Browsing by Subject "indomethacin"

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  • Kainulainen, Saila (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The solubility of a poorly water-soluble drug can be improved by converting the crystalline drug into an amorphous form. However, the amorphous form is metastable due to the higher energy state and recrystallization may occur during storage and dissolution. The amorphous form can be stabilized by forming an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD), where the drug molecules are dispersed to the solid medium, e.g. hydrophilic polymer. One preparation method for amorphous solid dispersions is spray drying, where a solution containing a drug and polymer is converted into small droplets in a drying chamber, in which the solvent evaporates in a hot gas stream and solid particles are formed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an ASD of a poorly water-soluble drug can be prepared by spray drying using 20:80 (V/V) ethanol-water mixture as a solvent in a feed solution. Indomethacin (γ-polymorph) was used as a model drug and polyvinylpyrrolidone vinyl acetate (PVPVA) as a polymer. The aim was to find a suitable formulation where the drug is in the amorphous form after spray drying and remains in the amorphous form during storage. The ratios of the drug to polymer in the spray-dried formulations were 1:4, 1:6, 1:8, 1:10, 1:12 and 1:16. The study also examined whether a change in one process parameter, pump feed rate, affects the amorphous nature and stability of the resulting spray-dried solid dispersions. Two different pump feed rates, a higher 30% and a lower 15%, were used in the study. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) was used to characterize the solid-state of the spray-dried formulations. XRPD measurements were performed immediately after spray drying and on selected time points during storage. Formulations 1:10 at 30% feed rate, 1:12 at both feed rates and 1:16 at 30% feed rate were amorphous after spray drying. In 1:12 (30%) and 1:16 (30%) formulations indomethacin remained in amorphous form over the study periods (22 and 56 days, respectively). In other formulations, indomethacin was found to be in crystalline α-form immediately after spray drying or recrystallization to the α-form occurred during storage. The interaction between indomethacin and PVPVA was studied by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR). The aim of the SPR measurements was to understand the interaction between these substances in the feed solution used in spray drying. PVPVA solutions of various concentrations (1%, 0.5%, 0.1% and 0.01%) were injected to the surface of the gold sensor coated with crystalline γ-indomethacin, and the changes in the SPR signal responses were monitored during the interaction. The same measurements were also performed on a pure gold sensor without indomethacin. An interaction between indomethacin and PVPVA can be observed, and based on the measurements, a polymer layer with a thickness of about 1 nm was formed on the surface of the indomethacin sensor regardless of the concentration of the polymer solution. Thus, even a small amount of polymer in solution is sufficient to cover the indomethacin crystals. This may also occur in the feed solution during spray drying, but further studies with SPR are still needed, especially with amorphous indomethacin. This study showed that an ASD of indomethacin and PVPVA can be successfully prepared by spray drying using an aqueous feed solution. Spray-dried 1:12 and 1:16 formulations at a higher pump feed rate were found to be stable enough for further studies. If the spray-dried material is further formulated into a pharmaceutical product, indomethacin must remain in amorphous form throughout the shelf-life of the product to maintain the improved solubility.
