depending on their migrant background? The objective of this study is to build a frame of reference based on existing get-out-the-vote (GOTV) literature to determine what effects can be expected, analyse the reported effects of the panels on migrant background categories derived from practice in non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and evaluate the relevance of the categories for events designed for corresponding target groups in the NGO field. The data used in this quantitative analysis are feedback questionnaires (n = 225) collected at the end of 18 Kaikkien Vaalit events for project reporting, as well as a complementary post-election phone survey. The three outcome variables derived from the survey results are whether the respondent reported an increase in voting interest, found the predefined issues discussed during the panel personally relevant, and obtained information useful to a choice between candidates or parties. The independent variable is a six-group migrant background variable based on the respondents’ provided information about mother tongue and migration to Finland, adjusted for citizenship and time spent in Finland. Socio-economic and participation indicators are used as secondary variables to refine observations. The study uses crosstabulation to examine the distribution of answers between groups, and Kruskal-Wallis H tests and Mann-Whitney U tests to evaluate the relevance and suitability of migrant background categories. The debates are found to reach an audience in line with both GOTV research and with the objectives of the Kaikkien Vaalit project. A statistically significantly different distribution of answers is found between migrant background groups for the interest and information variable, but not for the importance variable. Further tests show that the effect on interest differs between groups both by migration experience and by foreign mother tongue, and only by foreign mother tongue for the information variable, while categories were not relevant for the differentiated distribution of the scores for the importance of issues. Findings suggest that the direct effect on turnout is structurally limited due to the attendees’ high voting propensity, but indicate the possibility for corollary positive effects. The complementary nature of debates as GOTV efforts is confirmed, and the function of debates as informative events is put into question.
  • Kitaba, Yuri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Female migration has been widely studied in Europe. Previous studies had found that migration is gendered, thus, the experience of migrants differs depending on issues such as gender, class and ethnicity along with career and familial relations. The position of the migrants in the post-migration time period is influenced by the recognition of their skills and the assessment of human capital they possess in the host society, which has a considerable effect on the position of immigrant women. Thus, I employ a feminist extension of Bourdieu’s forms of capital in migration studies as a theoretical framework to examine the position of immigrant women and to better understand their experience in a host society. In addition, I utilize the ideas of emotional capital to discuss the importance of studying caring practice, including everyday activities and the caring work done for other family members, and its interactions with the outside of the household, the local community and, possibly, with integration. My focus is on the position of immigrant woman in Finland, a country where the Nordic welfare regime, which is built on egalitarian practices, creates a paradox for immigrant integration, as national belonging is built on labour market participation and the idea of gender equality. I pay specific attention to the Cash for Care scheme in relation to high female labour participation and the choices of childcare provision. Thus, my intention is to explore immigrant women’s decision making on childcare, what kind of activities the women engage in while taking care of their child, and their progress in integration. My research questions are: 1) do immigrant women utilize caring practice in capital accumulation; and if so, how? and 2) how do they generate various forms of capital and transform them into other types of capital and, ultimately, into economic capital? The sub-questions include: how does the notion of national belonging related to labour market participation and gender equality in Finnish society intertwine with individuals’ decision making with regards to the process of capital accumulation and transformation? I employed a feminist standpoint to conduct 6 in-depth interviews using a narrative approach. The interviewees are all from outside of the European Union, are highly skilled, have at least one child whose age is under three years old, have experienced staying at home with a child and currently live in the Helsinki metropolitan area. I utilized thematic analysis to explore the experiences of the immigrant women. The results show the potential for immigrant women to be subjects of capital accumulation, as well as objects where their capital is utilized in supporting and enhancing the lives of other family members. First, the results establish the importance of a local and neighbouring context in capital accumulation in relation to how caring for a child goes beyond the household, and is linked to the generation of social and cultural capital. The choice on the length of stay with one’s child at home intertwines with the social and economic statuses of the interviewees, but remains primarily a matter of individual preference. Second, two of the cases demonstrate the transformation of accumulated capital into economic capital through caring for other members of the family, which works as a resource of emotional capital. At the same time, the position of these women is constrained by social and cultural barriers, as they lack appreciated capital, the most important of them being a sufficient knowledge of Finnish language and culture along with relevant social networks. The position of immigrant mothers can also be observed from an objective viewpoint: there are limitations on the women’s ability to accumulate capital for themselves due to them taking care of the child. However, at the same time, the women can engage in transmission of capital and enhancing their children’s capital development. This thesis shows that the caring work of mothers goes beyond the household, contributing to the generation of capital in their integration process as well as for their children. Caring practice in research demands further investigation to better understand the paths of immigrant women and, possibly, the involvement of their spouses in this practice, in order to improve the women’s social and economic positioning in Finnish society.
