Browsing by Subject "infrared spectroscopy"

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  • Vainio, Markku (SPIE - the international society for optics and photonics, 2020)
    Proceedings of SPIE
    The atmospheric window at 3 to 5 mu m is one of the most important spectral regions for molecular spectroscopy. This region accommodates strong fundamental vibrational spectra of several interesting molecules, including species relevant for air quality monitoring, medical diagnostics, and fundamental research. These applications require excellent spectroscopic sensitivity and selectivity. For example, atmospheric research often needs precise quantification of trace gas fractions of down to the parts-per-trillion level (10(-12)), with the capability of resolving individual spectral features of different molecular compounds. This sets stringent requirements for the light source of the spectrometer in terms of output power, noise, and linewidth. In addition, the wavelength tuning range of the light source needs to be large, preferably over the entire atmospheric window, in order to enable measurements of molecular fingerprints of several compounds. Continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators (CW-OPOs) are one of the few light sources that have the potential of combining all these favorable characteristics. This contribution summarizes our progress in the development of CW-OPOs, with an emphasis on precise frequency control methods for high-resolution molecular spectroscopy. Examples of new applications enabled by the advanced CW-OPO technologies will be presented. These examples include a demonstration of world-record detection sensitivity in trace gas analysis, as well as the first characterization of infrared spectrum of radioactive methane (CH4)-C-14.
  • Wlodarski, Maksymilian; Putkonen, Matti; Norek, Malgorzata (2020)
    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a powerful technique to characterize the chemical structure and dynamics of various types of samples. However, the signal-to-noise-ratio drops rapidly when the sample thickness gets much smaller than penetration depth, which is proportional to wavelength. This poses serious problems in analysis of thin films. In this work, an approach is demonstrated to overcome these problems. It is shown that a standard IR spectroscopy can be successfully employed to study the structure and composition of films as thin as 20 nm, when the layers were grown on porous substrates with a well-developed surface area. In contrast to IR spectra of the films deposited on flat Si substrates, the IR spectra of the same films but deposited on porous ceramic support show distinct bands that enabled reliable chemical analysis. The analysis of Zn-S ultrathin films synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from diethylzinc (DEZ) and 1,5-pentanedithiol (PDT) as precursors of Zn and S, respectively, served as proof of concept. However, the approach presented in this study can be applied to analysis of any ultrathin film deposited on target substrate and simultaneously on porous support, where the latter sample would be a reference sample dedicated for IR analysis of this film.
  • Rieppo, Lassi; Kokkonen, Harri T.; Kulmala, Katariina A. M.; Kovanen, Vuokko; Lammi, Mikko J.; Töyräs, Juha; Saarakkala, Simo (2017)
    Collagen forms an organized network in articular cartilage to give tensile stiffness to the tissue. Due to its long half-life, collagen is susceptible to cross-links caused by advanced glycation end-products. The current standard method for determination of cross-link concentrations in tissues is the destructive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The aim of this study was to analyze the cross-link concentrations nondestructively from standard unstained histological articular cartilage sections by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy. Half of the bovine articular cartilage samples (n = 27) were treated with threose to increase the collagen cross-linking while the other half (n = 27) served as a control group. Partial least squares (PLS) regression with variable selection algorithms was used to predict the cross-link concentrations from the measured average FTIR spectra of the samples, and HPLC was used as the reference method for cross-link concentrations. The correlation coefficients between the PLS regression models and the biochemical reference values were r = 0.84 (p <0.001), r = 0.87 (p <0.001) and r = 0.92 (p <0.001) for hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP), lysyl pyridinoline (LP), and pentosidine (Pent) cross-links, respectively. The study demonstrated that FTIR microspectroscopy is a feasible method for investigating cross-link concentrations in articular cartilage. (C) The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI.