Browsing by Subject "innovation"

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  • Segercrantz, Beata Ulrica; Sveiby, Karl-Erik; Berglund, Karin (Edward Edgar, 2017)
    The chapter explores the academic management discourse of innovation in high impact articles. Innovation is approached as a discursive terrain where discourses compete to ascribe meanings to innovation. The study shows that innovation is mainly constructed as a positive concept in management literature and the chapter broadens the scope by analysing and problematizing the academic management discourse of innovation. More specifically, the analysis shows that management research of innovation is self-referential; it primarily focuses on benefits for the innovating organization by promoting accelerated innovation, effective self-preservation practices and a faith in the good result of innovation. What is constructed here is a potential self-reinforcing circle driving organizations to innovate faster and faster. The authors argue that research needs to acknowledge and explore what innovation leads to beyond the immediate economic interests of organizations. This would help scholars to identify blind spots, and to invite research which rejects the pro-innovation bias in order to extend research agendas to also include undesirable effects of innovation and possibilities to reduce them.
  • Korhonen, Jaana; Giurca, Alexandru; Brockhaus, Maria; Toppinen, Anne (2018)
    To foster innovativeness for supporting (forest-based) bioeconomy development, participation in decision-making and interaction between diverse actors become a necessary precondition for designing and implementing transition policies. However, who forms the emerging policy networks, and which policy beliefs are promoted? Based on data from a national online survey, we performed a quantitative social network analysis to investigate emerging social structures and policy beliefs in the context of the Finnish forest-based bioeconomy. Our explorative analysis shows that research, governmental, and industrial organizations mainly constitute the Finnish forest-based bioeconomy network. Actors primarily exchange information, and most key organizations report high levels of trust among each other. However, the network structure is rather closed. This raises concerns about equal benefit sharing and the inclusiveness of concerned actors. We discuss the implication of this network structure for enabling new innovations. Finally, we present the key aspects and drivers of business as usual, and suggest an option for or a more transformative change in the Finnish forest-based bioeconomy.
  • Ruippo, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Innovation in food packaging interlinks many sustainability challenges ranging from food loss and waste through the value chains, to resource extraction and growing amounts of plastic waste globally. Food packaging innovations arising from regulation often focus on material waste and ignore other facets of sustainability such as food loss and waste. Simultaneously, conventional notions of innovations are focused on firm growth and competitiveness. This study investigates the perceptions of sustainability in food packaging among expert actors in Finland. Moreover, it examines how notions of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) are reflected in the research and development processes in the field. Here, RRI is understood as a framework for examining the role of socio-ethical considerations in research and development. The study aimed to find out which packaging attributes are considered sustainable, what motivations actors in the field have, what type of obstacles exist to innovation in the field, and which actor groups are perceived to be responsible for accelerating the food packaging transition towards sustainability. Semi-structured expert interviews were conducted with 14 participants, and the interview data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis (QCA). The results show that perceptions of sustainability in food packaging vary across the field. However, reducing food waste and loss was considered the most important facet of sustainability in food packaging. Actors in the field are motivated by personal reasons and the anticipated profitability of sustainable innovations. However, innovations in the field are slowed down because of regulatory issues, food safety requirements, unpredictable future changes, and technological lock-ins. Finally, the results of this study indicate that actors in the sector believe the Finnish government and brand owners in the food and beverage industries should be responsible for driving innovation towards improved sustainability. However, the qualitative approach taken here limits the generalizability of the results. The results suggest an ongoing narrative shift in innovation towards greater inclusion of social and ethical considerations in the research and development process.
