Browsing by Subject "inkluusio"

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  • Mattila, Satu (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to describe the factors that influence junior high age young people as they connect with friends and peer groups, especially from the view of a student who is somehow distinct from the group. The term somehow distinct is used to encompass the wide variety of factors that may influence an adolescent who is left to the fringes or totally outside of a peer group. As inclusion and multiculturalism increases in schools it is important to understand adolescent belief and value systems in order to create an atmosphere that is open to diversity and strengthens peer relationships at school. This study examines short essays by young people on the subject of being an outsider to their peer groups and the preconditions and terms of friendships. In addition, what circumstances support or prevent the ability to join a group and form friendships. In past years this topic has been researched from the point of view of the experiences of special needs students and of general adolescent peer relations. (Ellonen, 2008; Hoikkala & Paju 2013; Korkiamäki, 2014; Koster, Nakken , Pijl & van Houten 2009; Saarinen 2012). In this work the angle of approach is the thoughts and feelings that the somehow distinct adolescent brings out in the peers representing the majority of the group and how to support him/her in order to get to join the group and how to strengthen his/her social competence. Methods. For this study, data was collected from two secondary schools. The students were selected from one class at each school and a total of 49 students returned write-ups. Essays were prompted by four questions about what it means to be an outsider, what factors lead to being outside of the group and the conditions for the process of forming peer relations. Student essays were transcribed and sorted by theme. Themes that emerged were then interpreted by using content analysis. Results and conclusions. The research highlighted the challenges that diversity poses in adolescent groups. Young people looked for direction from adults and guidance in situations where someone was outside of the group. They also brought forth ideas how the social competence of a young person distinct from the group could be supported. Group dynamics and general social climate in the classroom seemed to influence how diversity was handled. There were subtle differences between boys and girls as far as what components supported and what prevented the forming of peer relations. Girls were especially influenced by outward appearances and favored the opinions of girls high up in the class social hierarchy as to who should be accepted in the group. Boys' ability to form peer relations were supported more by social skills and mutual conversation topics and hobbies.
  • Kaksonen, Venla Valerie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    In this study the focus is on the meanings of schooling that are constructed in the speech of students in special classes or special schools. The study also focuses on the subjectivities that are made possible to these students in the discourses enabled and limited by the practices of education. The theoretical background of the study is in feminist post structural studies and critical ability studies. The history of special needs education in Finland is examined as the background of the special education practices and the inclusion objective that affect more and more students at present. 15 students with special educational needs aged 11-16 years that went to school on a special class or in a special school were interviewed. Theme interview was chosen as the method of interview. The data was analyzed using discoursive-deconstructive reading, by which the discoursive meanings of schooling, possibilites of subjectification and dicothomic relations in the students' speech were examined. I approached the phenomenon by using the concept ableism in the process of deconstruction of the discoursively constructed meanings. Schooling in special class or special school appeared in the data as something that led to spatial and temporal differentiation from mainstream schooling and limited the possibilites of social relations. The silence regarding special educational needs was seen as difficulty to speak about these differentiating namings, but also as resistance to these namings. Meanings in which the students positioned themselves as studying in vocational schools after the comprehensive education were prominent in the data, and going to a vocational school appeared as self-evident in the students' speech. In the students' speech being bullied and the threat of it was closely connected to studying in a special school or special class. The students also repeated parts of professional statements about their educational difficulties as part of their subjectivity. Mainstream education was described as representing the ideals of ability. Students in special classes or schools were therefore forced to repeat the inadequaty in relation to these ideals of ability in school, which led the inadequaty to be a part of the subjectivites available to these students. Based on the results I suggest that in order for all students to be seen as normal, deconstruction of the ableist structures is needed. By this process of deconstruction, an onthology that is inviting to all can be formed.
