Browsing by Subject "innovation policy"

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  • Rannikko, Heikki (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2012)
    Economics and Society – 240
    This study participates in several discussions on new technology-based firms, both from a population-level viewpoint and a firm-level viewpoint. The overall objective of this study is to examine how new technology-based firms grow. For the population level research this study provides new knowledge by analysing growth, and high growth, in the context of new technology-based firms. As a firm level phenomenon the present study provides new knowledge, both for the behavioural orientation literature and the resource dependence literature, by examining the possible causes and implications of entrepreneurial orientation and external resource mobilisation. The results of the descriptive empirical analysis picture the group of technology-based firms as a distinct sector of the economy. The emphasis on technology is shown through the finding that new technology-based firms’ managers value the distinction of technology over other business goals. Concerning growth patterns it is found that only a minority of new firms experience high annual growth, that growth is erratic and that it may take a long time for a new technology-based firm to achieve growth. The testing of the theoretical model suggests that entrepreneurial orientation is positively associated with growth performance and that the experienced growth performance is positively associated with entrepreneurial orientation. In conclusion, it seems that positive experiences in the past reinforce entrepreneurial orientation, which further strengthens the development of a firm. Concerning moderating factors it is found that technological distinctiveness modifies the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and growth. The finding hints that entrepreneurship (risk-taking, boldness and pro-activeness) is more beneficial with strategies in which technological excellence and sophistication are not the top priority. In support of the resource dependence argument, it was found that financial resource mobilisation is positively associated with growth. The findings further give support for the view that embeddedness in a firm community of practice is associated with a higher level of resource mobilisation in a firm level. Concerning financial resource mobilisation, the results suggest that there is a positive association, both between identification with a community of practice and financial resource mobilization and between nature of co-operation in a community of practice and financial resource mobilisation. Towards operational resource mobilisation similar associations were not found. Overall, these results contribute to the innovation policy discussion by suggesting that hands-on innovation policy interventions may have firm-level effects, in addition to those of technological and business learning. The results suggest indirectly that supporting firms to create and maintain close ties with their exchange partners within a community of practice may lead to improved resource mobilisation e.g. through increased awareness of firm participants. This discovery contributes both to the research on innovation policy interventions and to the research on a more nuanced view of the resource dependence perspective.
  • Snell, Karoliina (2019)
    In Finland, as well as all over the globe, great weight is put on the possibilities of large data collections and ‘big data’ for generating economic growth, enhancing medical research, and boosting health and wellbeing in totally new ways. This massive data gathering and usage is justified by the moral principle of improving health. The imperative of health thus legitimizes data collection, new infrastructures and innovation policy. It is also supported by the rhetoric of health promotion. New arrangements in health research and innovations in the health sector are justified, as they produce health, while the moral principle of health also obligates individual persons to pursue healthy lifestyles and become healthy citizens. I examine how, in this context of Finnish data-driven medicine, arguments related to privacy and autonomy become silenced when contrasted with the moral principle of health.
  • Kivimaa, Paula; Rogge, Karoline S. (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Research Policy
    While experimentation is at the heart of sustainability transitions, little attention has been paid to policy experimentation and its effects in advancing transitions. Drawing on the literatures on policy experimentation and institutional change in the context of sustainability transitions, we analyse an in-depth case study of the development of Mobility as a Service (MaaS) in Finland – one of the first countries globally to advance MaaS by government support. Our findings show how a potentially disruptive innovation, MaaS, can be traced back to a longer process of administrative reorientation and restructuring, i.e. gradual transformation in institutions, and has benefitted from cycles of policy experimentation, combined with the sequencing of policy strategies and further changes in the policy mix. Administrative restructuring has enabled policy experimentation that has led - via new vision building, networking and learning - to major regulatory change allowing market creation for MaaS. We conclude that the dynamics of policy mixes in transitions are influenced by short-term policy experimentation and long-term institutional change. More generally, institutional change is vital for enabling a favourable context for policy experimentation in sustainability transitions that in turn provides cognitive and normative learning to inform further institutional change.