  • Anttonen, Markku; Lammi, Minna; Mykkänen, Juri; Repo, Petteri (2018)
    The Triple Helix concept of innovation systems holds that consensus space among industry, government and university is required to bring together their competences to achieve enhanced economic and social development on a systemic scale. In line with this argument, this article analyses empirically how the concept of circular economy is conceived in the institutional spheres of "industry", "government" and "university". Innovation systems are constantly being reconstructed through knowledge production and communication, which is reflected in how concepts develop in the different spheres. By applying natural language processing tools to key contributions from each of the three spheres (the "Triple Helix"), it is shown that, although institutional backgrounds do contribute to differing conceptualizations of circular economy, there is a substantial but limited conceptual consensus space, which, according to the Triple Helix, should open new opportunities for innovations. The consensus space shared across the three spheres focuses on materials and products and sees circular economy as a way to create new resources, businesses and products from waste. The industry sphere highlights business opportunities on global scale, which are also evident in the government sphere. The government sphere connects circular economy to waste-related innovation policies targeted at industrial renewal, economic growth, investments and jobs. The university sphere, in turn, focuses on production and environmental issues, waste and knowledge, and is rather distinct from the two other spheres. The importance of the differing conceptions of circular economy is based on the logic of Triple Helix systems. Accordingly, sufficient consensus between the Triple Helix spheres can advance the application of the concept of circular economy beyond the individual spheres to achieve systemic changes.
  • Puhakka, Riikka; Ollila, Sari; Valve, Raisa; Sinkkonen, Aki Tapio (2019)
    A health effect is a credence quality feature which is difficult for consumers to detect, and they need to be convinced of its trustworthiness. This study explores the role of trust-related arguments in Finnish, German, and British consumers' willingness to try a novel health-enhancing, non-edible product. Scientific evidence in particular would convince consumers, particularly Finnish ones, to try a product. Receiving recommendations from other users was more important for younger than for older respondents when it came to trying this type of product. Different marketing strategies may be needed to convince potential users of the benefits of a novel product.
  • Hyytinen, Ari; Toivanen, Otto (Hanken School of Economics, 2002)
    This paper provides evidence that capital market imperfections hold back innovation and growth, and that public policy can complement capital markets. We deliver the evidence by studying the effects of government funding on the behavior of SMEs in Finland. By adapting the methodology recently proposed by Rajan and Zingales (1998) to firm-level data, we show that government funding disproportionately helps firms from industries that are dependent on external finance. We demonstrate that the result is economically significant and robust to a variety of tests.
  • Tanayama, Tanja (2001)
    The aim of this study was to analyse systematic differences in the processes underlying different types of innovations. Innovations were differentiated according to their technological nature, which was measured by the radicalness and the complexity of the innovations. The innovations studied were divided into radical and incremental and into complex and simple innovations. Probit models were used to analyse how the development processes underlying radical versus incremental or complex versus simple innovations differ. The theoretical framework of the study was provided by the literature on different innovation theories. The components of the innovation process in focus can be divided into innovation-specific and firm- or sector- specific factors. Innovation-specific factors were related to the origin of the innovation, collaboration during the development work and the role of public subsidies in the innovation process. Firm- and sector-specific factors in turn consisted of the knowledge base of the innovating firm, the size of the firm and the environment in which the innovation was developed. The starting point for the analysis was a unique innovation database collected by the VTT Group for Technology Studies. The database consists of basic information on some 1600 Finnish innovations commercialised in Finland mainly during the 1980s and 1990s and more detailed survey data on some 800 innovations. The analysis was based on a subgroup of this survey data, consisting of 768 innovations. Patent data and firm-level information were linked to the survey data. The results indicate the importance of scientific and technological knowledge in developing radical or complex innovations. The importance of scientific breakthroughs and new technologies as well as collaboration with universities and research centres was pronounced in the case of radical or complex innovations. On the other hand, innovations originating mainly from competitive pressure were more likely to be incremental. The role of public subsidies in research and development work was highlighted in the development of radical or complex innovations. The results also suggest that the environment in which innovations are developed has an effect on the type of innovative activity. Technological opportunities differ among sectors, which is reflected especially in the complexity of innovation. Favourable demand conditions in turn enhance the development of complex innovations, while at the same time allowing room for incremental innovations through more extensive product differentiation.
