Browsing by Subject "inclusion"

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  • Nislin, Mari; Pesonen, Henri (2019)
    In this article, we sought to determine the extent to which pre-service and in-service teachers' self-perceived competence is associated with sense of belonging and well-being during special education teacher studies, as well as determine whether there are differences among these factors between pre-service and in-service teachers. These are areas in which there is currently a shortage of research. Our data were collected using a survey with close-ended questions. The respondents consisted of 58 in-service and 29 pre-service teachers, aged 21-56 years. Data were analysed utilising quantitative methods. The findings revealed that the respondents demonstrated generally high levels of engagement and low to moderate levels of burnout. The results further indicated that the respondents reported themselves to be most competent when dealing with children of drug-related family abuse and less competent in working with children with severe disabilities. Although well-being and self-perceived competence were associated, we could not find any association between these factors and the sense of belonging. Given the theoretical and empirical evidence, a deeper understanding of the factors relating to teachers' ability to encounter diverse needs is unquestionably needed. The key findings are discussed in detail, and practical implications for teacher education are given.
  • Hannula, Miika; Kontinen, Juha; Virtema, Jonni; Vollmer, Heribert (2018)
    We classify the computational complexity of the satisfiability, validity, and model-checking problems for propositional independence, inclusion, and team logic. Our main result shows that the satisfiability and validity problems for propositional team logic are complete for alternating exponential-time with polynomially many alternations.
  • Ang, Lynn; Lipponen, Lasse; Lim, Sirene (2021)
    The early childhood years are pivotal as they mark the beginning of a young child’s life journey into education. This paper offers critical reflections of the early childhood care and education landscape in Singapore as it has evolved over the last decade. The discussion will draw on findings of the study Vital Voices for Vital Years 2 (2019) to explicate the issues, debates and challenges facing the early childhood care and education sector. It argues that recent developments in the sector with stepped increases in government funding and strategic policy development, augmented by the establishment of national agencies committed to improving the quality of care and education, have achieved significant milestones in the country. However, a more critical perspective of the role of early childhood in policy and practice to meet the diverse needs of young children and families is necessary for envisioning education as a pathway to inclusion and social equality, and for building a truly inclusive society.
  • Ipunen, Tuula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The purpose of my previous research (minor laudatur thesis, year 2005) was to clarify how the comprehensive school and the Steiner school approach the special education pupil as well as to examine what sorts of similarities and differences there are between the Steiner education and special education. Through my thesis I also attempt to examine how the ideologies/intellectual worlds and teachings of the Steiner school and the comprehensive school could be combined and brought closer to one another as well as how the best parts of both schools could be combined in order to take advantage of them in both schools. The research was implemented as a review of literature. At the beginning of my research the ideology and development of inclusion, integration and inclusive upbringing are examined as the basis for the next chapter, in which the concept of man is examined from the viewpoint of special education. I discuss the idea of man on the basis of four central principles. These principles are human dignity, integrity, the right of self-determination and participation in life and society. The fourth chapter provides a detailed introduction to the concept of man from the viewpoint of the Steiner education. First the points of departure and bases of value of the Steiner education are discussed, and then on the basis of these the idea of man and man's different aspects of being in the Steiner education are discussed, as well as the development rhythms and the seven year stages of the child. I examine the differences between these two educations by comparing their ideas of man. The Steiner education is based on Steiner's educational views and the concept of man, upon which these views are based. The concept of man guides the raising and education of the child and is thus also strongly connected to how the special education pupil is approached in the Steiner school. I consider the fourth chapter to be of particular importance for the reader because it is there that I discuss the concept of man of Steiner education as well as the development rhythms of the child, among other things. Without becoming acquainted with the concept of man of Steiner education it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to understand methods used in approaching the special education pupil, such as temperament training and form drawing. The concept of man of special education also creates the basis for how a pupil requiring special support is approached in the comprehensive school. The fifth chapter discusses methods used in approaching a pupil requiring special support in the Steiner school. The sixth chapter discusses methods used in approaching a pupil requiring special support in the comprehensive school. At the end of this research I attempt, on the basis of the comparison between these two educations, to disclose the similarities and differences of them in approaching the special education pupil. I complemented my minor laudatur thesis by taking in account the 3-phased support model.