  • Rivinoja, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This Master’s thesis examines how societal power is exercised and negotiated by the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland and the media in contemporary Finnish society. Conducting a critical discourse analysis of Helsingin Sanomat coverage on the Church and Finland’s asylum seekers between August 2015 and September 2017, the three levels of mediatization of religion as presented by Hjarvard (2008) are offered as a potential theoretical framework to capture essential aspects of the media’s ubiquitous impact on institutional religion. The first chapters introduce the research topic and provide contextual understanding of the Church’s position in contemporary Finnish society and media. This is followed by a literature review and the theoretical and methodological frameworks guiding the analysis. The analysis answers to the research question through the three levels of mediatization of religion. The findings demonstrated the usefulness of critical discourse analysis coupled with the mediatization of religion theory, as the research method highlighted the aspects of prevalence and dominance of mediatization. Although the mediatization of religion theory was not found to provide an exhaustive account on the dynamics between Helsingin Sanomat and the Church, the presence of all three levels of mediatization together with the dominance of media discourses and the Church’s subordination to media logic could be discerned. This thesis provides insight into the renegotiation process of the Church’s place and role in Finnish society, a topic that until today has remained understudied. Further, it sheds light on the power of both the media and the Church to steer and maintain discourses. From the perspective of the Religion, Conflict and Dialogue Master’s Degree program, analyzing the theme within the context of the asylum seeker situation can be deemed supportive for purposes of further research on institutional religion’s role in dialogue promotion and bringing about social cohesion.
  • Silfver, Olga (2008)
    This study examines the immigration reasons, the process of choosing the country and acculturation strategies of highly educated post-Soviet employees working in Finland. The main research questions of this study are: 1. Why do post-Soviet professionals leave their home countries? 2. Do post-Soviet highly educated professionals perceive they have a choice as far as their migration is concerned? 3. Why do the post-Soviet professionals choose Finland as the country of residence? 4. What is the main acculturation strategy for post-Soviet professionals in Finland, and why`? The thesis is a qualitative study that uses ten half-structured interviews as its material. It combines different theoretical perspectives: acculturation theory, thesis of global professionals, Bourdieu's concepts on transformation of resources and theories of cultural and ethnic identity. This study interprets the decision to immigrate and integration of the respondents as resource optimisation, ,where skills, networks, positions and cultural competences are used to achieve the best attainable position for the family. The main reason for the respondents to leave a home country was economic refuge. Social instability and search for better opportunities were also important factors. The majority of my respondents did not perceive to have a choice of country of immigration. Those who had selected Finland consciously did so due to networks or geographical proximity of the country. Mostly though, Finland was not well-known among highly educated post-Soviets, so the selection of Finland could be attributed ,more to a coincidence than to conscious Finnish state policy. The study emphasizes the sphere of work, since my respondents spend considerable portion of their daily time there and since workplace is an important integrating institution for work-related immigrants. The research concludes that the workplaces of the respondents are currently unable to fully support the needs of immigrant labour force. Commonly used short-term contracts cause a lack of stability, which lowers the motivation to integrate. I have discerned two processes operating in workplaces, selective racist labelling and double-level acceptance process, which both influence the process of integration of immigrants. Post-Soviet immigrants adopt a separatory acculturation strategy due to strong post-Soviet identity and rather slowly developing Finnish skills. They prefer to socialise with the Russian-speaking people, which has a negative effect on the speed of their integration into Finnish society. Global professionals have an additional slowing factor, i.e. poor motivation for language studies as long as the change of country is probable. Discriminatory attitudes of not only locals and post-Soviets, but also of post-Soviets towards other minorities ,strengthen the separatory acculturation strategy. All in all, I perceive my study group as a highly potential resource for the Finnish dwindling labour markets. They are attracted to Finnish orderliness, respect to law, and closeness of nature. However, the limitations of ,their legal status and the resulting instability, lack of knowledge and insufficient communication with local population pose challenges for their integration. In order to produce long-term advantages from immigrating workforce and avoid the problems of segregated society, these shortcomings have to be mitigated.