  • Pura, Minna; Koskull von, Catharina (2015)
    This paper draws on a series of ethnographic studies conducted in different service industries and illustrates how different types of observation can be utilized in service innovation projects. We compare traditional ways of observing organizations with novel methods such as chat based team collaboration tools that enable cost effective observation 24/7 even in geographically dispersed locations. We identify benefits and challenges with each observation mode for service innovation research in particular, but also for reflective research practice and field research in general. The strengths as well as the weaknesses of applying different modes of observations will be addressed and suggestions for useful mode(s) for radical and incremental innovations will be presented.
  • Ahtokari-Lummi, Frida (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of this thesis is to explore how the Finnish state has adopted knowledge branding as a way to improve Finland’s competitiveness during the 21st century, and simultaneously examine what contesting imaginaries of competitiveness are underlying its work due to challenges posed by climate change. In policy spheres, knowledge branding refers to the act of knowledge being packaged into saleable and user-friendly “toolkits”, i.e. knowledge brands, by renowned consultants, policy experts and academics. These knowledge brands are manifested through international ranking institutions, which are assessing countries according to various performance areas. This has only enhanced the global competition between nations. Today, the long predominance of market-liberal imaginaries around globalization, competitiveness and the knowledge-based economy has been seriously contested due to the climate crisis demanding a greener economy. These green ideas have translated into new knowledge brands such as ’sustainability’, ’carbon neutrality’ and ‘circular economy’. However, despite the apparent clash of two contradictory sets of beliefs, capitalist growth aims have continued to thrive, showing flexible adaptation in the form of hybridization. As a result we see phenomena such as climate capitalism, carbon compensation and carbon trading. Since I find that the CPE field lacks a collective notion describing different degrees of such hybridization of ideas, I introduce the concept of ‘hybrid imaginary’ to denote the dynamic alignment of traditional capitalist, consumerist ideas with the more altruistic worldview of global responsibility and environmental sustainability. Theoretically, I support myself on the cultural political economy (CPE) approach, which regards imaginaries as necessary for us to be able to structure and make sense of the complexity of the world. More recently, CPE has explored the adoption of knowledge brands in public policy spheres. Considering the fact that Finland, branding itself as “A land of solutions”, has received much positive attention in recent years due to its success in international rankings, and today also aspires to be the world’s first fossil-fuel free country by 2035, I find my home country to be an interesting case to examine in terms of increased use of knowledge branding in the state sector. Methodologically, I approach this topic by conducting a combined qualitative content and discourse analysis on the fairly new state operator Business Finland and its predecessor Finpro (1999-2017). The operator promotes Finnish competitiveness in the fields of internationalization of enterprises, investments and the travel industry by the help of its huge network of consultants, thus making it fit for knowledge branding. Hence, my research question is as follows: “How has Business Finland adopted knowledge branding as a way to improve Finland's competitiveness during the 21st century and what contesting imaginaries of competitiveness are underlying its work?”. The analysis consists of three dimensions: 1) organizational reforms during the 21st century enabling knowledge branding; 2) nation branding as an example of a knowledge brand applied by the travel promotion unit Visit Finland; and 3) Business Finland’s use of hybrid imaginaries in response to the climate crisis. The results of the analysis show that Business Finland has become increasingly dynamic in response to global pressure, while the operator’s current focus on climate innovations shows how ‘responsibility’ and ‘sustainability’ are treated as competitive factors. Thus, my main conclusive argument is that when environmental values are utilised for national competitiveness purposes, their morally good nature may become distorted. This observation resonates with the fact that sustainability and responsibility have become performances measured through global indexes. So, paradoxically, the good intentions of government strategies for mitigating climate change are in danger of being held back due to the excessive focus on individual performance, instead of finding ways to join forces for more collaborative transnational efforts. Ultimately, hybrid imaginaries in combination with an increased commercialization of knowledge raises concerns for the long-term effects on our human ability to imagine alternative futures in writing the narrative of climate change.