  • Vilhunen, Milla Helena (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The aim of this master's thesis is to examine the formation of special in the speech of teachers. The theoretical framework is based on the stance that people try to make sense of the world by perspective of normal. However, to be normal is possible only if something is deviant from it. When it comes to schools, these lines between normal and deviant have been seen to be linked to the relation of mainstream education and special-education. The interest of this study is to analyse, how the special is formed in the speech of teachers when there is more and more students in special education and when the official direction is to bring mainstream education and special-education together by constructing teaching of all students in the same classroom. The research data is formed by interviewing special- and class-/subject-teachers. The interviews were constructed as groups, one included special -teachers and the other one class-/subject-teachers. There where total of seven interviewees. The interviews followed the rules of theme interview. I have analyzed the data by using discourse analysis. According to my results the special were formed as maladjustment, certain problems, imperfection and change. The lines between normal and special operated on the other hand between all students and on the other hand the lines were situated only between certain students, them being the students in the special education class and the students in the mainstream class. When it comes to the consequence of special it was the situation of the student that were concerned. The conclusions of this research suggest the persistence of some categories in schools and the place as an essential component for defining the lines between normal and special. Worth noticing is also the ways that showed the possibility of negotiation.
  • Kokko, Marjut; Takala, Marjatta; Pihlaja, Päivi (2021)
    Co-teaching has become a well-known way of working among Finnish teachers in recent years. Teachers' collaboration is becoming increasingly important in light of the rising number of diverse students in regular classes. In an ideal co-teaching context, teachers collaborate as equals, recognise and respect each other's skills and competencies, and strengthen and support each other. In this study, we examine teachers' views on co-teaching and investigate which background factors explain teachers' views concerning the benefits and the challenges of co-teaching. The data obtained from Finnish basic education teachers' (N = 694) responses to an online questionnaire are analysed quantitatively. The results show some differences among the teachers' views. Subject teachers perceive more challenges in co-teaching than class and special education teachers. Class teachers perceive the fewest challenges. Although teachers are generally interested in co-teaching and some of them co-teach regularly, they also report several barriers to its application. The explanatory factors concerning the differences in teachers' views are gender, teachers' co-teaching experiences, the amount of co-teaching per week and working as a class teacher.
  • Nygren, Anja; Quesada, Florencia (2020)
    This introduction underlines some of the topics the present thematic issue focuses on, such as segregation and security, control and creativity, resistance and networking, presenting continuities and changes in urban governance and urban justice in different parts of the world. We argue that urban theory should be rethought to consider cities as fora that recentre the ‘political’ in relation to gentrification, rights to the city, justice, and alternative urbanisms. We highlight structural aspects of urban policy and planning, including the intersection of mega-development projects with disruptive acts of social dispossession and efforts to depoliticise institutional control. Simultaneously, we emphasise tactics that reinterpret hierarchical modes of governance and create initiatives for enhanced justice through claim-making, negotiation, improvisation, acts of everyday resistance and organised opposition.
  • Laakso, Outi (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Aims. In the year 2010, the Finnish national core curriculum for basic education went through some amendments and additions when it comes to support for learning and schooling. A new three-step support model was introduced. The new support model contained general, intensified and special support. The aim of this thesis is to find out how primary school teachers execute the three-step support model at Vantaa: what support measures are most valued and who fills out the support model's pedagogical documents? The support model's aims and goals are also examined. The last aim is to compare the three-step support model to the idea of an inclusive school. Can we say that our education system is now more inclusive than what it was before? Methods. The research began with an interview with the person who is responsible for the planning of education in Vantaa. After the interview, part of the primary school teachers of Vantaa (N=61) answered to a questionnaire about the three-step support model. The research was conducted as a mixed method research because it has elements from both qualitative and quantitative research. The interview answers were analyzed by using content analysis. Quantitative methods were used while analyzing the questionnaire answers with the IBM SPSS Statistics 20-program. Results and conclusions. The study showed that the primary school teachers value differentiation, collaboration between school and home and part-time special education the most. Special education was valued as a part of the special support. Pedagogical documents were most likely filled by the class teacher or the special needs teacher although the work is assigned to class teachers . Collaboration between teachers was valued when filling the pedagogical documents. It's difficult to estimate how the goals of the three-step support model have been achieved. During the time of this research the new model had been used only for six months. The teachers admitted that more pupils are studying in mainstream education because of the new support model. Nevertheless the teachers felt that the education system needs special education schools and classes. They did not agree with the idea of shutting down all the special education schools.