  • Fabritius, Henna (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Genetic variation is vital for both contemporary and long-term wellbeing of populations. Whereas heterozygosity (Ho) and allelic richness (A) are commonly used to measure the level of genetic diversity in a population, effective population size (Ne) describes the speed of loss of genetic variation. Various effective population sizes are proposed as standards for safe retention of genetic variation in a Minimum Viable Population (MVP). Since the 1940s, several types of effective population size estimators have been developed. Earlier estimators relied on demographic parameters, whereas genetic estimators are based on the analysis of either one or two genetic samples from a population. All Ne estimators have their unique sensitivities and limiting assumptions, which complicate the choice of estimator, comparison of results of different studies and the assessment of the reliability of the results. Ne estimators have recently been used e.g. in the monitoring of many aquatic populations, but their reliability and comparability has not often been tested with extensive ecological and genetic data, and it is not well established how much added value they bring to the conservation of easily observable species. I tested this with an extensive dataset on the Siberian jays (Perisoreus infaustus) living in Suupohja, Finland (62°22'N, 21°30'E). The Suupohja Siberian jays form one of the few isolates of Siberian jays in Southern Finland. I utilised three demographic and three genetic Ne estimators to estimate the Ne and the Ne/N ratio in the Suupohja Siberian jays, and compared the findings to the Ho and A estimates calculated with the same data, and to various suggested MVP standards. The results showed that the ratio of effective and census population sizes (Ne/N) is close to 0.6 in the Suupohja Siberian jays. Uneven survival of offspring and population size fluctuations are the main factors in the formation of this ratio. The average genetic Ne estimate would, then, suggest a census population size of 44 % higher than the average N in the Suupohja study area. This result is probably connected to the high proportion of breeding immigrants in the data, which would cause the Ne estimates to reflect a larger genetic neighbourhood than the study area. The genetic Ne estimates also suggest that the Suupohja Siberian jays might not be able to maintain their genetic diversity in the long term if gene flow would cease due to further isolation, especially if isolation would also cause a faster demographic decline. Conservation attempts should aim at ensuring gene flow to the remaining Siberian jay isolates in Southern Finland, in order to protect them from increasing genetic uniformity and inbreeding. It is possible that while the average dispersal distances in the Siberian jay are short, occasional long-distance dispersal events have an important role in the pretention of genetic structuring in a Siberian jay population. Ne estimation based on demographic data was laborious in the case of the Suupohja Siberian jays, whereas the genetic Ne estimates showed large variation depending on year and estimation method used. Reliable estimation of Ne with genetic methods would have required information on the large-scale genetic structure of the population. In any case, Ne estimates gave a clearer picture on the genetic viability of the Suupohja Siberian jays than the Ho and A estimates, which did not indicate any decrease of genetic diversity during the study period.
  • Samaletdin, Yasmin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Migration is becoming broader and more complex by the day. After the refugee crisis in 2015, the state policies revolving integration were revised in order to better meet the needs of the situation at hand. The revision lead to a strong focus on labour market integration, and consequently a narrower understanding of integration. Previous research shows that employment is the gateway to society, but at the same time it is widely acknowledged that sensing belonging is crucial for well-being, hence also a building block for integration. However, sensing belonging is constantly challenged due to migration. People move to Finland due to very different reasons, and also have different needs, therefore integration needs to be inspected from a broad perspective, taking into account various factors. Questions revolving what the objectives are with integration, and what it means for the individual as well as for the society are predominant when doing research on integration. The aim of this thesis is to place the immigrant in the centre of the discussion, to gain a deeper understanding of what is perceived as meaningful for integration and furthermore to investigate what value employment has within integration for the persons involved. The data was gathered during the spring of 2018, thematic in depth interviews were made with five informants, all of whom are first generation immigrants and have experience of working life in Finland. The results demonstrated that integration is a manifold process, that it was subjective and had a temporal connotation. A unanimous result showed that interactions with society, sensing belonging and employment are central for what is perceived as meaningful for integration. In regards to what the value of employment is within integration, a more shattered result was seen, central experiences were that employment gives financial security, purpose and daily routines. Furthermore, the result showed that perceptions of the value of employment were often loaded with faulty expectations that were not met in real life. The main result showed that employment was not a precondition for integration, neither was employment equal to integration, furthermore a differentiation between being employed and unemployed was far too easy to make, since today a lot of the benefits that a paid job gives can be found in other settings, for example through volunteer work. Despite this, financial security which only derives from a paid job was a precondition for all informants to be able to stay in Finland, and therefore employment was of great value for integration.
  • Dovydaitis, Emily (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Finland and Estonia form a cross-border region in Europe. Unlike other cross-border regions, which share a land border with their neighbor, Finland and Estonia are separated by the Gulf of Finland. The distance is close enough to facilitate regular travel by ferry on a weekly or monthly basis, but for Estonian immigrants living in Finland, daily commutes are unlikely. Given that Finland is the top migration destination for Estonians, the cross-border region of Estonia-Finland poses an interesting case study. In this thesis, the integration and transnationalism of Estonians living in Finland are studied through a spatial mobility lens. First, a theoretical framework is proposed to facilitate empirical research. The framework jointly examines integration and transnationalism by partitioning them into separate domains: social, structural, cultural, civic & political, identity, and spatial. The aim of the framework is to narrow the socio-spatial gap in migration literature, by focusing on the interwoven nature of the social and spatial perspectives. Using data from a comprehensive survey about Estonian immigrants living in Finland, the proposed theoretical framework is operationalized for multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). Three MCA analyses are performed: 1) social integration with host society (Finland), 2) social transnationalism with the sending society (Estonia), and 3) spatial transnationalism between the host society (Finland) and the sending society (Estonia). MCA results show that transnationalism and integration vary both across and within domains. MCA results are connected to one another using correlation analysis and general linear model (GLM) analyses. Correlation analysis and GLM demonstrate that for the study population, integration in the host society and transnationalism with the sending society are inversely associated. This inverse relationship carries over into the spatial domain and can be seen based on which country an immigrant does certain activities (e.g., visiting family, working, accessing healthcare, enjoying leisure time). Immigrants with strong social connections to the host society are more likely to do activities in Finland whereas immigrants with strong social connections to the sending society are more likely to do activities in Estonia. Some immigrants exhibit a multilocal mobility pattern, in which they do activities equally in both Estonia and Finland.
  • Juvonen, Annimari (2008)
    Human rights discourse is one of the transnational languages, which may be used to approach migration. This study aims at sketching the ways how abstract human rights articulations, such as the convention drafted in the United Nations for the protection of the human rights of migrants and their families, are made meaningful in a particular context. The context of this study is the Portuguese society, and the distinct but overlapping relationship between the Church and the state. The convention protecting the human rights of migrants has not been ratified in any of the European countries so far, which the Catholic Church considers as a departure from the universality inherent to human rights. This study considers the way the Church aims at addressing its transnational audience and at criticizing the national and regional spheres through a common concept to both human rights and Catholicism, the universal human family. Human rights become meaningful to the Catholic actors through the concept of family, and the convention on the human rights of migrants is interpreted as a countermovement to the emphasis on individualism, characteristic to the human rights system - thus supporting the Catholic conceptualization about the foundation of the well-being of both the individual and the society. This study has relied on media sources to sketch the main features of the Portuguese discourse on migration and the particular situations in which human rights discourse is used. The homilies of Portuguese Bishops have provided the central concepts through which the relationship between human rights, religion, and the state are discussed. A concrete example of the way how the Catholic actors unite human rights claims with religious rhetoric is a concern over the human rights of migrants brought forward by Bishop Januário Torgal Ferreira during the pilgrimage of Fátima. The transformative power of a pilgrimage thus supports the human rights claims. The cult of Fátima, which holds a strong nationalist tradition due to the legacy of the dictatorship, is now a stage for transnational and modern ideas. The central observation of this study is that human rights discourse functions as a definer of the relationship between the Church and the state, because it is associated with Catholic humanism which aims at balancing the secular politics of the state. In the modern society this relationship is often perceived as distinct, because the interference of the supernatural in the politics of the secular state is not wanted. However, in the Portuguese society the Church has been constitutive to the history of the nation-state, and the so-called secularization process has not pushed it aside from the hegemonic position that it enjoys in the Portuguese society. This study traces the reasons which enable the religious to enter the public sphere of the modern society, and contribute to the construction of the intermediary role of the Catholic actors.