  • Salojärvi, Sari (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2005)
    Economics and Society
    This study explores the role and nature of knowledge management (KM) in small and medium-sized companies (SMEs). Even though the role of knowledge as a competitive advantage is commonly recognized in the SME sector, almost no attention has been paid to the managing and developing of knowledge in SMEs. This thesis consists of three different sub-studies that were reported in four individual essays. The results of the questionnaire study indicate that nearly all companies that responded to the questionnaire (N = 108) found intangible assets, i.e. knowledge resources to be their main source of competitive advantage. However, only less than a third of the companies actively deal with knowledge management. The results also indicate a significant correlation between activity in knowledge management and sustainable organic growth of the company. The interview study (N = 10) explored the context and motives of the SMEs for managing their intangible assets, and the concrete practices of knowledge management. It turned out that KM facilitated change management, clarification of the vision and new strategy formulation. All the interviewed companies were aiming at improved innovation process, new ways of doing business and attaining an increased “knowledge focus” in their business. Nearly all also aspired to grow significantly. Thus, KM provides a strategy for these SMEs to guarantee their survival and sustainability in the turbulent markets. The action research was a process to assess and develop intangible resources in three companies. The experienced benefits were the clarification of future focus and strategy, creation of a common language to discuss strategic issues within the company, as well as improved balance of different categories of intangible assets. After the process all the case companies had developed in the chosen key areas. Thus, by systematic knowledge management the implementation of new strategic orientation (knowledge focusing) was facilitated. The findings can be summarized in two main points. First, knowledge management seems to serve the purpose of change, renewal and new strategic orientation in the SMEs. It also seems to be closely related to organic growth and innovation. All of these factors can be considered dimensions of entrepreneurship. Second, the conscious development of intangible assets can increase the balance of different categories of intangible assets and the overall knowledge focusing of business. In the case companies, this in turn facilitated the path to the improved overall performance.
  • Ekelund, Henrik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    I denna avhandling undersöks betydelsen av offentliga institutioner för innovation i Europa. Innovation ses i dag som en viktig drivare av tillväxt samt som lösningen till en mängd lömska problem, såsom klimatförändring och pandemier. Syftet i denna studie är att utreda om offentlig sektor spelar en större roll för innovation än vad den samhälleliga diskursen i allmänhet förutsätter. Att känna till hurdan effekt offentliga institutioner har på innovation är av stor betydelse då offentlig sektor ställs inför reformer och krav på förändring. Offentliga institutioner innefattar i denna studie framför allt värderingar som tillsammans bildar en god och fungerande förvaltning. Sambandet mellan offentliga institutioner och innovation undersöks med variabler ur Global Innovation Index 2019. Som analysenheter fungerar 38 europeiska länder. Indexet valdes som material framför allt på grund av dess lämpliga, transparenta och tidsenliga indikatorer. Först används korrelationsanalys för att kartlägga sambanden mellan offentliga institutioner och uppkomst respektive spridning av innovation. Sedan undersöks effekten av institutioner på innovation vidare med hjälp av regressionsanalys. Den statistiska analysen visar att effekten av offentliga institutioner är mycket stark både för uppkomst och för spridning av innovation. Regressionsmodellen kan ge signifikanta förutsägelser, då institutioner förklarar kring hälften av variansen i innovation hos Europas länder. En offentlig sektor präglad av god och fungerande förvaltning visar sig storligen gynna innovativiteten i samhället överlag. Dessutom kan en sådan offentlig sektor vara en legitim ledare för innovation genom nätverk till privat och tredje sektor. Empiriskt stöd finns för att samtliga offentliga värderingar spelar en stor roll, men det är möjligt att värderingarna deltagande och transparens är särskilt betydelsefulla för fungerande innovationsnätverk. Implikationerna av resultaten är omfattande för Europas offentliga sektorer. En omställning i det offentligas roll för innovation är nödvändig, samtidigt som centrala värderingar som transparens och ansvarsutkrävande måste värnas om i kommande offentliga reformer. Förändring behövs för att bemöta framtidens utmaningar, men för att möjliggöra hög innovativitet bör offentliga institutioner snarare förstärkas än nedmonteras. Resultaten av denna studie ger grund för en offentlig sektor med starka offentliga institutioner och ett större fokus på innovation. Det är troligt att innovation sker bäst inom ett innovationssystem där offentlig, privat och tredje sektor samarbetar, under offentlig ledning.