  • Lahti, Anna-Henriikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Goals of this study. The goal of this study is to examine, interpret and analyze the perceptions that elementary school teachers hold concerning the fulfillment of inclusion and integration of immigrant students studying in general education class. Aim of this study is to answer the following research problems: 1. According on elementary school teachers how well the goals of inclusion are being fulfilled concerning immigrant students? 2. What kind of representations do elementary school teachers hold concerning the inclusion and integration of immigrant students in general education class? Theoretical background of this study is based on litera- ture handling of inclusion and representation. The experiences teachers have, are being com- pared to the theoretical framework. The concept of representation and othering are repre- sented also in the empiric part of this study. The purpose of this study is to take a stand in the general conversation dealing with inclusion. At the center of this study is the inclusion and integration of students with an immigrant background because of the linguistic questions. Methods. The material of this study was produced by implementing two group interviews. Both interviews consisted four elementary school teachers who had been teaching students with immigrant background within the last five years. Material was analyzed with the means of discourse analysis. Research questions were answered by the representations which were brought up from the material of this study. Results and conclusion. According on the material of this study the goals of inclusion have not been seen fulfilling among immigrant students. It was stated that the resources, like learn- ing materials, time and assistance from special education teachers are not sufficient. Based on the experience of teachers seven repertoires were constructed. These repertoires repre- sent those representations that teachers hold concerning of the inclusion of immigrant stu- dents.
  • Tornberg, Enni-Greta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Goals. Along inclusive thinking ever more students’ equality and participation has been higlighted in Finnish education system. Finland like numerous other countries has signed many international agreements, such as Salamanca statement and United Nations convention on the rights of persons with disabilites. The development of education according to these agreements has been exposed in many public records in last decades. Variable school culture sets new challenges to teachers and above all requires collaboration between teachers. Co-teaching is one way to react to the challenges of school culture. Goal of this study is to set co-teaching into larger context and investigate what kind of meanings class teachers give to co-teaching and how they react to co-teaching. The purpose of this study is in co-teaching between special education teacher and class teacher. Methods. This research is qualitative research. Research material has been obtained by interviewing three elementary school teachers in Oulu area. Interviews were carried out as theme interviews. The duration of interviews varied between 25 minutes to 45 minutes. The material has been analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Results and conclusions. In this study class teachers’ attitude for co-teaching was found positive. They saw co-teaching to be compatible with inclusive teaching. Teachers emphasized the role of pedagogical leadership in executing the co-teaching. School’s pedagogical administration can support co-teaching by structural arrangements, changing the working culture and by increasing awareness of co-teaching. Co-teaching also caused contradictions. The teachers saw, that disagreements were induced by division of roles as well as interactional contradictions. Conflicts were mainly clarified by discussing. The key points of solving contradictions had been changing the way of acting, self-improvement and support from principal.
