Browsing by Subject "individual differences"

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  • Andrews, Caitlin E.; Ewen, John G.; Thorogood, Rose (2020)
    Studies of intraspecific dietary variation can greatly enrich our view of a species' niche and role in the ecosystem, particularly when species with broad diets are found to be composed of generalist and specialist individuals. However, the current framework for quantifying dietary specialization leaves certain standards unformalized and is susceptible to overestimating specialization when there are few repeated observations per individual, as is often the case in observational studies of wild populations. Here, we use the hihi (Notiomystis cincta), a threatened New Zealand passerine, as a case study for demonstrating how existing statistical tools can be applied to strengthen the dietary specialization framework. First, we assess whether the reliability of common dietary measures can be improved through Bayesian adjustments and by using rarefaction to compare uncertainty levels of metrics calculated from different sample sizes. As diet links closely to environmental factors, we also demonstrate how adding phenological data and habitat assessments to standard protocols can help validate our dietary measures as evidence for resource selection rather than random foraging. Finally, in light of our finding that diet predicts survival in hihi, we discuss the utility of dietary specialization for elucidating broader behavioral syndromes.
  • Leikas, Sointu (2020)
    The popular idea that extraverted behavior is mentally depleting has received support in one previous study. The present research attempted to replicate this finding and rule out some alternative explanations. An experience-sampling study was conducted to this end (N = 74, observations = 1046). The results showed that extraverted behavior was indeed related to feeling tired 2-3 h later. The results provide empirical evidence of an everyday life pattern between behavior and feelings states.
  • Roukka, Sulo; Puputti, Sari; Aisala, Heikki; Hoppu, Ulla; Seppä, Laila; Sandell, Mari A. (2021)
    Chemesthesis is a part of the flavor experience of foods. Chemesthetic perception is studied to understand its effect on food-related behavior and health. Thus, the objective of this research was to study individual differences in chemesthetic perception. Our study involved sensory tests of three chemesthetic modalities (astringency, pungency, and cooling). Participants (N = 196) evaluated the intensity of samples in different concentrations using a line scale under sensory laboratory conditions. Aluminum ammonium sulfate, capsaicin, and menthol were used as the prototypic chemesthetic compounds. The participants were divided into sensitivity groups in different chemesthetic modalities by hierarchical clustering based on their intensity ratings. In addition, an oral chemesthesis sensitivity score was determined to represent the generalized chemesthesis sensitivity. The results showed that people can perceive chemesthesis on different intensity levels. There were significantly positive correlations between (1) sensitivity scores for oral chemesthesis and taste as well as (2) each chemesthesis and taste modalities. Moreover, based on the multinomial logistic regression model, significant interactions between oral chemesthesis and taste sensitivity were discovered. Our findings showed that people can be classified into different oral chemesthesis sensitivity groups. The methods and results of this study can be utilized to investigate associations with food-related behavior and health.