  • Kivipuro, Suvi (2001)
    This essay aims at providing a framework for evaluating the desirability of stronger intellectual property rights in developing countries. Instead of assuming that product imitation in the developing countries happens through observation and reverse engineering, the emphasis is on active technology transfer. Foreign direct investment and technology licensing are evaluated here in a unified outline to find out the growth effect of intellectual property protection regime change. The main sources are articles by E. L.-C. Lai (1998) and G. Yang and K. Maskus (2001). By assumption the model consists of two countries, North and South, and all innovations are carried out in North. Innovative Northern companies choose to outsource production to South to gain from lower production costs. Due to inexistent or weak intellectual property protection the Northern foreign direct investment or licensing venture faces the threat of imitation. Choosing licensing allows innovators to combat the problem with costly licensing contracts. Yet naturally both types of technology transfer would benefit from better intellectual property protection and less imitation. If technology transfer to South occurs either through licensing or foreign direct investment, South should strengthen its intellectual property rights protection, as both countries will gain. Improved protection curbs the imitation activity and thus encourages more Northern companies to invest in South. As resources are freed in North and the expected return from innovations rises, new incentives to innovate emerge. Increased innovation corresponds to economic growth not only in North but also in South via technology transfer. Southern workers learn while employed by the multinational enterprises or licensees. The resulting knowledge spillovers support worldwide gain from better intellectual property protection.
  • Tikkanen, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Internationalization provides firms a significant opportunity for growth and value creation worldwide. Especially those companies that operate in small and open economies tend to benefit from foreign market expansion. For example, the small size of Finland’s economy sets limitations to the domestic market opportunities. In addition to Finland’s macro-level strengths, Finnish companies’ innovativeness has gained attention as a potential sustained competitive advantage to support firm internationalization. Despite the identified potential, the Finnish food sector’s internationalization has been modest, and the research in this field has been limited. Thus, this thesis studies the internationalization phenomenon in the context of innovative Finnish food sector companies. The purpose of the research is to explore firm internationalization from the process perspective by investigating companies’ time-based decision making and behavior. The thesis aims to find out how and why do innovative Finnish food companies internationalize? The research was carried out as a qualitative study because the purpose was to form an in-depth understanding of the internationalization processes of Finnish food companies. In addition to the empirical research, an extensive literature review of various internationalization theories was conducted to develop a theoretical framework of the studied phenomenon. A multiple-case study was selected as the research strategy and two case-companies were selected, one representing a young SME and the other well established MNE. Both case companies were of Finnish origin, they operated in the food sector and had experience of expanding into international markets. The research data was collected through semi-structured interviews with company representatives, as well as by reviewing companies’ websites, publications, annual reports, and newspaper articles. The key findings of this study show that, in line with the initial hypothesis, food companies can utilize different internationalization strategies depending on their internal capabilities and resources. The accumulation of decisions regarding main internationalization dimensions and the actions taken based on these decisions in relation to time showed two different internationalization processes. The MNE had internationalized incrementally in line with traditional internationalization theories. On the contrary, the SME had internationalized early and rapidly on a global level. In addition, the company’s product portfolio was found to have a significant impact on decision-making and company-level behavior. Lastly, the innovativeness and uniqueness of both the products and the company’s know-how were shown to have a positive impact on achieving a sustainable competitive advantage on a global level.