  • Pietarinen, Teemu (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Solid materials can exist in two major forms: in crystalline or amorphous form. Amorphous form is defined as no long term order existing in solid structure in molecular scale. Amorphous materials have different physicochemical properties compared crystalline forms of same substance. Amorphous materials doesn't have sharp melting point as crystalline materials. When heated above so called glass transition temperature amorphous materials become rubbery (plasticization) and when cooled below they become glassy (hard and brittle). Amorphous forms can also have different dissolution properties which makes them useful in formulation of poorly soluble drugs. Amorphous forms are less stable compared to crystalline form. That's due amount of free energy stored in it's structures. Amorphous materials can be manufactured in many ways including quench cooling, hot-melt-extrusion, spray drying and lyophilisation (freeze drying). In experimental section effect of grinding method in properties of amorphous indomethacin was studied. Amorphous indomethacin was prepared by quenching of melt in liquid nitrogen. Properties of amorphous indomethacin was studied by x-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Measurements were performed in different time stamps varied form 0 to 92 days. Measured properties were crystalline content, glass transition temperature, change in heath capacity, heat of crystallization, heat of melting and melting points of crystallized forms. Calorimetry data was recorded only from totally amorphous samples. It can be seen in results that different patches are not comparable statistically but when comparing room temperature ground and liquid nitrogen ground samples to each other differences can be found in every set. Difference is observed in initial time of crystallization (time when crystallinity can be measured first time) and in thermodynamical properties such as change in heat capacity, glass transition temperature and heat of melting. Solid dispersions of indomethacin and xylitol were prepared in 3 different compositions (5%, 10% and 20% xylitol in indomethacin). XRPD and DSC data were measured at different time stamps (aged 1 to 63 days). 5% and 10% dispersions found to be stabile and being amorphous in all time stamps. 20% dispersion was already partly crystallized at 63 days (especially liquid nitrogen ground sample).
  • Toropainen, Elisa; Fraser-Miller, Sara J.; Novakovic, Dunja; Del Amo, Eva M.; Vellonen, Kati-Sisko; Ruponen, Marika; Viitala, Tapani; Korhonen, Ossi; Auriola, Seppo; Hellinen, Laura; Reinisalo, Mika; Tengvall, Unni; Choi, Stephanie; Absar, Mohammad; Strachan, Clare; Urtti, Arto (2021)
    Eye drops of poorly soluble drugs are frequently formulated as suspensions. Bioavailability of suspended drug depends on the retention and dissolution of drug particles in the tear fluid, but these factors are still poorly understood. We investigated seven ocular indomethacin suspensions (experimental suspensions with two particle sizes and three viscosities, one commercial suspension) in physical and biological tests. The median particle size (d(50)) categories of the experimental suspensions were 0.37-1.33 and 3.12-3.50 mu m and their viscosity levels were 1.3, 7.0, and 15 mPa center dot s. Smaller particle size facilitated ocular absorption of indomethacin to the aqueous humor of albino rabbits. In aqueous humor the AUC values of indomethacin suspensions with different particle sizes, but equal viscosity, differed over a 1.5 to 2.3-fold range. Higher viscosity increased ocular absorption 3.4-4.3-fold for the suspensions with similar particle sizes. Overall, the bioavailability range for the suspensions was about 8-fold. Instillation of larger particles resulted in higher tear fluid AUC values of total indomethacin (suspended and dissolved) as compared to application of smaller particles. Despite these tear fluid AUC values of total indomethacin, instillation of the larger particles resulted in smaller AUC levels of indomethacin in the aqueous humor. This suggests that the small particles yielded higher concentrations of dissolved indomethacin in the tear fluid, thereby leading to improved ocular bioavailability. This new conclusion was supported by ocular pharmacokinetic modeling. Both particle size and viscosity have a significant impact on drug concentrations in the tear fluid and ocular drug bioavailability from topical suspensions. Viscosity and particle size are the key players in the complex interplay of drug retention and dissolution in the tear fluid, thereby defining ocular drug absorption and bioequivalence of ocular suspensions.
