Browsing by Subject "information and communication technology"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-3 of 3
  • Hakalisto, Liisi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The topic of this thesis is to observe how the Centre Party of Finland (Suomen Keskusta), the Social Democratic Party of Finland (Suomen Sosialidemokraattinen Puolue, SDP) and the National Coalition Party (Kansallinen Kokoomus) have perceived the information and communication technology (ICT) and its role in the Finnish society between 1999 and 2015 in their party statements and manifestos. The role of ICT in the society is observed especially through the concepts of information society and digitalisation. The topic of this thesis thus ties into the broader 1990s and 2000s discussion on information society and digitalisation. The primary sources for the study include the Centre Party, the Social Democratic Party and the National Coalition Party's party programmes, general election manifestos, municipal election manifestos and party conference statements from 1999 to 2015. The primary sources are analysed by the following electoral terms: 1999-2003, 2003-2007, 2007-2011 and 2011-2015. The 2015 general election manifestos are also included in the set of primary materials, as are the government programmes for each electoral term. The role of government programmes in the study is to support the analysis of the party statements and manifestos. The parties' arguments and perceptions of information and communication technology are analysed using post-structural policy analysis. The main framework for the analysis is Carol Bacchi's What's the problem represented to be analysis. The objective of the thesis is to observe how the parties have represented information and communication technology as a policy problem in their statements, programmes and manifestos during each electoral term. In addition, the objective is to analyse both in the case of each party and between different parties how the problem representations are constructed, with which policy areas ICT is associated in the texts and how these problem representations change and evolve from one electoral term to the other. In addition to Bacchi's WPR-analysis, the analysis also draws from Kari Palonen's concept of politicisation which describes politics as action. In this thesis, the main function of politicisation is to describe how by politicising an issue, the parties open up both political space surrounding the politicised issue and also new opportunities for political action. The main findings of this thesis are that information and communication technology is represented in the parties' general election manifestos and party conference statements using two main representations; either as a means for solving existing social and public policy problems or as a part of a broader discourse on societal change. When represented as a means for solving existing social and public policy problems, ICT is discussed positively, optimistically and mostly to suit the perspective of the party's ideological standing. In the parties' statements and manifestos, the discourse on societal change is strongly tied into economic factors, such as the national competitiveness. ICT is depicted as a matter supporting and enhancing national competitiveness, and information society and digitalisation, in particular, as objectives that will strengthen future national competitiveness. Another finding is that the term “information society” disappears from the parties' manifestos and statements in the early 2010s, when the discussion surrounding ICT in the manifestos and statements shifts to digitalisation.
  • Bousquet, Jean; Schunemann, Holger J.; Hellings, Peter W.; Arnavielhe, Sylvie; Bachert, Claus; Bedbrook, Anna; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Brozek, Jan; Calderon, Moises; Canonica, G. Walter; Casale, Thomas B.; Chavannes, Niels H.; Cox, Linda; Chrystyn, Henry; Cruz, Alvaro A.; Dahl, Ronald; De Carlo, Giuseppe; Demoly, Pascal; Devillier, Phillipe; Dray, Gerard; Fletcher, Monica; Fokkens, Wytske J.; Fonseca, Joao; Gonzalez-Diaz, Sandra N.; Grouse, Lawrence; Keil, Thomas; Kuna, Piotr; Larenas-Linnemann, Desiree; Carlsen, Karin C. Lodrup; Meltzer, Eli O.; Mullol, Jaoquim; Muraro, Antonella; Naclerio, Robert N.; Palkonen, Susanna; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Price, David; Ryan, Dermot; Samolinski, Boleslaw; Scadding, Glenis K.; Sheikh, Aziz; Spertini, Francois; Valiulis, Arunas; Valovirta, Erkka; Walker, Samantha; Wickman, Magnus; Yorgancioglu, Arzu; Haahtela, Tari; Zuberbier, Torsten; MASK Study Grp (2016)
    The selection of pharmacotherapy for patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) depends on several factors, including age, prominent symptoms, symptom severity, control of AR, patient preferences, and cost. Allergen exposure and the resulting symptoms vary, and treatment adjustment is required. Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) might be beneficial for the assessment of disease control. CDSSs should be based on the best evidence and algorithms to aid patients and health care professionals to jointly determine treatment and its step-up or step-down strategy depending on AR control. Contre les MAladies Chroniques pour un VIeillissement Actif en Languedoc-Roussillon (MACVIA-LR [fighting chronic diseases for active and healthy ageing]), one of the reference sites of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing, has initiated an allergy sentinel network (the MACVIA-ARIA Sentinel Network). A CDSS is currently being developed to optimize AR control. An algorithm developed by consensus is presented in this article. This algorithm should be confirmed by appropriate trials.
  • Välimäki, Maritta; Anttila, Katriina; Anttila, Minna; Lahti, Mari (2017)
    Background: Although previous studies on information and communication technology (ICT)-based intervention on mental health among adolescents with depressive symptoms have already been combined in a number of systematic reviews, coherent information is still missing about interventions used, participants' engagement of these interventions, and how these interventions work. Objective: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of trials to describe the effectiveness of Web-based interventions to support adolescents with depression or depressive symptoms, anxiety, and stress. We also explored the content of the interventions, as there has previously been a lack of coherent understanding of the detailed content of the Web-based interventions for these purposes. Methods: We included parallel randomized controlled trials targeted at adolescents, or young people in the age range of 10 and 24 years, with symptoms or diagnoses of depression and anxiety. The interventions were from original studies aimed to support mental health among adolescents, and they were delivered via Web-based information and communication technology. Results: Out of 2087 records identified, 27 papers (22 studies) met the inclusion criteria. On the basis of a narrative analysis of 22 studies, a variety of Web-based interventions were found; the most commonly used intervention was based on cognitive behavioral therapy. Meta-analysis was further conducted with 15 studies (4979 participants). At the end of the intervention, a statistically significant improvement was found in the intervention group (10 studies) regarding depressive symptoms (P=.02, median 1.68, 95% CI 3.11-0.25) and after 6 months (3 studies; P=.01, median 1.78, 95% CI 3.20-0.37). Anxiety symptoms (8 studies; P Conclusions: Despite widely reported promises that information technology use is beneficial to adolescents with depression, the results of our review show only short-term effects on adolescents' mental well-being, whereas long-term effects remain questionable because of the limited number of studies reviewed. Information about the economic benefits of Web-based interventions is still lacking. The quality of the studies, especially biases related to attrition rates and selective reporting, still needs serious attention.