  • Liimatainen, Tuire (Helsinki University Press, 2022)
    This chapter examines embodied representations of Finnishness and whiteness in Sweden where the collective notion of Sweden-Finnishness is situated in the nexus migrant and minority experiences. Based on material generated by individuals and activists as part of Sweden-Finnish social media campaigns in the 2010s, the chapter discusses the different ways in which Finnishness and whiteness are negotiated on an individual level and how they are situated in different social, political and historical contexts. By applying the analytical lens of in/visibility and drawing from both critical whiteness studies and intersectionally informed thinking, the study reveals how Finnishness can at the same time be invisible and visible due to the whiteness of the Finns, but also visible as minoritized and racialized others. The chapter provides novel insights into contemporary Sweden-Finnishness and experiences of non-white Sweden-Finns, as well as politicized and minoritized Sweden-Finnishness. In addition to highlighting the diversity of different Finnish experiences in Sweden, the study demonstrates that whiteness is a highly fluid, situational and contextual way of boundary-drawing.
  • De Graeve, Katrien; Mäkinen, Katariina; Rossi, Riikka (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2017)
    COLLeGIUM: Studies across Disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences ; 23
  • Witting-Mäklin, Julia (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Under 1900-talets första årtionden utvandrade många finländare till Förenta staterna i hopp om att finna förutsättningar för ett bättre liv. När migranterna lämnat sitt hemland och sitt gamla sammanhang var de tvungna att skapa en ny identitet åt sig. Tidningen Finska Amerikanaren blev en kär vän och ett viktigt redskap i det nya landet för många svensktalande immigranter från Finland. Avhandlingens källmaterial består av de mycket populära insändarsidorna ”Våra vänners afdelning”. Efter första världskrigets utbrott 1914 skärptes den amerikanska allmänhetens attityd mot immigration och en aktiv amerikanisering av nykomlingarna inleddes på flera fronter. Så väl skandinaviska som finska immigranter blev impopulära på grund av att de associerades med Tyskland och den kulturella identiteten bland de svensktalande immigranterna från Finland blev följaktligen ytterst problematisk. Avhandlingens syfte är att undersöka hur immigranternas identitet manifesterades på insändarsidorna och hur amerikanisering och politiska förändringar påverkade diskussionen. Jag inleder analysen med en genomgång av hurudana insändarbrev som publicerades under den aktuella perioden. Vidare har jag också undersökt vilka tecken på amerikanisering som kunde utläsas ur exempelvis språket i breven och de attityder som framlades. Jag behandlar också hur nationalismen och Finlandsbilden utvecklades. En uppfattning bland migranter har varit att Finska Amerikanarens attityd till finska inbördeskriget gjorde att tidningen tappade en stor mängd läsare. Därför har jag också i den här avhandlingen studerat hur insändarskribenterna uppfattade tidningens inställning till arbetarrörelsen och socialism innan första världskriget samt hur man diskuterade finska inbördeskriget på insändarsidorna. Eftersom pressen på immigranterna var hård att vara lojal gentemot Förenta staterna var immigranttidningarna ständigt under lupp och allt för radikala åsikter kunde inte framföras riskfritt. Även diverse myndigheter utfärdade bestämmelser som gjorde det svårt och dyrt för immigrantpressen att i allmänhet fortsätta sin verksamhet. Den här avhandlingens visar att det skedde en förändring i hur nöjda immigranterna var med sin tidning. Tidningens nedgång berodde bland annat på att immigrationspolitiken ledde till en minskad invandring, vilket i sin tur ledde till att tidningens naturliga tillväxt också tog slut. Det är ändå klart att vissa immigranter, speciellt sådana som var aktiva i arbetarrörelsen, mot slutet av 1920-talet upplevde att Finska Amerikanaren inte längre kunde möta deras tidningsbehov. Detta berodde främst på att de kände en större gemenskap någon annanstans, exempelvis med arbetarrörelsen, än med sin egen språkliga och kulturella gruppering.