  • Myllymäki, Pilvi (Helsingfors universitet, 2018)
    The majority of potential new chemical entities reaching drug development phase belong to Class II the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) which complicates formulation of orally administered drugs. Therefore, there is a need to develop methods to increase the solubility and dissolution rate. Transformation of a crystalline drug into its amorphous form can be used to enhance these properties of poorly water-soluble drugs. However, amorphous drugs are thermodynamically unstable and tend to recrystallize back to the crystalline form. Coamorphous forms are a new and promising method to stabilize amorphous form. A relatively new approach is to combine the active drug compound with an amino acid to form a coamorphous system. In this study, co-amorphous systems were prepared from gamma, alpha or amorphous form of indomethacin (IND) and tryptophan (TRP) by ball milling. The solid-state changes during milling were investigated to obtain information about the co-amorphization process. The main objective was to investigate the effects of initial solid state of indomethacin on the formation pathways. In addition, different analytical methods were compared with respect to observed endpoints of the formation process. Raman spectroscopy has not been used in previous studies regarding solid state changes in co-amorphous forms. The presence of fluorescence in amorphous systems may have limited use of the method. A time-gated Raman setup together with X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate this kind of potentially fluorescent system. Principal component analysis of spectral data revealed that the three different binary systems had individual and direct pathways towards the same end points during milling. This indicates that the co-amorphous form formed after 60 minutes of ball milling is not dependent on the initial solid-state form of IND. Straight pathways also indicated direct transformation to the coamorphous form. DSC was found to be the most sensitive method to detect changes for the longest period during co-amorphization. Conventional Raman spectroscopy was found to be suitable for investigation of the co-amorphization process. However, time-gated Raman spectroscopy did not show significant advantages compared to conventional Raman data. This study revealed that the most stable form of IND could be used for production of co-amorphous form together with TRP. Raman spectroscopy could potentially be used for investigating coamorphization also as an in-process analytical method.
  • Itkonen, Lauri (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Improvements in drug screening technology have resulted in a situation where more poorly soluble compounds enter the drug development pipeline. Poor aqueous solubility is a major issue especially in preclinical toxicity testing, where the generation of high drug loads is needed. For oral delivery, liquid formulations are often used and suspensions are potential options for poorly soluble drugs. While several different techniques to enhance solubility exist, most of them have method specific disadvantages or are not universal. Solid state modification, and especially the use of the high energy amorphous form, offers an efficient technique to enhance dissolution properties of a wide range of compounds. A problem of the amorphous form, however, is its physical instability. Amorphous drug in aqueous suspension can re-crystallize via solid-solid and/or solution-mediated pathways. To maintain the solubility advantage of amorphous forms for sufficient period of time, stabilization is needed. One way to stabilize the amorphous form is to prepare a solid dispersion, where the amorphous drug is dispersed in a stabilizing hydrophilic carrier matrix. Another way to add stabilizing agents is to dissolve them into the suspension medium prior to the amorphous solids. Solubilizing polymers may elevate the equilibrium solubility and reduce the driving force for solution mediated crystallization. The aims of this study were to stabilize amorphous indomethacin in aqueous suspensions and to understand the mechanisms behind stabilization. Indomethacin (IND) was used as a poorly soluble model drug (BCS class II). Four different polymers (PVP, HPMC, HPMC-AS and Soluplus®) were selected as stabilizing agents. Crystallization of solid amorphous IND and the concentration of dissolved IND in water were studied after adding: i) the pure amorphous IND, ii) solid dispersions (SDs) at 1:1 and 9:1 drug:polymer ratios (w/w), and iii) the pure amorphous IND into aqueous medium containing predissolved polymer at concentrations of 10 mg/ml or 1 mg/ml, total drug and polymer concentrations being equivalent to 1:1 and 9:1 drug:polymer ratios (w/w) in the SDs, respectively. For HPMC-AS only a 1 mg/ml polymer concentration was used due to its limited solubility. Both the solid and solution phases of the suspension were analysed at different time points for up to 24 h or until crystallization had occurred. Phase transformations in the solid phase were analysed using ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis. The concentration of dissolved drug over the time was assessed by UV spectroscopy. In general, all the polymers, either in SDs or pre-dissolved in medium delayed the onset of crystallization of amorphous IND. Higher polymer concentrations inhibited the crystallization longer than lower ones. A general trend was that SDs were superior in stabilization of amorphous solids, but pre-dissolved polymer solutions generated and maintained higher IND concentrations in solution. Of the four polymers studied, Soluplus® showed the most promising results: SD of Soluplus® and IND at 1:1 ratio (w/w) stayed amorphous in aqueous medium for more than 28 days. On the other hand, crystallization was quite rapid (30 min) when the amount of polymer was inadequate (9:1 w/w). Soluplus® solution (10 mg/ml) generated a 20-fold higher IND concentration than the corresponding SD, possibly due to micellisation. Different polymers showed different abilities to inhibit crystallization and enhance the drug concentration in solution. The addition method and the drug-polymer ratio had an influence on the stabilization abilities of the polymer. Stabilization mechanisms may be both thermodynamic (type of polymer) and kinetic(method of addition).