  • Huikari, Hanna (Helsingfors universitet, 1999)
    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää Finfood - Suomen Ruokatieto ry:n alullepanemassa kummimaatilatoiminnassa mukana olleiden opettajien ja maatilojen käsityksiä ja kokemuksia toiminnasta sekä tarkastella kummimaatilatoimintaa innovaationa. Kummimaatilatoiminta liittyy Finfoodin internetissä julkaisemaan oppimateriaaliin suomalaisen ruoan tiestä. Kummimaatilatoiminnan tavoitteena on, että mahdollisimman monella peruskoululuokalla olisi oma kummimaatila, missä luokka voisi vierailla vuosittain, joka säilyisi luokalla mahdollisimman pitkään ja jonka kanssa luokka suunnittelee oman yhteistyönsä. Kummimaatilatoiminnan avulla pyritään omakohtaisten kokemusten ja elämysten kautta lisäämään nuorten tietoa maaseudun elämästä. Tutkimuksen tausta -osassa tarkastellaan koulun ja yhteiskunnan muiden tahojen yhteistyötä, esitellään tutkimuksia koulun ja teollisuusyritysten yhteistyöstä sekä koulun ja maatalouden yhteistyöhön liittyvää materiaalia. Lisäksi tarkastellaan innovaatiota ja innovaation diffuusiota. Koska kummimaatilatoiminta on uusi toimintamuoto, jossa toisena osapuolena on koulu, tutkimuksessa käsitellään myös kasvatuksen muutoksia (educational change). Tutkimusta käsitellään tapaus- ja toimintatutkimuksena. Tutkimusaineistona ovat kummimaatilatoiminnan alkuvaiheessa syksyllä 1997 mukaan lähteneiden seitsemän opettajan ja kuuden maatilan teemahaastattelut. Tutkimuksessa on haastateltu myös Finfoodin edustajaa. Aineisto kerättiin kevään ja syksyn 1998 aikana. Innovaatiotarkastelun pohjana ovat lisäksi tutkijan omat kokemukset toiminnasta sekä erilaiset kokoukset ja keskustelut. Opettajien ja maatilojen kokemuksista selvitettiin heidän toiminnan aloittamiseen johtaneita motiivejaan, toiminnalle asettamiaan tavoitteita, toiminnassa havaitsemiaan ongelmia sekä käsityksiä toiminnan onnistumisen avaintekijöistä ja toiminnan kehittämisestä. Suuria näkemyseroja ei opettajien ja maatilojen kokemusten välillä ollut. Osapuolet pitivät maaseutua tärkeänä ja halusivat tarjota lapsille kokemuksia elämästä siellä. Yhteisenä tavoitteena opettajilla ja maatiloilla oli, että toiminta olisi mahdollisimman laajaa, ei pelkkiä retkipäiviä maalle. Opettajat korostivat myös vierailujen toiminnallisuutta. Maatilat toivoivat voivansa lisätä toiminnalla myös omaa tietämystään ja ammattitaitoaan. Käytännön asiat kuten matkat olivat eniten ongelmia aiheuttaneita asioita. Muina mahdollisina ongelmina mainittiin asenteet ja tiedotus. Toiminnan avaintekijöinä pidettiin suunnittelua, molempien osapuolten motivoituneisuutta ja aktiivisuutta, vierailujen toiminnallisuutta, tiedottamista ja toiminnan laajentamista. Kehittämisideat liittyivät toiminnan laajentamiseen ja monipuolistamiseen. Tämän tutkimuksen perusteella kummimaatilatoimintaa on ryhdytty kehittämään niin, että koko koululla yksittäisen luokan sijaan on yhteinen kummimaatila. Innovaatiotarkastelu osoitti, että kummimaatilatoiminnan kehittäminen ja levittäminen on pitkä prosessi, jossa koordinaattorin rooli on tärkeä. Osallistujien sitoutuminen toimintaan, osallistujien tukeminen sekä heidän kokemustensa hyödyntäminen on myös tärkeää. Tärkeimmät lähteet tutkimuksen taustateorian kannalta olivat Rogersin, Fullanin ja Hargreavesin teokset.