  • Palomäki, Anne-Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Teachers work is changing from independent work towards a collegial cooperation, and one form of cooperation can be co-teaching. Co-teaching is also discussed in the three level model of supporting in Special education strategy (Ministry of Education 2007). Efforts have been made to increase co-teaching in Helsinki with the help of a merit pay system. The purpose of this study is to describe teachers' roles in planning, implementing and evaluating co-teaching and to resolve how teachers have ended up with these roles, what advantages and disadvantages there are in different roles and what kind of roles are experienced meaningful. This study is made from a class teacher or a special class teacher point of view. The research material was collected using a qualitative web-inquiry in Autumn 2010. The questionnaire was answered by 35 teachers. The material was studied using content analysis methods. Three different co-teaching roles were formed on the basis of the research material. These roles differ in the way of dividing responsibility of planning and implementing co-teaching. Responsibility Sharers divided the responsibility evenly, Primary Responsible had one teacher with main responsibility and Single Responsible had only one teacher having all the responsibility of planning and teaching. The more responsibility the class teacher had, the more the special education teacher was limited to answer for students with special needs. Distribution of work with Responsibility Sharers was mostly based on good cooperation, while Primary Responsible and Single Responsible had work distribution mostly affected by absence of common planning time. The most satisfied with their co-teaching roles were the Responsibility Sharers, while the Single Responsible were the most unhappy group. However, it seems that individuals' persona affects to what kind of co-teaching was experienced meaningful.
  • Varava, Margarita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This thesis critically engages with various approaches to political inclusion. I show that certain difficulties in their perspectives on language as a candidate for conveying representation and recognition of new agents in public space can be observed. I focus on the moral limitations of these approaches, particularly the issue of articulating identities as a form of suppression; confining the political performance of individuals to frames of political identities; the problematic engagement of excluded agents in existing discourses that are embedded in particular power structures; and normative justification of moral permissibility concerning political agendas of new political agents. In the first chapter, I analyze the normative foundations of inclusion in the theories of Luce Irigaray (‘I-you’-identities), Chantal Mouffe and Ernesto Laclau (‘we-them’-identities), as well as the cosmopolitan political project (‘we’-identities) in detail. In the second chapter, I critically investigate and analyze strategies of inclusion by means of articulation in these approaches. Finally, the third chapter outlines problematic moral implications of these approaches in order to close a gap within the current scientific debate on this topic and provide foundations of possible future research. Questions addressed there include: Why favor inclusion at all? Which mechanisms of inclusion would be better than the existing ones? Should inclusion aspire to allow for differences and inclusion on terms that are insensitive to differences?
  • Saksela-Bergholm, Sanna (2020)
    This article focuses on how social capital is mobilisable and usable for Filipino labour migrants in their efforts to become part of the Finnish labour market. Drawing on the argument of Anthias that not all kinds of resources enable social capital, this article also reveals the dominant role of the minority church as a provider of support simultaneously confining its members' inclusion to the destination society. The article demonstrates how mobilisation of social capital is possible only in certain socioeconomic context, for example, when social ties transfer usable resources for the actors, such as information and access to a new job, whereas in other cases, the social ties chiefly provide non-mobilisable resources, such as emotional support and solidarity. However, these resources can be of advantage for strengthening the ethnic identity of migrants.
  • Nicolson, Marcus (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    This Master’s thesis explores sport-for-inclusion programmes in the Helsinki capital region, a subject area which has been lacking critical investigation in Finland. The purpose of this study is to give an overview how these programmes are managed and delivered, as well as presenting possible improvements to the current system. There will be an analysis of the role which local NGOs play in the provision of such activities, alongside a discussion of how local authority and governmental actors are trying to promote work in the sector. The hypothesis of this study is that there is a discord between the various players involved in the delivery of these services, and that there is room for the existing strategy behind these programmes to be improved. International research has taken influence from the work of Pierre Bourdieu and his theory of social capital, which is thought to be generated through participation in inclusionary sports activities. Academics, including Fred Coalter and Ramon Spaaij, have paved the way for future researchers to take a critical approach to the study of these programmes. This, Helsinki-based, study will take inspiration from the international research to conduct an independent, and critical review, of the existing sport-for-inclusion work on-going in the capital region. Qualitative interviews with 11 key players in the Helsinki sport-for-inclusion arena were conducted in the research process of this study. Additionally, a critical examination of the existing Finnish sports legislature and promotional materials from these programmes helped to formulate an impression of how the system is operating. In the final discussion of this study it will be revealed that there is a field of tension between the various practitioners and policymakers in the local sport-for-inclusion sector. This is outlined with reference to the interviews and background research presented throughout the study. It is anticipated that the findings and recommendations given in this investigation can make a meaningful contribution to the healthy development of inclusionary sports programmes in the capital region and beyond.