  • Novakovic, Dunja; Peltonen, Leena; Isomäki, Antti Olavi; Fraser-Miller, Sara J.; Hagner Nielsen, Line; Laaksonen, Timo; Strachan, Clare (2020)
    The distinction between surface and bulk crystallization of amorphous pharmaceuticals, as well as the importance of surface crystallization for pharmaceutical performance, is becoming increasingly evident. An emerging strategy in stabilizing the amorphous drug form is to utilize thin coatings at the surface. While the physical stability of systems coated with pharmaceutical polymers has recently been studied, the effect on dissolution performance as a function of storage time, as a further necessary step toward the success of these formulations, has not been previously studied. Furthermore, the effect of coating thickness has not been elucidated. This study investigated the effect of these polymer-coating parameters on the interplay between amorphous surface crystallization and drug dissolution for the first time. The study utilized simple tablet-like coated dosage forms, comprising a continuous amorphous drug core and thin polymer coating (hundreds of nanometers to a micrometer thick). Monitoring included analysis of both the solid-state of the model drug (with SEM, XRD, and ATR FTIR spectroscopy) and dissolution performance (and associated morphology and solid-state changes) after different storage times. Stabilization of the amorphous form (dependent on the coating thickness) and maintenance of early-stage intrinsic dissolution rates characteristic for the unaged amorphous drug were achieved. However, dissolution in the latter stages was likely inhibited by the presence of a polymer at the surface. Overall, this study introduced a versatile coated system for studying the dissolution of thin-coated amorphous dosage forms suitable for different drugs and coating agents. It demonstrated the importance of multiple factors that need to be taken into consideration when aiming to achieve both physical stability and improved release during the shelf life of amorphous formulations.
  • Novakovic, Dunja; Isomäki, Antti; Pleunis, Bibi; Fraser-Miller, Sara J.; Peltonen, Leena Johanna; Laaksonen, Timo; Strachan, Clare Joanna (2018)
    The tendency for crystallization during storage and administration is the most considerable hurdle for poorly water-soluble drugs formulated in the amorphous form. There is a need to better detect often subtle and complex surface crystallization phenomena and understand their influence on the critical quality attribute of dissolution. In this study, the interplay between surface crystallization of the amorphous form during storage and dissolution testing, and its influence on dissolution behavior, is analyzed for the first time with multimodal nonlinear optical imaging (coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and sum frequency generation (SFG)). Complementary analyses are provided with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and infrared and Raman spectroscopies. Amorphous indomethacin tablets were prepared and subjected to two different storage conditions (30 °C/23% RH and 30 °C/75% RH) for various durations and then dissolution testing using a channel flow-through device. Trace levels of surface crystallinity previously imaged with nonlinear optics after 1 or 2 days of storage did not significantly decrease dissolution and supersaturation compared to the freshly prepared amorphous tablets while more extensive crystallization after longer storage times did. Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of the tablet surfaces after 15 min of dissolution revealed complex crystallization behavior that was affected by both storage condition and time, with up to four crystalline polymorphs simultaneously observed. In addition to the well-known α- and γ-forms, the less reported metastable ε- and η-forms were also observed, with the ε-form being widely observed in samples that had retained significant surface amorphousness during storage. This form was also prepared in the pure form and further characterized. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential value of nonlinear optical imaging, together with more established solid-state analysis methods, to understand complex surface crystallization behavior and its influence on drug dissolution during the development of amorphous drugs and dosage forms.