  • Laukkanen, Seppo (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2012)
    Economics and Society – 243
    Exploration and exploitation complement one another in the organizational learning. Exploration fosters the ability to diversify, while exploitation increases specialization. Together, these two modes promote innovation and subsequent organizational renewal. While exploration facilitates the discovery of new knowledge, exploitation merges this knowledge with previously held knowledge and skills to expand and strengthen the firm. The current scientific literature falls short in explaining in practical terms how this fusion takes place, produces innovations, and renews the strategy of an organization. By leveraging an intimate relationship with the innovation activities of a large-scale multinational enterprise, Laukkanen created an Integrated Process Model of the interplay between ambidextrous innovation activities and the strategy and structure development of a company. The Integrated Process Model highlights the conversion between exploration and exploitation as the central mechanism for establishing a dialogue that fosters reciprocal adjustment between the innovation activity, strategy and structure of the firm. The study identified three conversion patterns that bring the discoveries from the exploration mode to the commercial realm. In the ‘linear’ pattern, the innovation activities execute the fine-grained strategy with the established structure of the company. The linear innovation activities produce incremental innovations that sustain the strategy of the firm. In the ‘transforming’ pattern, an iterative conversion process facilitates concurrent reciprocal adjustments in the innovation activity and strategy and structure of the firm. The adjustments of the strategy and structure are necessary for radical innovations. In the ‘experimenting’ conversion pattern, the activity is intermittently connected to the strategy and structure development of the company. The intermittent connection provides the experimenting activity with the latitude to craft new business entries outside the traditional domain of the company. The intermittent connection between the innovation activity and strategy and structure implies that the strategic learning takes place primarily in retrospect to the experiment. The research illuminated ambidexterity as an eclectic organizational learning phenomenon that cuts through the fabric of an organization. The study captured the ambidexterity phenomenon on three ‘presentation layers’. Ambidexterity was identified both in actions and in their concrete outcomes, i.e. innovations. Additionally, ambidexterity left observable traces on the realized strategy of the firm. Each presentation layer of ambidexterity needs to be managed on its own. However, the study argues that the most decisive factor in making ambidexterity productive is the purposefulness of the continuum across these presentation layers. The three identified innovation patterns represent alternative paths from ambidextrous activities to their eventual outcomes. The Integrated Process Model of ambidexterity provides a conceptualization for actualizing ambidexterity to the strategic benefit of a company. This study provides guidance for firms seeking to promote ambidextrous activities for innovations and organizational renewal.
  • Engeström, Jyri (2002)
    The focus of this study is on the effects of innovation on organizational structure. It addresses the question: How do innovations produce organization? Applying concepts from activity theory, coorientation theory, and structuration theory, the study demonstrates how social ties - the links, bridges and bonds between individuals - play a key role in the development of new inventions. A qualitative method is developed for analyzing interaction data in email and face to face conversations. Based on this method, an analysis of one product innovation at an Internet design and consulting company is presented. The key findings are synthesized in the form of a double cycle model of innovation in organizations.