  • Pihlajamaa, Matti (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The competitiveness in global competition is increasingly more dependent on the ability to create unique products and services. This is achieved through innovation. Innovation is a highly knowledge intensive activity, which requires combining different types of knowledge. Firms require many types of specialized knowledge that they cannot produce themselves. Moreover, knowledge often has a tacit element, which reduces its supply in the market. This calls for collaborative links among firms and between firms and institutions. Knowledge is exchanged, transferred and shared through non-market based knowledge networks. Those organizations which exploit networks as a source of knowledge gain competitive advantage over those which do not. Organizations often underinvest in forming and sustaining network relations. This justifies the public support of networking as part of innovation policy. The current study examines the microstructure of knowledge diffusion and innovation processes and aims to find guidelines for innovation policy design from this perspective. Its goals are to find out (1) what role do knowledge sharing networks play in innovation, (2) how does the micro-level structure of knowledge transfer interactions affect the overall performance of an economic system and (3) what are the implications of the analysis of knowledge sharing networks on innovation policy design? The current study is a theoretical examination on these subjects. Knowledge networks are found to function as extensions to the innovation resources and capabilities of economic agents. The availability of knowledge positively influences innovation in all stages: invention, innovation and diffusion. The benefits from networks include e.g. overcoming path dependency in the direction of technological development, learning about market needs and influencing customer preferences. Agent-based models of the diffusion of knowledge in networks suggest that the structure of a knowledge sharing network and the capabilities of economic agents have an effect on the performance of the network. The best performance is achieved in 'small-world' networks which consist of tightly interrelated groups of agents which have some contacts with other groups. Limitations on the learning capabilities of the agents may prevent knowledge sharing. If the agents require a shared knowledge base to be able to communicate with each other, providing all agents with some basic level of knowledge will ease communication and facilitate the diffusion of knowledge. Innovation policy based on the knowledge network analysis can be divided into promoting the creation of small-world networks and removing barriers to communication between agents. Small-world networks can be understood as local networks such as business clusters or non-local networks such as research networks or professional networks. Barriers to communication can be removed by improving the learning abilities of agents (means to learn) and promoting investments in collaboration (incentives to learn). The policy measures associated with the issues are various. Much attention is paid to providing a suitable institutional set-up which eases networking and knowledge transfer. Many of the relevant policy measures are complementary and should be adopted as packages. Changing one policy variable might have no effect if other variables are not changed at the same time. Furthermore, the knowledge networks are often technology or industry specific and technology neutral policies may overlook their needs. Thus the technology neutral policy measures should be supplemented by technology-specific measures. The identification of bottlenecks in technology-specific networks is needed in order to choose the best policy measure(s). According to a technological innovation system framework, technology fields should be evaluated on functionality: how a technological innovation system fulfils certain common criteria that are considered necessary for the development of innovations in a field. This evaluation helps choose which policy measures should be implemented.
  • Ghosh, Bipashyee; Kivimaa, Paula; Ramirez, Matias; Schot, Johan; Torrens, Jonas (Oxford University Press, 2021)
    Science and Public Policy, 48, 5, October 2021, 739–756
    The impending climate emergency, the Paris agreement and Sustainable Development Goals demand significant transformations in economies and societies. Science funders, innovation agencies, and scholars have explored new rationales and processes for policymaking, such as transformative innovation policy (TIP). Here, we address the question of how to orient the efforts of science, technology, and innovation policy actors to enable transformations. We build on sustainability transitions research and a 4-year co-creation journey of the TIP Consortium to present twelve transformative outcomes that can guide public policy agencies in evaluating and reformulating their projects, programmes, and policies. We illustrate the transformative outcomes in two empirical cases: transitions towards mobility-as-a-service in the Finnish transport system and the emergence of speciality coffee in Colombia. We argue that the twelve transformative outcomes can guide public policy agents to fundamentally transform their ways of thinking and operation in advancing transformative change.
  • Kivimaa, Paula (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions
    Historically STI policy is connected to national security and the military. Yet, contemporary innovation policy is rarely discussed in a security context. This perspective argues that new, transformation-oriented innovation policies should more explicitly consider (a) the side-effects of policies on global security and (b) how the global security context influences the achievement of transitions. This need is further extrapolated by the current period of rapid major shifts in the global security landscape. The perspective suggests that policymakers should be proactive in setting criteria and evaluating the security implications of innovation and transitions. Innovation policy should anticipate the side-effects of innovation and transitions. It should also be flexible. This means reflection on the different positive uses and cascading effects of innovations for transitions, and responses to geopolitical developments. Improved dialog between innovation policymakers and other policy domains, and between scholars from different disciplines is vital.