  • Laasanen, Anni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives. Stable separate systems have been created for the intellectually disabled in our society. Integration in the educational path could act as a channel for social relations between the intellectually disabled and the general populace. I studied the realization of inclusion in the educational path by using the stages of integrativeness as presented by Moberg & Savolainen (2015). The stages are physical, functional, social and societal integrativeness. In my thesis I seek to find out which stages of integrativeness have been realized in the educational path of the mildly intellectually disabled and whether the stages of integrativeness have connections to the subjects present friendships. Methods. My research method was a narrative multi-case study. The subjects of my thesis were five mildly intellectually disabled young adult women. My data collection method was a semi-structured interview. The material was analyzed using a narrative analysis as presented by Polkinghorne (2005). In the narrative analysis the interviews were used to form narrative descriptions of the subjects educational paths. The narratives formed from the educational paths of the subjects were also used to search common factors. Results and conclusions. All research subjects had experienced physical integration and three subjects had also experienced functional integration during their educational path. One research subject had also experienced social integration during her educational path. Another subject had changed from general education to a special school. She had formed social relations in the special school and later in life in hobbies aimed at special education students. Separate systems are a useful resource in creating social relations, but the integration in the general education should be more comprehensive in order to produce social relations between different students.
  • Leivo, Elina (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The purpose of this research is to describe, analyse and interpret teachers' experiences of the Happy learning house model (HLH) and its functioning in learning and teaching. The functioning of the HLH is reflected against the national curriculum (2014) and the theory concerning individual learning styles, the conceptions of learning and assessment.The research concentrates on these areas as, looking at the functioning of the HLH, they are important part of learning and teaching. HLH model has been developed to support learning and teaching. In addition there is a belief that with its help the national curriculum will become more relevant to a child. Three teachers working in primary schools in Helsinki who had been using the HLH for a trial period took part in the research. Interview questions were based on theory. The three teachers had different kind of experiences of the HLH. All of them had set their own targets in the HLH together with the pupils at the beginning of the academic year. All three teachers had also spent some one on one time with pupils colouring the HLH and therefore monitored their progress. On top of that one of the teachers had brought into use the individual themes of the pupils. All three teachers agreed that HLH increases the individual attention each pupil gets and changes the culture of assessment. They felt HLH had helped them to know the pupils better and their interests and progress had become more visible. Teaching and learning itself hadn't changed considerably though except with one of the teachers. This was due to her bringing into use the individual themes. My research shows that when a pupil gets more individual attention with the help of the HLH it is linked to a better self-assessment of the pupils and it also increases the ability to be aware of their own strengths and weaknesses. This furthermore helps the pupil to have a better self-esteem. Using the individual themes in teaching clearly supports the new idea of conception of learning and it also affects assessment. Therefore when it comes to assessment teachers don't expect the same results and skills from all the pupils but rather stress the importance of understanding the learnt concept.
  • Seppälä, Mia (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Aims. Changes in society and educational development of the school have brought new challenges to the teacher's work. Studies in the past have shown that special education teachers experience stress more than other teachers. The aim of this study was to gain information on special class teacher's experiences of the succeeding and the challenges they encounter in their job in the special class and how they cope with the challenges. This study also examines the kind of views that special class teachers have towards the changes of their work. Methods. Themed interviews were used as a method of this qualitative research. The research material comprised of five interviews with special class teachers who had at least ten years' experience in teaching pupils at the special education class. The data were collected and transcribed in January 2017 and analyzed by using theory-based content analysis. Results and conclusions. The results showed that the special class teacher's work involves a wide range of challenges, but also the experiences of success. The experiences of succeeding were related mostly to the interaction between the special class teacher and the student. The main advantage of special class teaching was seen as a better chance of taking individuality into account and the challenges associated with socialization problems. The challenges of the special class teacher's work was seen ia pupils' heterogeneity and problem behaviour, increased non-teaching tasks and too demanding parents. Special class teachers felt that pupils have changed more challenging in recent years and the valuation of their work has weakened. With inclusion special class teachers' work was seen lying ahead of co-teaching in the future. Coping at work was seen to vary depending on a range of one's own life or the work strains. Special class teachers showed up a wide variety of ways to cope with the challenges and to improve their coping at work.
