Browsing by Subject "inflammasome"

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  • Cypryk, Wojciech; Nyman, Tuula A.; Matikainen, Sampsa (2018)
    Inflammasomes are intracellular protein complexes of pattern recognition receptors and caspase-1, with essential functions in regulating inflammatory responses of macrophages and dendritic cells. The primary role of inflammasomes is to catalyze processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta and IL-18. Recently, intracellular non-canonical inflammasome activation by caspases-4/5, which are also regulators of pyroptosis via processing gasdermin D, has been elucidated. Caspase-1, the effector protease of inflammasome complex, is also known to modulate secretion of large number of other proteins. Thereby, besides its known role in processing pro-inflammatory cytokines, the inflammasome turns into a universal regulator of protein secretion, which allows the danger-exposed cells to release various proteins in order to alert and guide neighboring cells. Majority of these proteins are not secreted through the conventional ER-Golgi secretory pathway. Instead, they are segregated in membrane-enclosed compartment and secreted in nanosized extracellular vesicles, which protect their cargo and guide it for delivery. Growing evidence indicates that inflammasome activity correlates with enhanced secretion of extracellular vesicles and modulation of their protein cargo. This inflammasome-driven unconventional, vesicle-mediated secretion of multitude of immunoregulatory proteins may constitute a novel paradigm in inflammatory responses. In this mini review we discuss the current knowledge and highlight unsolved questions about metabolic processes, signals, and mechanisms linking inflammasome activity with regulated extracellular vesicle secretion of proteins. Further investigations on this relationship may in the future help understanding the significance of extracellular vesicle secretion in inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, gouty arthritis, asthma, Alzheimer's and many others.
  • Nyman, Tuula A.; Lorey, Martina B.; Cypryk, Wojciech; Matikainen, Sampsa (2017)
    Introduction: The immune system is our defense system against microbial infections and tissue injury, and understanding how it works in detail is essential for developing drugs for different diseases. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics can provide in-depth information on the molecular mechanisms involved in immune responses.Areas covered: Summarized are the key immunology findings obtained with MS-based proteomics in the past five years, with a focus on inflammasome activation, global protein secretion, mucosal immunology, immunopeptidome and T cells. Special focus is on extracellular vesicle-mediated protein secretion and its role in immune responses.Expert commentary: Proteomics is an essential part of modern omics-scale immunology research. To date, MS-based proteomics has been used in immunology to study protein expression levels, their subcellular localization, secretion, post-translational modifications, and interactions in immune cells upon activation by different stimuli. These studies have made major contributions to understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in innate and adaptive immune responses. New developments in proteomics offer constantly novel possibilities for exploring the immune system. Examples of these techniques include mass cytometry and different MS-based imaging approaches which can be widely used in immunology.
  • Korhonen, Eveliina; Bisevac, Jovana; Hyttinen, Juha M. T.; Piippo, Niina; Hytti, Maria; Kaarniranta, Kai; Petrovski, Goran; Kauppinen, Anu (2020)
    PURPOSE. The cornea is continually exposed to highly energetic solar UV-B (280-320 nm). Our aim was to investigate whether UV-B triggers the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and the production of IL-1 beta and/or IL-18 in human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells. Additionally, we studied the capability of cis-urocanic acid (cis-UCA) to prevent inflammasome activation or alleviate inflammation through other signaling pathways. METHODS. HCE-2 cell line and primary HCE cells were primed using lipopolysaccharide or TNF-alpha. Thereafter, cells were exposed to UV-B before or after the addition of cis-UCA or caspase-1 inhibitor. Caspase-1 activity was measured from cell lysates by an enzymatic assay. IL-1 beta, IL-18, IL-6, IL-8, and NLRP3 levels were detected using the ELISA method from cell culture media. Additionally, intracellular NLRP3 levels were determined by the Western blot technique, and cytotoxicity was measured by the LDH assay. RESULTS. UV-B exposure significantly increased caspase-1 activity in TNF-alpha-primed HCE cells. This result was consistent with the concurrently induced IL-1 beta secretion. Both caspase-1 activity and release of IL-1 beta were reduced by cis-UCA. Additionally, UV-B stimulated the caspase-1-independent production of IL-18, an effect also reduced by cis-UCA. Cis-UCA decreased the release of IL-6, IL-8, and LDH in a time-dependent manner when administered to HCE-2 cells after UV-B exposure. CONCLUSIONS. Our findings demonstrate that UV-B activates inflammasomes in HCE cells. Cis-UCA can prevent the secretion of IL-1 beta and IL-18 and therapeutically reduces the levels of IL-6, IL-8, and LDH in UV-B-stressed HCE cells.