  • Riitaoja, Anna-Leena; Helakorpi, Jenni; Holm, Gunilla (2019)
    Although Finnish basic education is based on inclusion, 37% of students receiving special support still study in either separate schools or separate classes in comprehensive schools. In this study we explore how policies of inclusion are implemented in a school with separated special educational needs (SEN) and general education (GE) classes. More specifically we conducted a two-year ethnographic study focusing particularly on exclusion and the sense of belonging in a lower secondary school (students aged 13–16) in the capital region of Finland. During the fieldwork, several students attending the SEN-class expressed an interest in changing from the SEN-class to a GE-class, or in breaking the borders between SEN and GE classes in other ways. As part of the negotiations with the school, students who criticised the GE- and SEN-class division were offered an opportunity to transfer to GE-classes but in the end, all of them wanted to stay in the SEN-class. In this investigation, we focus on the students’ reasoning and the teachers’ reactions when students negotiate the borders between SEN and GE-classes. In this study we found a clash between integration and inclusive thinking.
  • Leinonen, Hanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    This thesis inspects how community music workshops may affect self-perceived work ability in the disabled, immigrant, mentally ill, or otherwise disadvantaged participants. Community music workshops had statistically significant positive effect on self-perceived work ability in all the subgroups, except the immigrant participants.
  • Weckroth, Mikko; Moisio, Sami (2020)
    Over the past two decades, both academics and policy makers have discussed the meaning of territorial cohesion in the context of the European Union (EU). This debate on the meaning and content of territorial cohesion is becoming increasingly important in a Europe that is facing multiple crises. This article contributes to the literature on EU’s territorial cohesion policies by tracing the ways in which territorial cohesion has been defined, framed and justified as an EU policy. We analyse public speeches made by the acting commissioners for Regional Policy and inquire into the Cohesion Reports from 2004 to 2017 produced by the European Commission. In particular, we interrogate both the meaning of the concept of territorial cohesion and the justifications for pursuing territorial cohesion. We conclude with some critical remarks on the relevance of economic production-based definitions and justifications for territorial cohesion policies. Accordingly, we argue that treating macroeconomic production as an indicator of territorial cohesion harmfully consolidates a narrow understanding of societal wellbeing and development and imposes on all regions a one-dimensional economic scale to indicate their level of development.
  • Sandal, Gökçe (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This study explores the topics of equality and inclusion of non-Western immigrant artists into the Western mainstream arts scene. Through an intersectional research focus, it argues that being a woman from a non-Western ethnic background and being an artist create site specific challenges for artists in gaining recognition and success within the industry. The main argument states that the Western art world still carries neocolonial overtones, and that the institutional practices of multiculturalism rely on a problematic manner of tokenism which creates a new stereotype of an exotic non-Western artist with strong roots in their cultural backgrounds. As a case study, this thesis analyzes the topic of equality in the contemporary Swedish art scene, as well as the artistic intervention strategies the artists employ to challenge the hierarchical and exclusive traits in the arts industry. The works of art by two women artists/artist duos practicing in Sweden, namely Roxy Farhat and Mahoyo, are examined through a visual content analysis method to explore art’s function as a means of critical intervention into the systems of oppression and marginalization. Through the critical works of art by the afore-mentioned artists, the study aims to answer the question of how artistic personal narratives of intersectional identities confront and challenge the grand narratives on multiculturalism, anti-racism and gender equality in the Swedish context. It is concluded that artistic narratives of intersectional identities are of great importance since they reclaim the right to define themselves, and to get their own perspectives acknowledged in an industry that still tends rely on stereotypical definitions of the other. By using art as a political and critical tool, these artists demand transformation from the arts scene to do away with privileges and to better accommodate different identities and perspectives.