  • Jormanainen, Emmi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Aims. The City of Helsinki is developing the education of newly arrived immigrants towards inclusion of pupils in basic education in spite of separate reception classrooms. The aim of this study was to find out, how teachers define the concept of inclusion in relation to the instruction preparing for basic education. Moreover, the study was interested in teachers' experiences and expectations of this inclusive model. The aim was to find out about the kind of support teachers need when teaching newly arrived migrant pupils. Based on this study it is possible to develop preparatory education as well as further professional training to provide the appropriate support for teachers. Methods. The research was conducted through two group-interviews with six teachers altogether. The teachers worked as class teachers or subject teachers in two different schools. The inclusive model was put into practice in one of the two schools. In addition, the aims of the preparatory education in the City of Helsinki were established from an interview with a specialist from the Educational Department. The data of this study was analysed by means of qualitative content analysis and actantial analysis. Results and conclusions. The interviewees considered inclusion as responding to the aims of education and the changing social fabric in Finland. They believed the inclusive model to be an ethical way to teach newly arrived migrant pupils, as the model enables participation in the classroom and school community better than the separate reception classroom does. However, poor knowledge of Finnish was regarded as the most challenging factor affecting the activity of these pupils. Further practical guidance as well as clearer goals for education of newly arrived immigrants and teacher's role in it were required. Teachers also wished for sufficient resources and new kind of school structures to enable more efficient collaboration with colleagues and teaching assistants. Based on the results of this study it is possible to develop guidance and support for teachers to teach newly arrived migrant children in basic education. Moreover, the resources can be targeted to promoting teachers' know-how and positive attitude to support the participation and learning of newly arrived immigrants.
  • Rousu, Fanny (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Opettajat kohtaavat työssään päivittäin heterogeenisia ryhmiä, joiden oppilaat eroavat toisistaan niin tarpeiltaan kuin oppimistavoiltaan. Suomessa opettajiin ja heidän ammattitaitoonsa luotetaan, joka antaa opettajille mahdollisuuden toteuttaa työtään omalla tavallaan opetussuunnitelman puitteissa. Luokkahuoneessa tavoitteena on, että jokainen oppilas kehittyy. Jotta kehitystä tapahtuu, täytyy opettajien tuntea oppilaansa ja sitä kautta pystyttävä muokkaamaan työskentelytapojaan sekä materiaalejaan. Pedagogisia ratkaisuja, joita opettajat tekevät päivittäin luokkahuoneessa, kutsutaan eriyttämiseksi. Käytännössä eriyttämisellä tarkoitetaan opetuksen mukauttamista oppilaan taitotasoa vastaavaksi. Eriyttämisellä on kaksi suuntaa: ylöspäin ja alaspäin eriyttäminen. Ylöspäin eriyttämisellä tarkoitetaan opetusta, joka ottaa huomioon lahjakkaat ja nopeasti etenevät oppilaat, kun taas alaspäin eriyttämisellä viitataan opetukseen, joka ottaa huomioon esim. oppilaat, joilla on oppimisvaikeuksia tai tehostetun tuen tarve. Tämän tutkielman tavoitteena on kartoittaa peruskoulun ruotsinopettajien kokemuksia liittyen alaspäin eriyttämiseen. Tutkimuskysymykset ovat seuraavat: 1) Millaisia metodeja ruotsinopettajat käyttävät eriyttäessään opetustaan alaspäin?, 2) Millaisia materiaaleja ruotsinopettajan käyttävät eriyttäessään opetustaan alaspäin? ja 3) Millaisia haasteita ruotsinopettajat kohtaavat liittyen alaspäin eriyttämiseen?. Tutkimus toteutettiin lomaketutkimuksena ja vastaukset analysoitiin kvalitatiivisesti. Vastauksia tuli yhteensä 39 kappaletta. Keskeisimmät tutkimustulokset osoittavat, että ruotsinopettajat pitävät alaspäin eriyttämistä tärkeänä ja he toteuttavat sitä opetuksessaan päivittäin, jos ei jopa jokaisella oppitunnillaan. Metodit, joita opettajat käyttävät liittyvät suurimmaksi osaksi tehtäviin, joita tehdään sekä tunneilla että kotona, sekä kokeisiin. Tehtäviä ja kokeita muokataan siten, että oppilaat voivat työskennellä omalla tasollaan. Esim. säätämällä tehtävien määrää, vaikeusastetta tai aikaa, jota niiden tekemiseen käytetään, voivat oppilaat itse valita heille parhaiten sopivan työskentelytavan. Myös tietotekniikkaa, erilaisia pelejä ja leikkejä sekä visuaalisia keinoja hyödynnetään. Opettajat tekevät myös paljon omia materiaaleja täydentämään oppikirjan tarjoamia materiaaleja. Erot oppikirjasarjojen sekä etenkin A- ja B-ruotsin välillä voivat olla hyvinkin suuret. Suurimmaksi haasteeksi opettajat nimesivät ajan puutteen. Koska opettajat joutuvat itse tekemään ja muokkaamaan materiaaleja opetustaan varten, vaatii se heiltä motivaatiota, resursseja ja aikaa. Oppitunneilla opetukselta vie aikaa myös esim. työrauhan ylläpitäminen. Tuki, jota voi saada eriytyisopettajilta, koulunkäyntiavustajilta tai kollegoilta, vaihtelee koulun omien resurssien mukaan. Suurimmaksi osaksi opettajat joutuvat selviämään yksin suurienkin ryhmien kanssa. Myös aineenopettajien koulutuksen toivottiin olevan kattavampi, jotta esim. erilaiset oppimisvaikeudet tulisivat tutuiksi jo ennen työelämään astumista.