  • Tapper, Janne (2018)
    My article, "Performance-in-Business: Armi Ratia's Marimekko", examines what happens to artistic performance in the concept of arts-in-business. In theatre and artistic performance, artistic thinking has traditionally been considered primary over economic thinking, but in arts-in-business the goal has been economic. The concept of arts-in-business, created in the 2000s, involves the strategic use of artistic elements in business in order to develop the creativity, problem-solving abilities, and innovativeness of employees as well as the brand of the business company. I will analyze the use of theatre as part of two historical forms of arts-in-business, the Bauhaus movement in Germany from 1919 to 1933, and the 2000s concept of arts-in-business. Regarding the latter, I will draw meanings from Lotte Darso's (2004), Giovanni Schiuma's (2011), and Jon McKenzie's (2001) research on performance in business. After initiating a dialogue between these two approaches, I will provide a new theory for arts-in-business and apply it to Marimekko's business practice. McKenzie (2001), as well as other studies of arts-in-business in the 2000s, does not emphasize the role of the manager-as-an-artist. In this article, I claim that only if the manager initiates artistic practice and the arts are interrelated to the product, can the arts penetrate the whole enterprise because of the role of managers in making constitutive decisions for the business. I will argue that some managers are able to do this. Ratia's Marimekko is my exemplary case. As the key concept of my new theory of performance-in-business I employ performance scholar Josette Feral's (2002) cognitively-oriented theory of theatricality based on the concept of a cleft and its variants in other theories. In the last section of this article, I will examine the Finnish fashion design company, Marimekko, under the management of Armi Ratia, as a business that employs the theatricality of clefts.
  • Repo, Petteri; Matschoss, Kaisa (2020)
    Social innovation is concerned with social mobilization and impact, and is increasingly seen as an option to address sustainability challenges. Nevertheless, the concept of social innovation is quite open in character and requires empirical accommodation to establish how it differs from other types of innovation in this setting. This article contributes empirically to the concept of social innovation as it reviews categories of success factors of social innovation against those of five other innovation types (product, service, governmental, organizational, system) in 202 innovation cases that focus on climate action, environment, resource efficiency and raw materials. Statistical analysis with contingency tables is applied to examine the distribution of five kinds of success factors across the innovation types: economic, environmental, political, social, and technological. The results confirm empirically that social innovation is indeed a distinct type of innovation. There are statistically significant differences in the distribution of categories of success factors between social innovation on the one hand and product, service and governance innovation on the other. In addition to the prevalence of social success factors, social innovation is characterized by a lesser emphasis on political and technological success factors.
  • Segercrantz, Beata; Forss, Maria (2019)
    Innovation is often celebrated as a solution to various challenges in care work. Thus, a growing number of care workers are likely to experience innovations in their daily work. This article examines how care workers and project workers in elderly care are affected by contemporary transformations by exploring: (1) how they construct meanings around innovation implementation and (2) are subject positioned in relation to these meanings. Drawing on discourse analysis, we conduct a case study and analyze semistructured interviews, observations, and organizational documents. We illustrate how innovation is constructed in terms of optimism, and also as a source for struggle, with specific effects on care workers’ subject positioning. The findings thus contribute to new insights into the contemporary dominating discourse of innovation and its implications at the level of practice and subjectivity.
  • Avdeeva, Iana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    My research has been motivated by a strong interest to understand the interplay of innovation and standardization. In the contemporary world, when the technological progress appeals as a leading factor in the development and growth, innovation becomes an important matter to research. At the same time distribution of information grows in scale, turning the interaction between innovation and standardization into more diverse and complicated interplay. This leads to the question of IPR and competition policies. Does standardization enhance innovation or does it become a barrier to it? What is the role of intellectual property rights in this? I use a dynamic general equilibrium model with innovation and standardization to study the interplay of intellectual property rights and innovation. The main references for the present research are papers by D. Acemoglu, G. Garcia and F. Zilibotti “Competing Engines of Growth: Innovation and Standardization” (2010) and by Y. Furukawa “Intellectual Property Protection and Innovation: An Inverted U-Relationship” (2010). The research yields a number of results. There exists a U-shaped relationship between growth and competition, formed by the tension between innovation and standardization. When the cost of innovation is relatively high, both strict and loose IPR policies limit innovation, thus a moderate approach is advised. Standardization can cause a multiple equilibria. The usefulness of IPR policy depends on the start-up cost of innovation.