Browsing by Subject "industry"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-18 of 18
  • Selby, J. Ashley (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1989)
    A theoretical and philosophical examination of the ways in which behaviour of entrepreneurs relates to the business environment, with an empirical case study of the business attitudes, perceived business environments and ability to use business-related information of small sawmill entrepreneurs.
  • Sulkunen, Pekka; Berret, Sébastien; Marionneau, Virve; Nikkinen, Janne (2022)
    Background: Gambling is an important source of public revenue in many countries. Little is known about how this revenue is generated, and how it depends on product portfolios, operating costs, turnover, and the institutional contexts of the industry. Methods: A comparative analysis of income statements from 30 European gambling companies is reported. Scatter diagrams are used to describe how the surplus depends on volume, operating costs, monopoly status, and the game portfolio measured by aggregate return-to-players (RTP). Company profiles are used to interpret the results. Hypotheses: Commercialization increases aggregate return to players. This is likely to lower the surplus. Low operating costs of automated and fast games compensate for this loss. Commercial companies produce less surplus than monopolies. Results: The surplus is a linear function of the total revenue. Excluding three big companies, total volume is positively associated with the average return percentages but not proportionately with operating costs. The difference between monopolistic and market-based companies does not appear to be significant. Detailed descriptive analysis shows that the European gambling market may be facing a situation of supply saturation where further growth of gambling proceeds for good causes can no longer be accomplished.
  • Johnstone, Phil; Rogge, Karoline S.; Kivimaa, Paula; Farné Fratini, Chiara; Primmer, Eeva (Elsevier, 2021)
    Energy Research & Social Science 74
    Industrial policy has re-emerged as an area of policy discussion in recent years, but the characteristics and role of industrial policy vary across national contexts. Particularly, the role of industrial policy in the ongoing energy transitions of different countries has received little attention. We introduce an analytical framework to explore the relationship between industrial policy and different energy policy trajectories and apply this framework in an empirical analysis of the perceptions of key stakeholders in the energy sector in Germany, the United Kingdom and Denmark. We identify four key elements of industrial policy – industrial visions, industrial policy instruments, industrial policy governance, and employment concerns – and based on these analyse perceptions of how industrial policy has facilitated changes in the energy system of the three countries. We find significant differences in industrial policy styles for low-carbon transitions, reflecting broader differences in political institutions and cultures. Our analysis shows how sustainability transitions relate to industrial policy, and which elements can act as enablers and barriers to low-carbon transitions.
  • Tohka, Antti; Karvosenoja, Niko (Finnish Environment Institute, 2006)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 21/2006
  • Heliövaara, Kari; Väisänen, Rauno (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1988)
  • Heliövaara, Kari; Väisänen, Rauno (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1989)
  • Kettunen, Antti (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The purpose of the study was to identify the differences between forest machine enter-prises’ operational environments in Finland and Sweden and to find out what kind of rela-tionships and contracts these enterprises have with their clients. The purpose was also to identify what kind of growth strategies are implemented and what sort of financing op-portunities are offered in forest machine industry. The aim of this study was also to con-duct an evaluation of financial potential of the forest machine industry in both countries. This study uses qualitative methods. The material was gathered through five interviews conducted in Finland and five in Sweden during the summer and autumn of 2015. The material was analyzed through thematizing. The interviews hold four main themes which included operational environment, relationships and contracts, growth and success and finance. The operational environment was considered more positive in Finland, due to the future large investments targeted to the country`s forest industry. The main difference between the two countries is that most of the clients use key contractor model in Finland which is not commonly applied in Sweden and this had clear effects on the results of this study. Also, contractors in Finland often have more clients than in Sweden. The service contracts contained the same basic conditions in both countries except the duration of the contract, which was longer in Finland. Contractors generally used internal growth and corporate acquisition as their growth strategy in both countries. Contractors were more expansionary and open to growth in Finland than in Sweden. They also used the same kind of financial products in both countries. According to the results, the forest machine industry has the same financial potential in both countries, since the urge of financing will not disappear in the future.