  • Forss, Krista (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    In the context of education, ADHD has already been studied quite a bit. However, the way that teachers understand the ADHD diagnosis and what kind of image they create in their speech about children diagnosed with ADHD has received less attention. The purpose of this thesis is to find out what kind of meanings teachers generate for the ADHD diagnosis and what kind of image teachers create about children diagnosed with ADHD. It is important to study the way teachers speak because the way they speak can have either a positive or negative impact on the well-being and learning of children diagnosed with ADHD. I have collected the material for my thesis through an e-form, which has been answered by 70 teachers working in early childhood education and basic education. Respondents to the form were found through social media. The form consisted of open-ended questions and the data was analyzed using discourse analysis methods. I identified a total of six interpretive repertoires for the diagnosis of ADHD: diagnosis as evidence of medical background, diagnosis as a provider of understanding, diagnosis as an explanation of behaviour, diagnosis as a provider of support, diagnosis as a possible label, and diagnosis as a questionable phenomenon. The diagnosis appeared to be mainly necessary and good in these interpretive repertoires, but the possible negative effects of the diagnosis were also brought up. A total of six subject positions were produced for a child diagnosed with ADHD: patient, different child, troublemaker, child in need of support, labelled child and ordinary child / misunderstood child. Teachers described children diagnosed with ADHD mainly through problems and challenges, but the writings also conveyed an empathic attitude towards the child. I hope this thesis will inspire teachers to reflect on their ways of speaking and to think about the origins and consequences of the meanings they have given to the diagnosis.
  • Uuksulainen, Anniina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The aim of this master`s thesis was to study which kind of experiences of a sense of belonging, students with special needs have in their school. The students studies take place both within a special education classroom, as well integrated to basic education classrooms. The subject of the study is approached with the next questions: 1. How do student`s relationships to teachers and to students, create experiences of a sense of belonging, 2. Which things prevent the student from experiencing a sense of belonging, 3. How does the school climate influence the student`s satisfaction of being at school. The previous studies show that student`s relationship to their teacher, relationship to other students, and behaviour modification, create experiences which deliver a sense of belonging to students with special needs (Juvonen 2006). Studies have also found that an inclusive school climate, can affect positively to the sense of belonging of students with special needs. This is a qualitative phenomenological research. For this study, five secondary school students with special needs were interviewed on their experiences regarding a sense of belonging. The data was collected by semi-structured theme interviews. The collected data was analysed with theory-based content analysis, which was mainly based on Juvonen`s (2006) theory about a sense of belonging. The results of this study show that all the students with special needs, who participated, experienced a sense of belonging for their school. The results were similar to previous studies which show that the positive experiences of the teachers, assistants and students, created experiences of a sense of belonging to the student with special needs. The results of this study suggest that the school where these five students with special needs study, was inclusive. This is convergent with previous studies, which show that inclusive school climates can affect positively on the sense of belonging of the students with special needs.