  • Tuovinen, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan maahanmuuttajille tarkoitetun kielikoulutuksen tavoitteita Ranskassa ja Suomessa. Maahanmuuttajille suunnattu kielikoulutus on ollut Suomessa hyvin marginaalista vuoteen 2015 asti, kun taas Ranskassa, joka on ollut vuosikymmeniä vastaanottajamaa, kielikoulutusta on ollut pidempään. Näin ollen myös ranska toisena kielenä –tutkimus on suomi toisena kielenä –tutkimusta kehittyneempää. Tutkimuksessa käydään ensin läpi, mitä virallisia tavoitteita kielikoulutukselle on annettu, minkä jälkeen analysoidaan haastattelumateriaalia. Tavoitteena on vertailla ranskalaisten ja suomalaisten opettajien mielipiteitä maahanmuuttajien kielikoulutuksesta, jotta koulutusta voitaisiin tarkastella kansallista tasoa laajemmin. Tutkimusta varten haastatellaan neljää ranskalaista ja neljää suomalaista maahanmuuttajille kieltä opettavaa henkilöä. Haastattelu suoritetaan samaa yhdeksän kysymyksen runkoa käyttäen. Opettajilta kysytään heidän mielipiteitään kielikoulutuksen tavoitteista ja sen erityislaadusta verrattuna vieraan kielen opettamiseen, maahanmuuttajien välttämättömistä kielikompetensseista sekä kielikoulutuksen merkityksestä sopeutumisessa uuteen yhteiskuntaan. Vastauksia tarkastellaan sekä yhtenä vastaajajoukkona että ranskalaisten ja suomalaisten opettajien vastauksia vertaillen. Tutkimuksen perusteella maahanmuuttajien kielenopetuksen päätavoite on integraation eli kotoutumisen tukeminen. Kieli on integraation väline, eikä siis tavoitteena itseisarvoinen, mikä erottaa maahanmuuttajien koulutuksen merkittävästi vieraan kielen opetuksen tavoitteista. Yksi merkittävä integraation mittareista on työllistyminen vastaanottajamaassa. Kielikoulutus tulisikin järjestää niin, että se tukisi yhä enemmän maahanmuuttajien työllistymistä. Sekä Ranskassa että Suomessa maahanmuuttajien koulutuksen kilpailuttaminen nähdään ongelmana, sillä se johtaa usein koulutuksen pirstaloitumiseen eikä takaa laadukkainta opetusta. Lisäksi suullinen kielitaito korostui kummankin maan opettajien keskuudessa, mutta suomalaisopettajat kokivat, että sitä ei opeteta tarpeeksi ja oppilaiden suullinen taso on kirjallista kielitaitoa alhaisempi. Näin ollen myös opettajien koulutukseen tulisi lisätä valmiuksia kohdata maahanmuuttajien erityistarpeita.
  • Lonnqvist, Jan-Erik; Ilmarinen, Ville-Juhani; Sortheix, Florencia M. (2020)
    We investigated political polarization among the 28284 candidates in the Finnish municipal election who ran for municipal council in 2012, 2017, or both, and had responded to a Voting Advice Application. Our results revealed political polarization in terms of both conversion (longitudinal analysis, n = 6643) and recruitment (cross-sectional comparison of first-time candidates, n = 13054). The populist radical-right Finns Party became even more anti-refugee, and the pro-refugee Green League became even more pro-refugee. The Finns Party, in particular, has constructed the Green League as their enemies, which could explain why the Finns Party moved in an anti-environmental direction, as well as the increased issue-alignment between refugee-attitudes and environmental attitudes. We also observed increased within-party homogeneity in almost all parties. In the discussion, we focus on the nature of the association between refugee and environmental attitudes.
  • Altonen, Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The public debate in Finland around the subject of immigration ever since the start of the “immigrant crisis” in 2015 has often been polarized in nature, seemingly unable to create any increase in mutual understanding between those who are more opposed and those who are for it. According to some our whole society has been divided in relation to this issue, leading to many refusing to take part in the discussion at all. The hypothesis of this study is that part of the reason for the failure of the debate is a result of modernity and it ́s individualizing effects as outlined by Polish sociologist Zygmunt Bauman. This thesis is an attempt to analyze the debate about immigration in order to find instances of identity construction. The material consists of two separate TV-shows produced by the public broadcasting company YLE, titled “A2: Insecurity-night” and “A2: Immigration night”. The analysis is done by utilizing the analytical tools provided by positioning theory, an analytical tool not yet used in this context. It ́s strength lies in its provision of discursive tools that allow for the analysis of dialogue in which identities for self and other are created within social situations. In addition positioning theory offers a particular tool, ‘the positioning triad’, which allows for the analysis of the effects that individual moral systems have on discursive conflict. It ́s main implication being that the difference in morality systems explains many of those conflicts. The analysis shows that identities are often evoked for self and other in the televised discussion around immigration. Those more opposed to immigration often created “surrogate identities” of women, children and elders as a means to argue against its development, while those who saw the provision of asylum for immigrants as a positive development, evoked highly moral or amoral characterizations for self and other as a means to argue for it. In accordance with earlier research of discursive conflicts, the difference in understanding of morality seems to explain the difficult nature of the debate about immigration.