  • Westman, Lars (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1981)
  • Pakonen, Tuulikki (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1981)
  • Heliövaara, Kari; Väisänen, Rauno (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1986)
  • Heliövaara, Kari; Väisänen, Rauno (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1989)
  • Pihlajamäki, Minna; Uitti, J.; Arola, H.; Ollikainen, J.; Korhonen, M.; Nummi, T.; Taimela, S. (2019)
    Objectives To study whether self-reported health problems predict sickness absence (SA) from work in employees from different industries. Methods The results of a health risk appraisal (HRA) were combined with archival data of SA of 21 608 employees (59% female, 56% clerical). Exposure variables were self-reported health problems, labelled as ' work disability (WD) risk factors' in the HRA, presence of problems with occupational well-being and obesity. Age, socioeconomic grading and the number of SA days 12 months before the survey were treated as confounders. The outcome measure was accumulated SA days during 12-month follow-up. Data were analysed separately for males and females. A Hurdle model with negative binomial response was used to analyse zero-inflated count data of SA. Results The HRA results predicted the number of accumulated SA days during the 12-month follow-up, regardless of occupational group and gender. The ratio of means of SA days varied between 2.7 and 4.0 among those with ' WD risk factors' and the reference category with no findings, depending on gender and occupational group. The lower limit of the 95% CI was at the lowest 2.0. In the Hurdle model, ' WD risk factors', SA days prior to the HRA and obesity were additive predictors for SA and/or the accumulated SA days in all occupational groups. Conclusion Self-reported health problems and obesity predict a higher total count of SA days in an additive fashion. These findings have implications for both management and the healthcare system in the prevention of WD. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.
  • Suhr, Michael; Forsius, Kaj; Mehtonen, Jukka; Aust, Nannett; Vähä, Emmi; Moltmann, Johann F.; Månsson, Annika; Järvinen, Eija (Finnish Environment Institute, 2021)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 48/2021
    On the EU level the main instrument to control industrial releases is the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED), particularly through the publication of BAT Reference documents (BREFs) and the corresponding key chapter, the BAT conclusions. The objective of the IED is to achieve a high level of environmental protection as a whole. This target can only be achieved when the BREFs include all chemicals and substances used in or potentially released from industrial processes, both the ones that have already been identified as hazardous and regulated, as well as the less known and non-regulated ones. At the centre of this report is the analysis of the information exchange under the IED, which results in BREFs and corresponding BAT conclusions. This report proposes how relevant information on chemicals used in or released from industrial processes can be more systematically addressed during BREF reviews. Special emphasis is given to possibilities to better use the available data generated in the context of other pertinent EU legislation such as REACH and POPs Regulation and Water Framework Directive (WFD). The HAZBREF project recommends further systemic cooperation and exchange of information between the European IPPC Bureau coordinating the BREF work and chemical experts from REACH, WFD and the POP convention community. To identify the hazardous chemicals relevant for a given industrial sector and to strengthen the measures to control them, BREF reviews require extended frontloading, systematic identification of chemicals and reinforcing the BREF Technical Working Group (TWG) with knowledge on chemicals. The HAZBREF project further recommends including a specific chapter on chemicals in all BREFs and BAT conclusions and proposes the key topics to be addressed. The proposals of this report seem to fall within a favourable political context with the recently published European Green Deal that defines a new policy framework requiring a deep transformation for the EU’s economy for a sustainable future. One of the key commitments of the EGD is the EU’s zero pollution ambition for a non-toxic environment, which is supported by the Chemicals Strategy for Sustainability published in October 2020. The proposals made by the HAZBREF project would further strengthen the future BAT conclusions and support the IED in achieving the abovementioned EU policy objectives.
  • Soikkeli, Sirkka (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1981)
  • Kangas, Hanna-Liisa; Ruggiero, Salvatore; Annala, Salla; Ohrling, Tiina (Elsevier, 2021)
    Energy Research & Social Science 76, (2021), 102051
    To enter a market and scale up, entrant firms often need to cooperate with their incumbent competitors, so they are in coopetition with them. Our goal is to increase the understanding of the antecedents of coopetition and the ways in which new entrant firms navigate coopetitive tensions with incumbents. Moreover, we are interested in the impacts that coopetition has on the value creation and value appropriation of new entrant firms. So far, most literature on cooperation and coopetition in energy markets has provided the perspective of the incumbents. To study the issues empirically, we interviewed 15 demand response (DR) entrants. These firms operate in Finnish energy markets, providing automated DR services, in which Finland is a forerunner country. According to our results, collaboration between new entrant DR firms and energy incumbents was needed in order to establish the new markets. In addition, cooperation with incumbents was beneficial to DR entrants since they were able to gain new customers and increase the efficiency of their resource use due to, for example, common technological development activities. We found that the structure of energy markets was an important factor in shaping the market entry of DR entrants. According to our results, new entrants can enter electricity markets without much cooperation with the incumbents, but cooperation is necessary in natural monopoly district heating markets. As new EU regulations will enhance automated DR services, the results of this study have relevance in other EU Member States where automated DR markets have not yet been established.