  • Ipunen, Tuula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The purpose of my previous research (minor laudatur thesis, year 2005) was to clarify how the comprehensive school and the Steiner school approach the special education pupil as well as to examine what sorts of similarities and differences there are between the Steiner education and special education. Through my thesis I also attempt to examine how the ideologies/intellectual worlds and teachings of the Steiner school and the comprehensive school could be combined and brought closer to one another as well as how the best parts of both schools could be combined in order to take advantage of them in both schools. The research was implemented as a review of literature. At the beginning of my research the ideology and development of inclusion, integration and inclusive upbringing are examined as the basis for the next chapter, in which the concept of man is examined from the viewpoint of special education. I discuss the idea of man on the basis of four central principles. These principles are human dignity, integrity, the right of self-determination and participation in life and society. The fourth chapter provides a detailed introduction to the concept of man from the viewpoint of the Steiner education. First the points of departure and bases of value of the Steiner education are discussed, and then on the basis of these the idea of man and man's different aspects of being in the Steiner education are discussed, as well as the development rhythms and the seven year stages of the child. I examine the differences between these two educations by comparing their ideas of man. The Steiner education is based on Steiner's educational views and the concept of man, upon which these views are based. The concept of man guides the raising and education of the child and is thus also strongly connected to how the special education pupil is approached in the Steiner school. I consider the fourth chapter to be of particular importance for the reader because it is there that I discuss the concept of man of Steiner education as well as the development rhythms of the child, among other things. Without becoming acquainted with the concept of man of Steiner education it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to understand methods used in approaching the special education pupil, such as temperament training and form drawing. The concept of man of special education also creates the basis for how a pupil requiring special support is approached in the comprehensive school. The fifth chapter discusses methods used in approaching a pupil requiring special support in the Steiner school. The sixth chapter discusses methods used in approaching a pupil requiring special support in the comprehensive school. At the end of this research I attempt, on the basis of the comparison between these two educations, to disclose the similarities and differences of them in approaching the special education pupil. I complemented my minor laudatur thesis by taking in account the 3-phased support model.
  • Ruponen, Taru (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Objectives. The subject of this study is special education students in musical instrument teaching. The task is to find out instrument teachers' thoughts of different types of learners and their teaching, teachers' views on their abilities to teach special education students and what kind of support teachers possibly need in teaching students with special needs. The main questions of this study are: 1. What kind of views musical instrument teachers have of different types of learners. 2. Do instrument teachers have qualification to teach students with special needs? 3. What kind of support musical instrument teachers possibly need to teach special education students. Methods. This is a quantitative study, and the data is gathered by using a survey. The study was supplemented with qualitative material by giving the answerers an opportunity to tell about their thoughts of the subject also in their own words. 60 instrument teachers in different parts of Finland answered the survey. The survey was made in the fall 2014. The analysis was made by using Microsoft Excel 2008 and IBM SPSS 22.0 Statistics programs. Results and conclusions. Based on this study, musical instrument teachers views about different kinds of learners are mainly positive or neutral. There were no such factors in the teachers' attitudes and views of disablement and difference that would hinder them in teaching all kinds of students. The majority of answerers has taught special education student at some point and viewed it positively. Yet the teachers do not have a strong confidence in their own or their colleagues' ability to teach students with special needs. Main reason to this seems to be a lack of education. Yet the majority of the teachers are ready to teach 1-2 special education students also in the future if required. In this they wish the most to get consultation from a special education or music therapy specialist. Secondly they wish to get professional guidance and short training. The third wish in their answers was support from colleagues and the principal. They also wished co-operation with the parents. As a conclusion, musical instrument teachers would need education, instructions and support from specialists, principals and colleagues and co-operation with parents, in teaching special education students.
  • Vesander, Jaakko (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Aims. The number of students with special needs in mainstream classes in Finland has been steadily rising in recent years. The purpose of this study was to determine how well the class teachers, subject teachers and special education teachers feel that they succeed in their work when dealing with students with special needs and what are the things that impact their level of competence. Particular attention was paid to how the special education studies and teaching experience affect teachers' skills in relation to teaching special need students.The research was carried out as a part of a project focused on clarifying the state of teaching students with special needs in Finland today, and later to take advantage of this knowledge to arrange further training and education for teachers. Methods. The study was conducted using quantitative research methods. The data was a random sample collected with a questionnaire from schools in a Finnish city. The questionnaire was responded by class teachers and subject teachers (N= 118), responses were analyzed using SPSS-software. Statistical parameters were used in describing the teachers' level of competence in different areas of teaching students with special needs. The impact of special education studies on teachers competences were tested using one-way variance analysis. The impact of general teaching experience on teachers' competences was examined with Mann-Whitneys U-test and the impact of special teaching experience on teachers' competences was examined with independent samples t-test. Results and conclusions. The results showed that teachers who had completed basic studies in special education or extensive special education studies, rated their skills significantly stronger than the teachers who had completed only the basic course in special education or who hadn't completed any special education studies at all. The mere completion of the special education basic course didn't seem to have almost any effect on teachers' competences when compared with the teachers' who hadn't completed any special education studies at all. The amount of general teaching experience had only little effect on teachers' competences. However special teaching experience had a significant impact on teachers' competences.
  • Viitanen, Milka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of children with special needs in the context of inclusive early childhood special education. In addition the other interest was to investigate the relationship between cognitive skills, behavioral and emotional skills and play behavior. The three research questions were: (1) How did the children´s cognitive and language skills, behavioral and emotional skills and play behavior develop over the course of one year? (2) How did the cognitive and language skills, behavioral and emotional skills and play behavior differ between the status groups? (3) What kind of relationship was there between the different skills? While little research has been done on the different settings of support in the Finnish early day care system, internationally several studies have been conducted about inclusive and exclusive special education. According to Rogow (1991) and Wong and Kasari (2012) children with special needs benefit social play with other kids without special needs. Previous research has highlighted the importance of play in children´s learning. Play is a way to learn cognitive and academic skills in early childhood (Bodrova, 2008). Data on 84 children attending inclusive day care in Helsinki was collected during 2016–2018. The children were supported in normal day care by an early childhood special needs teacher. The children’s special educational needs were divided into status groups: language disorder, self-regulation difficulties and severe disabilities. The data consisted of assessments of cognitive and language skills (Nepsy, WPPSI-III), behavioral and emotional skills (PreBers) and play behavior (PPBS) conducted by early childhood special education teachers. The data was analyzed by quantitative methods. The development of children was analyzed by the repeated measures ANOVA and The Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Differences between status groups were analyzed by Kruskall–Wallis H test and Mann-Whitney U –test. The relationships between variables were analyzed by Spearman’s correlation. The cognitive skills, behavioral and emotional skills and play behavior development of children were statistically significant. The language skills development was not statistically significant. There were statistically significant differences between status groups in many variables. Relations between different skills were high and statistically significant. Social communication had high relation between play behavior and emotional regulation. Relation between social communication and play in the childhood should be taken into account in early childhood settings.
  • Sinivaara, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives. The aim of this study was to examine the development of cognitive, language and play skills of special needs children, who participate either in integrated special group or in a regular group receiving the help of early childhood education special needs teacher. The three research questions were: 1. What kind of differences appear when comparing the development of children with special needs in the integrated special day care group and children with special needs in a regular day care group with the support of early childhood education special needs teacher, with subquestions a) what were the differences between peer children, children in the integrated special day care group and regular day care group special needs children at the start of the study, b) what differences appear in the development of skills in different status groups? 2. What kind of differences appear between girls and boys? 3. How do the skills of peer children and special needs children advance? This study utilizes the Attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969) to discuss children’s social attachment and the effect of peer interaction. This study is a part of LASSO-project. Methods. The study was conducted by combining two sections of the LASSO-project. The data consisted of parts of the WPPSI-III and NEPSY-II intelligence and neuropsychological tests and Play School Play Behavior Scale. These tests were used to measure children’s cognitive, language and play skills. The children were between three to seven years old during the study (N = 366). The data was analysed with repeated measures two-way ANOVA, non-parametric Friedman’s, Kruskall-Wallis -, Mann Whitney U -tests and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient with SPSS 25 -tool. Results and conclusions. The study revealed that there were differences in the development of different group forms and between status groups. The peer children were ahead in skill development when comparing them with group form or status group. The children who received the support of early childhood education special needs teacher had better skills comparing to the children in integrated special day care group. The children with severe disabilities had the lowest scores among status groups. There was a positive albeit mediocre correlation between cognitive and language skills as well as positive correlation between social play variable and cognitive and language skills. Based on the results it would seem that special needs children could benefit being in a regular day care group with the support of the early childhood education special needs teacher.
  • Vilhunen, Milla Helena (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The aim of this master's thesis is to examine the formation of special in the speech of teachers. The theoretical framework is based on the stance that people try to make sense of the world by perspective of normal. However, to be normal is possible only if something is deviant from it. When it comes to schools, these lines between normal and deviant have been seen to be linked to the relation of mainstream education and special-education. The interest of this study is to analyse, how the special is formed in the speech of teachers when there is more and more students in special education and when the official direction is to bring mainstream education and special-education together by constructing teaching of all students in the same classroom. The research data is formed by interviewing special- and class-/subject-teachers. The interviews were constructed as groups, one included special -teachers and the other one class-/subject-teachers. There where total of seven interviewees. The interviews followed the rules of theme interview. I have analyzed the data by using discourse analysis. According to my results the special were formed as maladjustment, certain problems, imperfection and change. The lines between normal and special operated on the other hand between all students and on the other hand the lines were situated only between certain students, them being the students in the special education class and the students in the mainstream class. When it comes to the consequence of special it was the situation of the student that were concerned. The conclusions of this research suggest the persistence of some categories in schools and the place as an essential component for defining the lines between normal and special. Worth noticing is also the ways that showed the possibility of negotiation.
  • Halinen, Hannamari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study examines and describes sense of belonging of seventeen preschoolers in groups where art education is the main support for children with special educational needs to support their learning and developing. Children were interviewed twice in autumn and in spring. Preschool groups were part of Taikava-project and in all groups art educators were working every weekday in early childhood education instead of group assistants. Art educators were working with other early childhood educators. This study examines possibilities to support children with art education and especially in sense of belonging. The theoretic part of this study is about the possibilities of art education to support children with special needs. In Vantaa there has been quite similar project before, TaikaVoima, but the art educators did not work fulltime in day care centers in that project. TaikaVoima- projects results proved to encourage children with special needs and affirm the sense of belonging in their groups. This study has both qualitative and quantitative data and results. In this study there were 17 preschoolers interviewed twice in a year. Seven of these children were having special educational needs. Additionally it was examined kindergarten teachers perceptions of children's behavior and art educators and kindergarten teachers group work about the challenges and the targets for the first year of the project. Children's experiences were scrutinized with three different material by method of triangulation. This qualitative research has phenomenological and hermeneutical features. It is researching the world in which preschoolers are living in, and their experiences in their groups and the meaning of their experiences. The awareness and knowledge of preschoolers about their own skills and abilities and challenges did deepen during the interviews. Children had learned new social skills and skills to express themselves with art educators. Children need more support from educators to understand the needs of other children and to learn to help and take others in to account. Children were positive surprised of the help that other children gave them. They were also surprised of the new friends and games that came out if educators decided playmates.
  • Marttila, Hanna (2019)
    Tutkin inklusiivisen musiikkikasvatuksen tutkimuskirjallisuutta 2000-luvulla. Tutkimuskysymykseni ovat: 1) Millaista inkluusiota koskevaa tutkimusta musiikkikasvatuksen tieteenalalla on tehty viimeisen kahdenkymmenen vuoden aikana? 2) Tarjoaako tutkimustieto työkaluja inklusiivisen musiikkiluokan saavuttamiseen käytännössä? Tämä kandidaatintutkielma on kvalitatiivinen eli laadullinen tutkimus ja se on toteutettu systemaattisena kirjallisuuskatsauksena. Keskeisiä käsitteitä tutkimuksessa ovat inkluusio ja yhdenvertaisuus. Tärkeimmät tutkimustulokset osoittavat, että inklusiivista musiikkikasvatusta on jo tutkittu paljon tapaustutkimusten muodossa, mutta tutkimusta juuri koulun musiikkituntien käytännöstä ja inkluusion toteutumisesta tällä kentällä ei ole vielä tarpeeksi. Tutkimus myös tarjoaa uusia lähestymistapoja inkluusion käytännön toteuttamiseen, mutta vastauksia joudutaan vielä etsimään paljon muista tieteistä. Tarvitsemme lisää tutkimusta poliittisista päätöksistä aina käytännön luokkatyöhön asti, jotta osaamme arvioida, mikä inkluusion tila nykyisessä musiikkikasvatuksessa on. Inkluusio tarvitsee proaktiivisen yhteiskunnan ja koulutusta aiheesta tarvitaan vielä paljon.
  • Häkkänen, Iida (2019)
    Tässä tutkimuksessa tutkin inkluusion toteutumista musiikkikasvatuksessa. Tarkoituksena oli selvittää, miten inkluusiota on käsitelty musiikkikasvatuksen tutkimuksessa sekä pohtia inklusiivisia käytänteitä musiikkikasvatuksessa. Tutkimuskysymykset ovat: 1) Miten inkluusiota on käsitelty musiikkikasvatuksen tutkimuksessa? 2) Miten inklusiivisia käytänteitä voidaan toteuttaa musiikkikasvatuksessa? Tutkimus suoritettiin systemaattisena kirjallisuuskatsauksena ja sillä oli laadullinen painotus. Aineistona käytin tieteellisiä kirjoja sekä vertaisarvioituja artikkeleita. Eettisestä näkökulmasta tutkimukseni aihe on merkittävä, sillä tasa-arvo on ajankohtainen muustakin kuin pedagogisesta näkökulmasta. Tutkimustulokset kertoivat siitä, että nykyinen musiikinopettajankoulutus tarvitsisi päivitystä ja laajennusta, jotta kaikilla opettajilla olisi mahdollisuudet inklusiiviseen musiikkikasvatukseen. Suurimpana haasteena ilmenivät kuitenkin asenteet erilaisia oppijoita kohtaan. Asenteita pitäisi saada muutettua, jotta tasa-arvoinen oppiminen ja sitä kautta inkluusion toteutuminen olisi todella mahdollista. Musiikkikasvatuksella on mahdollisuudet vaikuttaa asenteisiin ja erilaisuuden hyväksymiseen sekä yksilöllisellä tasolla että yhteiskunnallisesti. Musiikkikasvattajien ja musiikkikasvattajien kouluttajien on laajennettava ajatteluaan niin, että totuttujen toimintatapojen sijaan pystyttäisiin luomaan uusia pedagogisia toimintamalleja.
  • Lassila, Anni (2020)
    Tutkimuksessani selvitin, miten inkluusio käsitetään musiikkikasvatuksen tutkimuskirjallisuudessa, ja millaisia tekijöitä inklusiivisen musiikkikasvatuksen toteutumiseen liittyy. Inkluusio on yksi keskeisimmistä musiikkikasvattajan työhön vaikuttavista kasvatusmaailman ilmiöistä. Käsittelin tutkimuksessani inklusiivista kasvatusta ihmisyyden moninaisuuden näkökulmasta, jossa tavoitteena on huomioida kaikki erilaiset oppijat. Tutkimuskysymykseni olivat: 1) Miten inkluusio käsitetään musiikkikasvatuksen tutkimuskirjallisuudessa? 2) Millaisia tekijöitä inklusiivisen musiikkikasvatuksen toteutumiseen liittyy? Tutkimukseni käsitteellisessä viitekehyksessä kerron inkluusion periaatteiden taustalla vaikuttavista kasvatuksen tavoitteista ja niihin liittyvien ajatusmallien muutoksesta. Avaan yhdenvertaisuutta kasvatuksen tavoitteena ja tarkastelen erilaisen oppijuuden käsitettä. Tarkastelen kriittisesti integraatiota opetuksen toimintamallina, jolle inklusiivinen kasvatus nähdään vaihtoehtona. Tutkimukseni on systemaattinen kirjallisuuskatsaus. Esitin tutkimuskysymykseni 2000- luvun musiikkikasvatuksen kotimaiselle ja kansainväliselle tutkimuskirjallisuudelle. Tarkastelin aineistoa tutkimustehtäväni ja –kysymysteni näkökulmista, ja muodostin keskeisimmistä havainnoista tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Tutkimukseni tulokset osoittavat, että musiikkikasvatuksen tutkimuskirjallisuudessa inkluusio käsitetään oppijoiden yksilöllisten tarpeiden huomioimisena ja yksittäisiin piirteisiin perustuvan luokittelun purkamisena. Inkluusion tavoite on edistää kaikkien oppijoiden yhdenvertaisuutta. Inklusiivisen musiikkikasvatuksen keskeisiä lähtökohtia ovat inklusiivisiin arvoihin sitoutuminen, saavutettava sekä fyysisesti ja henkisesti esteetön opetus, oppijoiden osallistaminen ja toimijuuden kasvattaminen, kasvatuksen ammattilaisten välinen yhteistyö ja jatkuva kriittinen reflektio.
  • Murto, Petri (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    The purpose of this study is to review the experiences of four elementary school teachers about physical education classes. How do they perceive and act in a situation, where there is a physically disabled student in the group? The interviewees were chosen specifically, and they all have experience in teaching disabled students. The research questions were divided into four themes. The themes are: Inclusion in physical education, differentiation in physical education, and their pros and cons from the teacher's perspective. The study is a qualitative case study. The data consisted of four interviews with elementary school teachers who teach physical education. The analysis of the collected data was done through content analysis and phenomenographic analysis. In all interviews, the importance of including the disabled student into the activities was emphasized. Also the value of maintaining differences and careful differentiation were highlight-ed. The teachers emphasized that inclusion should not be done only because it sounds good. The inclusion in physical education should always be relevant from the student's perspective. The study focuses on opinions and experiences of the interviewees. The objective was not to reach generalizable results, but to give a thorough description of a phenomenon.